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[consequently Catford concludes that]

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1 [consequently Catford concludes that]
Catford [I] Catford, J.C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation: an Essay in Applied Linguistics, London: Oxford University Press Translation is an operation performed on languages; a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another [consequently Catford concludes that] The theory of translation is concerned with a certain type of relation between languages and is consequently a branch of comparative linguistics. (Catford 1965:20)

2 Catford [II] He followed J.R. Firth and M.A.K. Halliday in regarding
language as enabling communication acts with specific functions in a given context Interest in what can be done in translation, given what we know about the way language works in general (potential that language offers the translator) He relates types of translation to language levels (e.g. phonology, grammar, lexis) and to grammatical ranks (e.g. sentence, clause, group, word, morpheme).

3 Catford [III] Rank Scale •Phoneme •Sentence •Syllable •Clause
•Rythmic Group •Group •Tone Group •Word •Morpheme

4 She came in and John locked the door.
Catford [IV] She came in and John locked the door. Sentence Clauses (She came in, John locked the door) Groups (came in, verb group; the door, nominal group) Words (She, came, in, etc.) Morphemes (same as above words, but lock+ ed, 2 morphemes)

Catford [V] TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE (1) Total Translation what is generally meant by translation, i.e. the situation in which all the linguistic levels of the source text (phonology, graphology, grammar and lexis) are replaced by target language material. Equivalence in this type of translation is normally only achieved at the level of grammar and lexis. Catford defines total translation as the replacement of SL grammar and lexis by equivalent TL grammar and lexis with consequential replacement of SL phonology/graphology by (non-equivalent) TL phonology/graphology.

Catford [VI] TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE (2a) Restricted Translation at one level only (4 types) - two main types: phonological and graphological. Restricted translation at the grammatical level or lexical level only is difficult if not impossible because of the interdependence of grammar and lexis. Grammatical Translation: SL grammar is replaced by equivalent TL grammar without replacing SL lexis by TL lexis. [Example A] Lexical Translation: SL lexis is replaced by equivalent TL lexis without replacing SL grammar by TL grammar. [Example A]

Catford [VII] TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE (2b) Restricted Translation Graphological Translation: the graphic substance of the SL is replaced by ‘equivalent’ graphic substance of the TL, with no replacements at the levels of phonology, lexis or grammar except for accidental changes. [Example B] Phonological Translation: the phonological units of the SL are replaced by phonological units of the TL, leaving the grammar and lexis of the SL intact except for accidental changes  idealized category, based on the idea that the translator might want to give absolute priority to the phonological level, so that the choice of lexis and syntax in the target language is dependent on the criterion of sound alone. [Example C]

8 Grammatical and lexical translation
Catford [VIII] [Example A] Grammatical and lexical translation This is the man I saw. Grammatical translation: Voici le manque j’ai see-é Lexical translation: This is the hommeI voi-ed.

9 Graphological translation
Catford [IX] Graphological translation Russian sputnik is written СПУТНИК in Cyrillic and translates graphologically into Roman script as CHYTHNK [Example B]


11 Phonological translation
Catford [X] Phonological translation Jandl’s (1966) translation of Wordsworth’s famous poem My heart leaps up when I behold / A rainbow in the sky which begins mai hart lieb zapfen eibe hold / er renn bohr iin sees kai [Example C]

12 Catford [XI] Equivalence/correspondence
Textual equivalent: any TL text (or portion of text) which is observed on a particular occasion.. to be the equivalent of a given SL text (or portion of text). Formal correspondent: any TL category… which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the “same‟ place in the “economy‟ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL. When these two concepts diverge, a “translation shift” takes place

13 Catford [XII] Translation Shift – departure from formal correspondence Level Shifts something is expressed by grammar in language A but by lexical units (i.e. through vocabulary) in language B Il candidato X sarebbe in vantaggio - apparently, allegedly… Category Shifts four kinds: Structural: change of grammatical e.g. I like pizza Class: change of part of speech e.g. a medical student Unit/rank: replacing units of different “size” e.g. There you go Intra-system: SL and TL have roughly the same systems, but the translation involves choosing a non-corresponding item in the TL e.g. definite articles and prepositions : his friend, she looked at him

14 Catford [XIII] (+) First ever attempt to elaborate a coherent theoretical account of linguistic aspects of translation at large Internal consistency and rigour of the approach, robust categories (-) Translation used as a tool of formal linguistic analysis Use of invented and decontextualised examples Takes into account the potential rather than actual translator’s behaviour No distinction between obligatory and optional shifts Focus on the sentence level/no mention of context

15 More on equivalence, adaptation, translation shifts… 

16 Linguistic Approaches
(I) Micro-level (focus on linguistic system) R. Jakobson E. Nida P. Newmark J.-P. Vinay and J. Darbelnet J. C. Catford (1965) (II) Macro-level (focus on ST/TT comparison)

17 Halliday’s model of discourse analysis
Sociocultural environment Genre Register (field, tenor, mode) Discourse semantics (ideational, interpersonal, textual) Lexicogrammar (transitivity, modality, theme-rheme/cohesion)

18 Translation Quality Assessment model (TQA)
House [I] House, J. (1977) A Model for Translation Quality Assessment, Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Second edition 1981. House, J. (1997) Translation Quality Assessment: a Model Revisited, Tübingen: Gunter Narr Translation Quality Assessment model (TQA) Comparative analysis ST/TT profiles Evaluative perspective adopted Linguistic/textual features related to context (of both ST & TT) Analyses of complete texts rather than isolated sentences Authentic examples used

19 House [II] Overall objectives
Describing the linguistic & situational peculiarities of the source text Comparing source and target texts Making objective statements about the relative match of the two texts

20 House [III] Towards a definition of Translation… “Before attempting to develop a model for translation quality assessment, we first have to be more precise about what we mean by translation. The essence of translation lies in the preservation of ‘MEANING’ across two different languages” (House 1981:25). 3 basic aspects of meaning SEMANTIC PRAGMATIC TEXTUAL

21 House [IV] Defining Translation Translation is the replacement of a text in the source language by a semantically and pragmatically equivalent text in the target language. (House 1981:29-30) Translation is “primarily a pragmatic reconstruction of its source text”. (House 1981:28) Semantic-pragmatic equivalence = equivalence in function

22 House [V] The function of a text is “the application … or use which the text has in the particular context of a situation” (House 1981:37) Meaning is realized as function in a given context of situation

23 Meaning is realized as function in a given context of situation
House [VI] Meaning is realized as function in a given context of situation FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE IDEATIONAL INTERPERSONAL TEXTUAL Expressing content Expressing speaker’s attitude towards interlocutors, expressing social roles where language makes links with itself and with the situation; the construction of texts becomes possible because of this linkage

24 House [VII] Meaning is realized as function in a
given context of situation CONTEXT OF SITUATION: two dimensions Dimensions of Language User: 1. Geographical Origin 2. Social Class 3. Time  B. Dimensions of Language Use: 1. Medium: simple/complex 2. Participation: simple/complex 3. Social Role Relationship 4. Social Attitude 5. Province

25 House [VIII]

26 House [IX] Functional Match Needed to Achieve Translation Equivalence A translation text should not only match its source text in function, but employ equivalent situational-dimensional means to achieve that function. (House 1981:49)

27 House [X]

“An overt translation is one in which the TT addressees are quite ‘overtly’ not being directly addressed; thus an overt translation is one which must overtly be a translation, not, as it were, a ‘second original’. In an overt translation, the ST is tied in a specific way to the source language community and culture; the ST is specifically directed at source language addressees but is also pointing beyond the source language community because ST – independent of its source language origin – is also of potential general human interest. STs that call for an overt translation have an established worth or value in the source language community and potentially in other communities”. (House 1981:189) A covert translation is a translation which enjoys or enjoyed the status of an original ST in the target culture. The translation is covert because it is not marked pragmatically as a TT of an ST but may, conceivably, have been created in its own right. A covert translation is thus a translation whose ST is not specifically addressed to a target culture audience, i.e. not particularly tied to the source language community and culture. An ST and its covert TT are pragmatically of equal concern for source and target language addressees. Both are, as it were, equally directly addressed. A ST and its covert TT have equivalent purposes; they are based on contemporary, equivalent needs of a comparable audience in the source and target language communities”. (House 1981:194-95).

29 House [XII] (-) Model seemingly based on the assumptions that the socio-cultural expectations of ST and TT readers are comparable No special secondary function is added to TT Predominantly poetic-aesthetic or form-oriented works (such as poetry) excluded Complexity of the analytical categories used (nature, terminology, etc) (+) First attempt at developing such a comprehensive and thorough analytical approach. 1997 refinements

30 Functionalist Approaches
“Focusing on the function or functions of texts and translations” (Nord 1997:1) Translation as an activity, embedded in theory of human action Text Typology (Reiss) Skopostheorie (Reiss and Vermeer) Text Analysis model (Nord) Translational Action (Holz-Mänttäri)

31 Reiss [I] Text Typology Informative texts Emphasis on content.
New texts, business correspondence etc Expressive texts Various literary genres, e.g. poetry, novels, short stories Informative aspect overruled by aesthetic effect Operative texts Advertisements, political propaganda Both content and form are subordinate to extralinguistic effect Persuasive

32 Reiss [II]

33 Reiss [III] The transmissionof the predominant function of the ST is the determining factor by which the TT is judged Different translation methods (depending on text type) TT of INFORMATIVE text  translation in plain prose, no redundancy and explicitation when required TT of an EXPRESSIVE text  translation should use the identifying method, with the translator adopting the standpoint of the ST author. TT of an OPERATIVE text  translation should employ the adaptive method, creating an equivalent effect among the TT readers. TT of an AUDIO-MEDIAL text  requires the supplementary method, supplementing written words with visual images and music. + intra/extralinguistic criteria

34 Reiss [IV] (+) Attempt to go beyond the lower linguistic level (words on a page) towards a consideration of the communicative purpose of translation (-) Three types of language functions identified: are they enough? Can text types really be differentiated? How are the translation methods to be applied in the case of a specific text?

35 Skopos, Greek word meaning aim, purpose
Vermeer [I] Skopostheorie Skopos, Greek word meaning aim, purpose Each text is produced for a given purpose and should serve this purpose. The Skopos rule thus reads as follows: translate/interpret/speak/write in a way that enables your text/translation to function in the situation in which it is used and with the people who want to use it and precisely in the way they want it to function (Vermeer, cited in, and translated by, Nord 1997:29)

36 Vermeer [II] Underlying rules A translatum is determined by its skopos
A translation is an offer of information in a target culture and its language about a source culture and its language A TT is not clearly reversible A translation needs to be coherent in itself A translation needs to be coherent with the source text The five rules above stand in hierarchical order, with the skopos rule predominating

37 Vermeer [III] Commission
Includes a goal and the conditions under which the goal is to be achieved Adequacy It is the measure of translational action In the translation of a source text or element, adequacy refers to the relationship between the source and target text in relation to the skopos that followed in the translation process

38 Criticisms of Functionalism
Vermeer [IV] Criticisms of Functionalism Source text is ‘dethroned’ Applicability to literary translation? No distinction between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ purposes Fascination with terminology and inconsistent use of this Neglect of cultural difference? Concepts of source and target culture underdefined Not based on empirical studies

39 Nord [I] Nord, C. (1988/2005) Text Analysis in Translation: Theory, Methodology and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis, Amsterdam: Rodopi Nord, C. (1997) Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained, Manchester: St Jerome Nord’s theory aims to provide translation students with a model of ST analysis which is applicable to all text types and translation situations (// Reiss and Vermeer) More attention devoted to the features of the ST + complex series of extratextual factors and intratextual features in the ST.

40 Nord [II] Three aspects of functionalist approaches useful in translator training: Importance of translation commission (i.e. brief) it should give the following info about the text: Intended text function Addressees (sender and recipients) Time and place of text reception Medium (speech and writing) Motive (why the ST was written and why it is being translated)

41 Nord [III] Model of ST: deals with the criticism of Skopostheory not paying enough attention to the linguistic nature of the ST and TT  more detailed functional model incorporating elements of text analysis to examine organization at or above sentence level. Intratextual factors is one possible model for ST analysis: Subject matter Content (including connotation and cohesion) Presuppositions (real-world factors of the communicative situation presumed to be known to the participants) Composition (including micro- and macro-structure) Non-verbal elements (italics, illustrations, etc) Lexic (dialect, register, specific terminology) Sentence structure Suprasegmental features (stress, rhythm and stylistic punctuation)

42 Nord [IV] Function-based hierarchy of translation problems i.e. functional hierarchy when undertaking a translation. The intended function of the translation should be decided (documentary or instrumental cfr overt/covert by House) DOCUMENTARY ‘Serves as a document of a source culture communication between the author and the ST recipient’ INSTRUMENTAL ‘serves as an independent message transmitting instrument in a new communicative action in the target culture, and is intended to fulfil its communicative purpose without the recipient being conscious of reading or hearing a text which, in a different form, was used before in a different communicative situation’

43 Assessment of functionalist approaches
(+) Useful for thinking about translation as a PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY, it puts translators into focus (-) To what extent does it account for the reality of the translation profession? idea of empowerment of the translator, who works on an equal footing with others Emphasis on skopos and function that it seems to subordinate translation to purely commercial issues (see House, Gentzler, etc)

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