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Reformation Europe in the 16 th Cent. The implications of a division in Christian Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Reformation Europe in the 16 th Cent. The implications of a division in Christian Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reformation Europe in the 16 th Cent. The implications of a division in Christian Europe

2 Given the division between Catholics and the many Protestant sects, it was not as easy to control dogma. That does not mean that both Catholics and Protestants did not have dogma, they did; moreover, religious toleration was not a feature of Reformation Europe. What was important here is that the monolithic structure of Christianity was destroyed, and that ipso facto allowed for greater individual freedom to pursue research in areas that challenged the status quo.

3 On the Catholic Church Bear in mind that the Church was not completely hostile to science. Consider the work done (admittedly to determine the date of Easter) that required considerable care and insight, namely using cathedrals to measure the sun. The device; the orb of the sun ; and the system; and how it looks.deviceorb systemlooks

4 On the protestants Even tho there is a clear movement among the educated [still small numerically] towardadopting a new cosmological perspective, consider this comment from Luther: in one of his Advent sermons... said, "The heathen write that the comet may arise from natural causes, but God creates not one that does not foretoken a sure calamity." Again he said, "Whatever moves in the heaven in an unusual way is certainly a sign of God's wrath." What conclusions do you come to?

5 What was different was the following: The development of national, secular and centralized states whose structure was legitimized by the appeal to reason (rather than religious belief); idea idea of ‘popular sovereignty’ will not come until the Enlightenment. The growth of commerce and trade empowered a bourgeoisie that needed education to run its affairs, was more comfortable with "scientific” / rational / empirical thinking; secular bureaucrats and entrepreneurs rejected excessive intrusions of religious belief and the religious establishment.

6 The monopoly on knowledge by the priestly caste was broken Governments found they could legitimize themselves by supporting high culture. This led to the foundation of academies of science (very elitist) and eventually (after the French Revolution) to the reorganization of universities on a more secular basis. Governments found they could legitimize themselves by supporting high culture. This led to the foundation of academies of science (very elitist) and eventually (after the French Revolution) to the reorganization of universities on a more secular basis. Reinforced by the discovering of Roman law and of the scientific treatises (even of the twit Aristotle) of the Greco-Roman period. Such materials were secular in character and, by virtue of their antiquity provided an alternative to church authority. Reinforced by the discovering of Roman law and of the scientific treatises (even of the twit Aristotle) of the Greco-Roman period. Such materials were secular in character and, by virtue of their antiquity provided an alternative to church authority.

7 Europe did not become "liberal" in our sense of the word Some areas (predominantly those with maritime and commercial establishments) were more receptive to new ideas than were others (where agriculture dominated and feudalism persisted); scholars moved to where they were at least tolerated if not valued. Some areas (predominantly those with maritime and commercial establishments) were more receptive to new ideas than were others (where agriculture dominated and feudalism persisted); scholars moved to where they were at least tolerated if not valued. Invention of the printing press gave new meaning to "open/public, sustained self- conscious reflection “. Invention of the printing press gave new meaning to "open/public, sustained self- conscious reflection “.

8 Higher Education Universities remained very underfunded and very much under the control of clerics, both protestant and catholic. Tho there were some exceptions (Padua had both Galileo and Vaselius as professors), they remained under the control of theologians of all faiths. But there was competition.

9 The Jesuits, the Counter-reformation and Academies Science was then supported primarily in the new Jesuit stations (like the Collegio Romano and on the square. Note the role of Jesuits in education between 1550 and Wherever the Jesuits went both in Europe and to the East, they stressed education and astronomy. But the end of the17th Cent the court astronomer of China was a Jesuit. Collegio Romano squareJesuits Collegio Romano squareJesuits


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