Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

“From Caliphate to Secular Republic: The Trajectory of Modern Turkish History” Prof. Uli Schamiloglu Dept. of Languages & Cultures of Asia Chair, Central.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "“From Caliphate to Secular Republic: The Trajectory of Modern Turkish History” Prof. Uli Schamiloglu Dept. of Languages & Cultures of Asia Chair, Central."— Presentation transcript:

1 “From Caliphate to Secular Republic: The Trajectory of Modern Turkish History” Prof. Uli Schamiloglu Dept. of Languages & Cultures of Asia Chair, Central Asian Studies Program Chair, Central Asian Studies Program Chair (on leave), Middle East Studies Program Chair (on leave), Middle East Studies Programmideast.wisc.edu Teaching Snow in Wisconsin Center for Research in the Humanities (September 10, 2013)

2 Republic of Turkey (A secular nation-state) Population: 80,694,485 (July 2013 est.)

3 Ottoman Empire ( ) 1299, Osman Gazi: origins as leader of a beylik 1299, Osman Gazi: origins as leader of a beylik Orhan captures Bursa (1324) Orhan captures Bursa (1324) 1389, Battle of Kosovo 1389, Battle of Kosovo 1402, Battle of Ankara (loss to Timur) 1402, Battle of Ankara (loss to Timur) Image: Battle of Nikopolis (1396) Image: Battle of Nikopolis (1396)

4 Ottoman Empire (2) 1453, Sultan Fatih Mehmet conquers Constantinople (today: Istanbul) 1453, Sultan Fatih Mehmet conquers Constantinople (today: Istanbul)

5 Ottoman Empire (3) Classical Period Islamic state Islamic state Sultan was from Ottoman dynasty Sultan was from Ottoman dynasty Also Caliph ( ) Also Caliph ( ) Millet system Millet system Devshirme system Devshirme system Expansion to gates of Vienna (1683), throughout Middle East, etc. Expansion to gates of Vienna (1683), throughout Middle East, etc.

6 Ottoman Empire at its Peak

7 Ottoman Empire in the 19 th Century Tanzimat period (1839–1876)  Ottoman Empire was shrinking  New currency, post office, etc.  Educational reforms (including new schools)  Efforts to eliminate corruption  European-style courts  Elimination of Islamic poll tax on non-Muslims (cizye)  Granting of “Ottoman” citizenship to all inhabitants of the Empire without regard for ethnicity or religion  Military reorganization with universal conscription  New ideology of “Ottomanism”

8 Ottoman Empire in the 19 th -20 th Centuries

9 Ottoman Empire in the 19 th Century (2) Abdülhamit II (r ) , First Constitutional Era (closer to a constitutional monarchy without parties) , First Constitutional Era (closer to a constitutional monarchy without parties) Promoted “Islamism” rather than “Ottomanism” Promoted “Islamism” rather than “Ottomanism” 1908, Young Turk Revolution leads to Second Constitutional Era 1908, Young Turk Revolution leads to Second Constitutional Era 1909, Military force the Sultan to abdicate (but many Christians die in “countercoup”) 1909, Military force the Sultan to abdicate (but many Christians die in “countercoup”)

10 Young Turks Rise of Turkish nationalism Rise of Turkish nationalism “Young Turks” as a secularist, nationalist reform party opposed to absolute monarchy “Young Turks” as a secularist, nationalist reform party opposed to absolute monarchy Various groups merge as Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) Various groups merge as Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) 1913, CUP seizes power in a coup 1913, CUP seizes power in a coup Armenian protests beginning in 1890s; massacres known as “Armenian Genocide” begin April 1915 (but killings on both sides) Armenian protests beginning in 1890s; massacres known as “Armenian Genocide” begin April 1915 (but killings on both sides) At end of World War I, rump Ottoman Empire is occupied (Constantinople, Smyrna/Izmir) At end of World War I, rump Ottoman Empire is occupied (Constantinople, Smyrna/Izmir)

11 Middle East in 1914

12 Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)

13 Turkish War of Independence (May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923)

14 Republic of Turkey (established October 29, 1923)

15 Looking to the West: Atatürk’s Reforms Turkish Grand National Assembly (1920) Turkish Grand National Assembly (1920) Constitution (1921) rejects Sultan as source of legitimacy Constitution (1921) rejects Sultan as source of legitimacy Abolition of sultanate (1922) Abolition of sultanate (1922) New republic declared (1923) New republic declared (1923) Capital moved to Ankara (1923) Capital moved to Ankara (1923) New Constitution (1924) New Constitution (1924) Abolition of caliphate & office of sheyh ül-islam (1924) & new Presidency of Religious Affairs (today the Ministry of Religious Affairs) Abolition of caliphate & office of sheyh ül-islam (1924) & new Presidency of Religious Affairs (today the Ministry of Religious Affairs) International (Gregorian) calendar (1925) International (Gregorian) calendar (1925) Millet system abolished Millet system abolished

16 Looking to the West: Atatürk’s Reforms (2) Principle of “laicism” (1937), individual faith is guaranteed, but not religious communities Principle of “laicism” (1937), individual faith is guaranteed, but not religious communities Regulation of clothing (1923-) and “Hat Law” (1925) banning fez & turban for men, “Law on Prohibited Garments” (1934) also banned veil Regulation of clothing (1923-) and “Hat Law” (1925) banning fez & turban for men, “Law on Prohibited Garments” (1934) also banned veil Use of Turkish as liturgical language ( ) Use of Turkish as liturgical language ( ) Banning of Sufi orders and lodges (1925) Banning of Sufi orders and lodges (1925) Introduction of civil code based on Swiss code & penal code based on Italian code (1926) Introduction of civil code based on Swiss code & penal code based on Italian code (1926) Polygamy banned, gender equality in inheritance Polygamy banned, gender equality in inheritance New system of state-supervised coed education New system of state-supervised coed education New Western-style universities New Western-style universities

17 Looking to the West: Atatürk’s Reforms (3) New Latin alphabet goes into effect (1/1/1929) New Latin alphabet goes into effect (1/1/1929) “Language reform” vs. Arabic & Persian words “Language reform” vs. Arabic & Persian words Drive for literacy (1928) Drive for literacy (1928) Drive to Westernize language & education Drive to Westernize language & education “Law on Family Names” (1934) “Law on Family Names” (1934) New national ideology of “Turkism” (yet keeping Turkic peoples of USSR at arm’s length…) New national ideology of “Turkism” (yet keeping Turkic peoples of USSR at arm’s length…) National monopolies (tobacco, alcohol, etc.) National monopolies (tobacco, alcohol, etc.) National infrastructure (railroad, etc.) National infrastructure (railroad, etc.) New national organizations (Turkish Historical Society, Turkish Linguistic Society, etc.) to promote new national identity & ideology New national organizations (Turkish Historical Society, Turkish Linguistic Society, etc.) to promote new national identity & ideology

18 Turkish Nationalism Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ( ) Iconic figure of modern Turkish nationalism (his ideology known as “Kemalism”)

19 Contradictions in Turkish National Identity

20 Ethnic Diversity in Turkey (ca. 1910)

21 Ethnic Diversity in Turkey: Kurds (1)

22 E thnic Diversity in Turkey: Kurds (2)

23 Who is a Turk? Are you only an ethnic Turk? Are you only an ethnic Turk? Cherkes (Circassians) and other Caucasian minorities; Laz Cherkes (Circassians) and other Caucasian minorities; Laz Arabs Arabs Armenians Armenians Kurds Kurds Kurdish was banned, now it appears on signs & TRT Shesh Kurdish was banned, now it appears on signs & TRT Shesh Right to bilingual education? Right to bilingual education?

24 Controvery over “Armenian Genocide” Snow: “Armenian Massacre”

25 Issues in Turkish Religious Identity There is a separation of the religious sphere and the public sphere There is a separation of the religious sphere and the public sphere The mosques are funded/controlled by the state The mosques are funded/controlled by the state Religious officials are employees of the state Religious officials are employees of the state Officials at mosques read sermons produced by the Ministry of Religious Affairs Officials at mosques read sermons produced by the Ministry of Religious Affairs Faculties of Divinity are located in state-run universities Faculties of Divinity are located in state-run universities Sufi orders are still banned Sufi orders are still banned There is a split between Sunnis and Alevis There is a split between Sunnis and Alevis How accepted are non-Muslim citizens in Turkey? How accepted are non-Muslim citizens in Turkey?

26 Sunni & Alevi Regions in Turkey

27 Russian Conquest in the Caucasus “The 1828 Russian siege of Kars” (by January Suchodolski).

28 Treaty of Kars (1921)

29 Kars, Turkey Armenian civilians fleeing Kars after its capture by Kâzım Karabekir's forces.  Kars Citadel

30 Kars, Turkey

31 Turkey in the 20 th Century A successful (?) secular multi-party (1946- ) democracy in the Middle East A successful (?) secular multi-party (1946- ) democracy in the Middle East NATO ally, with 2 nd largest military (Cold War) NATO ally, with 2 nd largest military (Cold War) Strong (crude?) national project Strong (crude?) national project GAP project for developing SE Anatolia, etc. GAP project for developing SE Anatolia, etc. Tremendous investment in national infrastructure (subways, high speed rail, airports, factories, etc.) Tremendous investment in national infrastructure (subways, high speed rail, airports, factories, etc.)

32 A History of Military Coups [1909, Forced abdication of Abdülhamit II] [1909, Forced abdication of Abdülhamit II] [1913, CUP coup] [1913, CUP coup] Military coup in 1960 [Adnan Menderes] Military coup in 1960 [Adnan Menderes] Military coup in 1971 [Süleyman Demirel] Military coup in 1971 [Süleyman Demirel] Military coup in 1980 [Kenan Evren, new constitution institutionalizing role of the military] Military coup in 1980 [Kenan Evren, new constitution institutionalizing role of the military] Post-modern coup d'état in 1997 (and 2007?) Post-modern coup d'état in 1997 (and 2007?) Military now under civilian control Military now under civilian control Current wave of trials of 1980 coup figures & “conspirators” Current wave of trials of 1980 coup figures & “conspirators” Efforts to write a new, “demilitarized” constitution Efforts to write a new, “demilitarized” constitution

33 Turks in Germany Gastarbeiters ‘guest workers’ Gastarbeiters ‘guest workers’ Economic opportunities for workers [mostly from Anatolia!] in Germany (1960s- ) Economic opportunities for workers [mostly from Anatolia!] in Germany (1960s- ) Leftist activity (1970s) Leftist activity (1970s) PKK/Kurdish Workers Party (1970s- ) PKK/Kurdish Workers Party (1970s- ) Several generations, some assimilated (politicians), some unassimilated (don’t speak German!) Several generations, some assimilated (politicians), some unassimilated (don’t speak German!) Koranschulen, etc. Koranschulen, etc. Today leads to conflicts in Germany Today leads to conflicts in Germany

34 Major Issues in the 20 th Century Armenian “Genocide” (1915) Armenian “Genocide” (1915) [Nancy Pelosi, Orhan Pamuk, Article 301, Hrant Dink] [Nancy Pelosi, Orhan Pamuk, Article 301, Hrant Dink] Turkish national project Turkish national project Cold War & NATO membership Cold War & NATO membership Invasion of Cyprus (1974) Invasion of Cyprus (1974) Reclaiming the Turkic World (1991- ) Reclaiming the Turkic World (1991- ) Moves for acceptance by European Union Moves for acceptance by European Union Relations with neighbors (USSR, Greece, Syria, `Iraq, Armenia/Azerbaycan, etc.) Relations with neighbors (USSR, Greece, Syria, `Iraq, Armenia/Azerbaycan, etc.) Preserving the secular, Kemalist state (coups, etc.) Preserving the secular, Kemalist state (coups, etc.) Strong military & police apparatus, clearly latter requires retraining Strong military & police apparatus, clearly latter requires retraining

35 Rise of the Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi (AKP) The current Prime Minister is the former mayor of İstanbul, The current Prime Minister is the former mayor of İstanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan His conservative AKP won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with 34% of the suffrage. In the 2007 general elections, the AKP received 46.6% of the votes and could defend its majority in parliament. Turkish President Abdullah Gul & his wife

36 Turkey at the Edge (1) Does the rise of AKP (and the collapse of the opposition) spell the end of the secular Turkish Republic? Does the rise of AKP (and the collapse of the opposition) spell the end of the secular Turkish Republic? AKP is a strong proponent of the EU AKP is a strong proponent of the EU Tensions between AKP and the Turkish military, including recently instituting civilian control over the military. Tensions between AKP and the Turkish military, including recently instituting civilian control over the military. BUT concern over show trials of military leadership. BUT concern over show trials of military leadership. High number of jailed journalists. High number of jailed journalists. The notion of the “deep state” The notion of the “deep state” Clean government or mafias? Clean government or mafias? Does AKP have a mandate to rewrite the Turkish Constitution? Does AKP have a mandate to rewrite the Turkish Constitution? The debate over lifting the headscarf ban in public institutions The debate over lifting the headscarf ban in public institutions The struggle to revise Article 301 (insulting the Turkish state) The struggle to revise Article 301 (insulting the Turkish state) The past US role in `Iraq and the plunge in popularity of the US in Turkey The past US role in `Iraq and the plunge in popularity of the US in Turkey The Turkish role in `Iraq and the struggle against the PKK The Turkish role in `Iraq and the struggle against the PKK

37 Turkey at the Edge (2) Turkey was successful seeking new alliances in the region, but has suffered setbacks recently Turkey was successful seeking new alliances in the region, but has suffered setbacks recently Difficulties in relations with US (including over possible recognition of Armenian Genocide by US Congress) Difficulties in relations with US (including over possible recognition of Armenian Genocide by US Congress) National protests over AKP’s supposed attempts to Islamize the state, but EU protest over “judicial coup attempt” to close AKP National protests over AKP’s supposed attempts to Islamize the state, but EU protest over “judicial coup attempt” to close AKP “Mavi Marmara” incident disrupts close ties with Israel “Mavi Marmara” incident disrupts close ties with Israel AKP support for Egypt’s ex-President Morsi and a role for the Muslim Brotherhood AKP support for Egypt’s ex-President Morsi and a role for the Muslim Brotherhood The protests over Gezi Park has tarnished Turkey’s reputation The protests over Gezi Park has tarnished Turkey’s reputation “Kurdish Opening” is hitting a bump “Kurdish Opening” is hitting a bump At present Turkey is an advocate of punishing Syria for use of chemical weapons At present Turkey is an advocate of punishing Syria for use of chemical weapons

38 Conclusions Nearing the end of its 9 th decade as a modern secular republic with a titular Turkish nation, Turkey has had to become more mature as a state. Nearing the end of its 9 th decade as a modern secular republic with a titular Turkish nation, Turkey has had to become more mature as a state. There is a nostalgia for the Ottoman past & its civilization. There is a nostalgia for the Ottoman past & its civilization. There was (at least for a while) a sense that Turkey should enjoy a position of leadership in the Middle East, as the Ottoman Empire once did. There was (at least for a while) a sense that Turkey should enjoy a position of leadership in the Middle East, as the Ottoman Empire once did. There is also a sense of leadership in the broader Turkic- speaking world. There is also a sense of leadership in the broader Turkic- speaking world. There is a sense that Islam should be represented more prominently in the public sphere (though not everybody thinks so!). There is a sense that Islam should be represented more prominently in the public sphere (though not everybody thinks so!). There is a fear of a “creeping Islamism” in Turkey on the part of Kemalists. There is a fear of a “creeping Islamism” in Turkey on the part of Kemalists. There is a sense that non-Turkish speaking citizens of Turkey need to have concessions made to them, but what? (Bilingual education?) There is a sense that non-Turkish speaking citizens of Turkey need to have concessions made to them, but what? (Bilingual education?) There is a lingering popular conspiracy theory that the “Greater Middle East Project” wants to reorder the Middle East, including breaking up Turkey… There is a lingering popular conspiracy theory that the “Greater Middle East Project” wants to reorder the Middle East, including breaking up Turkey…

39 Uli Schamiloglu Dept. of Languages and Cultures of Asia Chair, Central Asian Studies Program Chair (on leave), Middle East Studies Program mideast.wisc.edu


Download ppt "“From Caliphate to Secular Republic: The Trajectory of Modern Turkish History” Prof. Uli Schamiloglu Dept. of Languages & Cultures of Asia Chair, Central."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google