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THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA. WHAT IS THE INTELLIGENTSIA?  “Critically thinking people”  “Secular priesthood”  Common defining features =  Education.

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Presentation on theme: "THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA. WHAT IS THE INTELLIGENTSIA?  “Critically thinking people”  “Secular priesthood”  Common defining features =  Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA

2 WHAT IS THE INTELLIGENTSIA?  “Critically thinking people”  “Secular priesthood”  Common defining features =  Education in western ideas  Highly politicized

3 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA ORIGINS  Reforms of Peter the Great  Social critics of Catherine the Great  NIKOLAI NOVIKOV, DENIS FONVIZIN, ALEXANDER RADISHCHEV  “CIRCLES” of late 18 th /early 19 th c.  Romanticism, Idealism, Nationalism  “Cursed Questions” D. Fonvizin N. Novikov A. Radishchev

4 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA DEVELOPMENT  “Remarkable Decade:”  PETER CHAADAEV: “First Philosophical Letter”  Russia had no past, no present, no future  Led to 2 new competing intellectual movements: SLAVOPHILES WESTERNIZERS

5 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA SLAVOPHILES  ALEKSEI KHOMIAKOV, IVAN KIREEVSKY, CONSTANTINE AKSAKOV  Superiority of Russia & Orthodoxy  SOBORNOST’  OBSHCHINA  Messianic role of Russia  Peter’s reforms disrupted Russia’s natural development  Idealized NAROD  Opposed serfdom & bureaucracy, tacitly supported autocracy A. Khomiakov C. Aksakov I. Kireevsky

6 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA WESTERNIZERS  Similarities with Slavophiles  Opposed serfdom, bureaucracy, capitalism  Russia should take leadership role  Idealized narod  Differences  Many different social strata, including RAZNOCHINTSY  Embraced western ideas & western development  Very secular  Opposed autocracy

7 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA WESTERNIZERS  Moderates (Fathers): TIMOFEI GRANOVKSY & NIKOLAI STANKEVICH  Mild liberal reform  Education & enlightenment  Evolutionary approach  Radicals (Sons): VISSARION BELINSKY, ALEXANDER HERZEN  Revolutionary approach  Russian socialism T. Granovskii N. Stankevich V. Belinsky A. Herzen

8 THE RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA WESTERNIZERS  PETRASHEVTSY: NIKOLAI CHERNYSHEVSKY & FEDOR DOSTOEVSKY  Influenced by French Utopian socialism  PHALANSTERIES  Transitional group between Moderates & Radicals  Raided by govt N. Chernyshevsky F. Dostoevsky


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