Presentation on theme: "A Human Development View on Value Change Trends ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Human Development View on Value Change Trends (1981-2006) Christian WelzelProfessor of Political ScienceInternational University Bremen (IUB)?Istanbul, November 03, 2006
2 Two Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Variation Variation in people‘s prevailing value orientations is enormous, yet in many aspectsit can be boiled down to just two dimensions of cross-cultural variation:Weak vs. strong SECULAR-RATIONAL Values: with secular-rational values gettingweaker one approaches the mythical ideal of a sacred community, with thesevalues getting stronger one approaches the rational ideal of a secular community.This polarity is about ideals of the COMMUNITY.(2) Weak vs. strong SELF-EXPRESSION Values: with self-expression values gettingweaker one approaches the conformist ideal of a restrained individual, with thesevalues getting stronger one approaches the ideal of an expressive individual.This polarity is about ideals of the INDIVIDUAL.
5 An Underlying Constraint vs. Choice Polarity The two value dimensions are partially distinct as they have different reference points, the community and the individual.Yet, the two dimensions also partially overlap:The weak poles of the two dimensions overlap on a common emphasis on human CONSTRAINT, the two strong poles overlapon a common emphasis on human CHOICE.In combination, weak secular-rational values and weak self-expression values pursue an ideal in which individuals are restrained by chaining them to survival communities. The commonality of this ideal is to emphasize human constraints.In combination, strong secular-rational values and strong self-expression values pursue an ideal in which individuals are free to express themselves by unchaining them from survival communities.The commonality of this ideal is to emphasize human choice.
9 Value Change Progressing from Constraint to Choice Value change progressing from constraint to choice is acentral aspect of Human Development because this valuechange makes people mentally free, motivating them todevelop, unfold, and actualize their inner human potentials.
10 A Human Development Model of Value Change or Maslowian Value Change (next slide)
11 People tend to value the choices they are capable to practice. PROSPERITYPeople experiencetheir lives assafe and secureMore actionresources availableto peoplePeople experiencetheir lives asself-directedPeople perceive roomto relieve fromunchosencommunity tiesPeople tend to value thechoices they are capableto practice.People perceive roomto develop theircreative humanpotentialsRising SECULAR-RATIONALview on COMMUNITY tiesRising SELF-EXPRESSIVEview on INDIVIDUAL potentialsGrowing Emphasis onHUMAN CHOICE
12 A Human Recession Model of Value Change Regressing from Choice to Constraint
13 People tend to value the choices they are capable to practice. MISERYPeople experiencetheir lives as lesssafe and secureLess actionresources availableto peoplePeople experiencetheir lives asless self-directedPeople perceive littleroom to relieve fromunchosencommunity tiesPeople tend to value thechoices they are capableto practice.People perceive littleroom to developtheir creativehuman potentialsReceding SECULAR-RATIONALview on COMMUNITY tiesReceding SELF-EXPRESSIVEview on INDIVIDUAL potentialsGrowing Emphasis onHUMAN CONSTRAINT
14 Net Value Changes within Cultural Zones (1981-2006) On average, the fivecultural zones (for whichdata are available from1981 to 2006) have beenmoving toward strongerself-expression values.Four of these five zonesalso moved towardstronger secular-rationalvalues. But this moveis less pronounced.
15 Cohort Differences throughout Cultural Zones Cohort differences indicate a long-termincrease of secular-rational and self-expression values inall cultural zonesexcept Africa.
17 National Cohorts‘ Value Positions related to the Action Resources Available intheirFormativeYearsMore action resourcesin people‘s formativeyears raise their self-expression values. Yet,societies‘ trajectorieson this growth pathdiffer in their height.Note: Action resourcesmeasured by Vanhanen‘sindex of power resources(0-100 scale).
18 Let‘s Focus on a Central Component of Self-Expression Values and Its Implications: Postmaterialistic Liberty Aspirations
19 The Democratic Implications of rising PLA Rising PLA let people place more emphasison democracy but makethem more critical ofits presence, nurturinga democratic reformpotential.Note:Scale range of onestandard deviationaround the meanshown.
20 ConclusionA central component of rising self-expression values, postmaterialistic libertyaspirations, generates a democratic reform potential by driving people to placemore emphasis on democracy while making them more critical of the actualdemocratic performance.