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Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East From 1919 to 1939 23.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East From 1919 to 1939 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East From 1919 to

2 The Rise of Nationalism  Modern Nationalism  The source of anti-colonialist sentiment was a new urban middle class of Westernized intellectuals Educated in Western style schools, spent time in the West, spoke Western languages, wore Western clothes, worked in jobs connected to colonialists  Resented foreigners and their contempt for colonial people but admired Western culture  Equality in economic opportunity and social class lacking for western educated natives  Relegated to low level jobs in government or business

3 Rise of Nationalism, cont’d  Paid less than Europeans  “white only” clubs, use of the familiar form of a language when addressing natives  Educated natives began to organize political parties and movements seeking reforms or end of foreign rule and restoration of independence

4 Religion and Nationalism  Leaders tried to defend native economic interests or religious beliefs  Burma – Thakin  Dutch East Indies – Sarekat Islam  Independence or modernization? The Nationalist Quandary  Gradualist approach if the colonial regime was a source of reform  If an impediment to change, independence a priority Incorporation of traditional way of life

5 Gandhi and the Indian National Congress  First Indian nationalists were upper-class and educated  Urban  Preferred reform to revolution  Efforts won some measure of self-government  Indian National Congress, 1885  Sought self-determination for all Indians  Religion will be a problem  Nonviolent Resistance  Mohandas Gandhi ( )  Returned from South Africa in 1915  Satyagraha, non-violent resistance  Mahatma, Great Soul  Government of India Act, 1921  Salt March

6 Gandhi and the Indian National Congress, cont’d.  Women played active role in movement  20,000 women, 10% of those arrested and jailed in demonstrations  Marched, picketed foreign shops, promoted spinning and wearing homemade cloth  Promoted social reforms: women’s education, birth control, abolition of child marriage, and universal suffrage  Sarda Act – raised minimum age of marriage to 14

7 British India Between the Wars

8 New Leaders and New Problems  Jawaharlal Nehru ( )  New Anglo-Indian politician: secular, rational, upper class, and intellectual  Independence movement’s impulses:  Elite nationalism and primal force of Indian traditionalism Two paths:  Religious and secular  Native and Western  Traditional and modern  Muslim League – wanted separate Muslim state of Pakistan, “Land of the Pure”  Communal strife increased between Hindus and Muslims

9 Nationalist Revolt in the Middle East  Decline of Ottoman Empire  Young Turks  T.E.Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) and Egypt  Mustapha Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey  Colonel Mustapha Kemal ( ), Atatürk Created a secular republic Modernized the economy, written language, and education Broke the political power of the Islamic religion in Turkey

10 Modernization of Iran  Qajar dynasty ( )  Problems with Russian advances to the Caucasus  Constitution granted in 1906  Influence of Russia and Great Britain  Oil discovered, 1908  Reza Khan ( ) seizes power in 1921 Wanted western style republic Pahlavi dynasty Changed the name of Persia to Iran Western-style education Rugs and oil

11 Iran Under the Pahlavi Dynasty

12 Nation Building in Iraq  Emergence of a new political entity along Tigris and Euphrates rivers  Region divided along ethnic and religious lines Shi’ite majority (rural), Sunni minority (cities), Kurdish population in northern mountains  League of Nations placed country under British control in 1920  King Faisal of Syria given titular authority  Discovery of oil near Kirkuk, 1927  Independence of Iraq in 1932

13 The Rise of Arab Nationalism and the Issue of Palestine  Wahhabi revolt  Arabs declared independence from Ottoman rule in 1916  Mandates of the League of Nations  Iraq and Jordan assigned to Britain  Syria and Lebanon assigned to France  Palestine was a separate mandate  Balfour Declaration, 1917  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, created 1932  Ibn Saud  Discovery of oil  Jewish immigration into Palestine

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15 Nationalism and Revolution in Asia and Africa  Marxism initially found irrelevant  Marxist view of the colonial world  Lenin and anti-colonialism  Nationalist leaders did not want egalitarian society  Lenin and the East:  Trained foreign agents to spread Marxism in their countries, Communist International, or Comintern  By end of 1920s, almost every colonial or semicolonial society in Asia had a Marxist party  In Middle East, Marxism had less success but appealed to urban minorities (Jews and Armenians)

16 The Appeal of Communism  Doctrine states that rank and file should be urban factory workers  In reality, members were urban intellectuals or lower middle class attracted because of:  Patriotic reasons – way to remove colonizers  Egalitarian communism and classless society  Secular ideology Communist parties attempted to adapt Marxist doctrine to indigenous values and institutions to gain broader appeal. Ba’ath party (Syria) “African road to socialism”  In 1930s, Communist parties in most colonial societies had little success

17 Revolution in China  Revolutionary Marxism had greatest impact in China  Chinese Communist party (CCP), 1921  General Yuan Shikai, President  Ruled in traditional manner, reviving Confucian rituals and institutions, founding a new imperial dynasty  Clashes with Guomindang or Nationalist Party  Defeated Sun Yat Sen who fled to Japan  China slipped into semianarchy upon Yuan’s death due to disintegration of central power and military warlords seizing power in provinces

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19 Student Demonstrations in Beijing

20 Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy: The New Culture Movement  New Culture Movement Aimed at abolishing the remnants of the old system and introducing Western values and institutions into China Introduce a mix of new ideas Protest against Japanese efforts to expand its influence into the mainland Twenty-one demands by Japan in 1915 China accepted the Versailles Peace Conference decision By 1920, central authority had collapsed in China Northern Expedition, Shanghai massacre, April 1927 Mao Zedong

21 Nationalist-Communist Alliance  Central authority collapsed  Two competing forces: Sun Yat-sen’s Nationalist Party and CCP formed alliance to oppose warlords and drive imperial powers out  Northern Expedition in 1926  Tensions between parties surfaced  Sun Yat-sen died and succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek (traitor)  Reign of Terror in Shanghai killed thousands of CCP  Mao Zedong  Chinese revolution based on peasants in the countryside

22 The Nanjing Republic  Chiang Kai-Shek formed new republic at Nanjing  Attempt to put an end to the communists  The Long March  Chiang and political and economic reforms  Poverty in the countryside  Nanjing government preoccupied with bourgeois values with few links with the peasants

23 The Northern Expedition and the Long March

24 The Best of East and West  New Life Movement  To propagate traditional Confucian social ethics (integrity, propriety, righteousness), while rejecting excessive individualism and material greed from Western capitalism  Chiang repressed opposition and censored free expression, alienating intellectuals and political moderates  Little success with land reform or in industrial development  Economic and social problems: internal disintegration, foreign pressure, collapse of global economic order, rise of militant political forces in Japan

25 “Down with Confucius and Sons”: Economic, Social, and Cultural Change in Republican China  Slow growth in the industrial sector  Social Changes  Educated youth attacked Confucian concept of the family, filial piety, and subordination of women  Young people wanted right to choose own mates and careers  Women demanded equal rights and opportunities  Progressives called for end to duty to community and praised Western individualist ethos  New values and behavior did not penetrate villages and rural life

26 A New Culture  Western literature and art became popular among urban middle class  Call for new art that synthesize best of Chinese and foreign culture  Creative artists imitated foreign trends  Traditionalists concerned with preservation  Literature influenced by foreign ideas – novel and short story  Social realism – clear contempt for past

27 Japan Between the Wars  Experiment in Democracy  Introduction of democratic ideas  Genro (ruling oligarchy)  Expanded suffrage  Marxist labor movements and ultranationalists  Literature  A Zaibatsu Economy  Manufacturing processes concentrated in a single enterprise  Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Yasuda  Shidehara Diplomacy  Need for raw materials and markets for goods  Washington Conference, 1922  Diplomatic and economic means to achieve objectives Need for resources for heavy industry  Growing feeling that the diplomacy of the1920’s had failed

28 Nationalism and Dictatorship in Latin America  Latin America affected by World War I and Great Depression  The Economy and the United States  Beginning of 20 th C, almost all of Latin America achieved independence  Economy based on export of foodstuffs and raw materials Argentina: beef and wheat Chile: nitrates and copper Brazil and Caribbean nations: sugar Central American states: bananas

29 Latin America, cont’d  World War I - European investments declined  Rise of U.S. role in local economy – biggest investor in:  “Chile and Peru: copper mining  Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia: oil  banana-republics” and united Fruit Company  Raised U.S. political influence in Latin America esp. in Central America and Caribbean  Latin Americans growing feelings of hostility  Good Neighbor Policy  Impact of the Great Depression  Fall in Latin American exports  Decline in foreign revenues  Encouraged development of new industries: Chile and Brazil – steel Argentina and Mexico – oil  Government investment replaced local sources of capital

30 The Effects of Dependence  Domination by an elite minority  Argentina  Hipólito Irigoyen ( )  Brazil  Military overthrows the monarchy  Getulio Vargas ( )  Autocratic  Mexico  Institutional Revolutionary Party  Lázaro Cárdenas ( )  Land redistribution  Seizes oil industry  Latin American Culture  Diego Rivera (

31 Latin America in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

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33 Struggle for the Banner

34 Discussion Questions  What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what problems did they face?  How did Japan address the problems of nation building in the first decades of the 20 th C, and why did democratic institutions not take hold more effectively?  What problems did the nations of Latin America face in the interwar years? To what degree were they a consequence of foreign influence?


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