Presentation on theme: "[consequently Catford concludes that]"— Presentation transcript:
1[consequently Catford concludes that] Catford [I]Catford, J.C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation: an Essay in Applied Linguistics, London: Oxford University PressTranslation is an operation performed on languages; a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another[consequently Catford concludes that]The theory of translation is concerned with a certain type of relation between languages and is consequently a branch of comparative linguistics.(Catford 1965:20)
2Catford [II] He followed J.R. Firth and M.A.K. Halliday in regarding language as enabling communication acts with specificfunctions in a given contextInterest in what can be done in translation, given what we knowabout the way language works in general (potential thatlanguage offers the translator)He relates types of translation to language levels (e.g.phonology, grammar, lexis) and to grammatical ranks (e.g.sentence, clause, group, word, morpheme).
4She came in and John locked the door. Catford [IV]She came in and John locked the door.SentenceClauses (She came in, John locked the door)Groups (came in, verb group; the door, nominal group)Words (She, came, in, etc.)Morphemes (same as above words, but lock+ ed, 2 morphemes)
5TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE Catford [V]TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE(1) Total Translationwhat is generally meant by translation, i.e. the situation in which all the linguistic levels of the source text (phonology, graphology, grammar and lexis) are replaced by target language material. Equivalence in this type of translation is normally only achieved at the level of grammar and lexis.Catford defines total translation as the replacement of SL grammar and lexis by equivalent TL grammar and lexis with consequential replacement of SL phonology/graphology by (non-equivalent) TL phonology/graphology.
6TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE Catford [VI]TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE(2a) Restricted Translationat one level only (4 types) - two main types: phonological and graphological. Restricted translation at the grammatical level or lexical level only is difficult if not impossible because of the interdependence of grammar and lexis.Grammatical Translation: SL grammar is replaced by equivalent TL grammar without replacing SL lexis by TL lexis. [Example A]Lexical Translation: SL lexis is replaced by equivalent TL lexis without replacing SL grammar by TL grammar. [Example A]
7TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE Catford [VII]TYPES OF TRANSLATION – LEVELS OF LANGUAGE(2b) Restricted TranslationGraphological Translation: the graphic substance of the SL is replaced by ‘equivalent’ graphic substance of the TL, with no replacements at the levels of phonology, lexis or grammar except for accidental changes. [Example B]Phonological Translation: the phonological units of the SL are replaced by phonological units of the TL, leaving the grammar and lexis of the SL intact except for accidental changes idealized category, based on the idea that the translator might want to give absolute priority to the phonological level, so that the choice of lexis and syntax in the target language is dependent on the criterion of sound alone. [Example C]
8Grammatical and lexical translation Catford [VIII][Example A]Grammatical and lexical translationThis is the man I saw.Grammatical translation:Voici le manque j’ai see-éLexical translation:This is the hommeI voi-ed.
9Graphological translation Catford [IX]Graphological translationRussian sputnik is written СПУТНИК in Cyrillic andtranslates graphologically into Roman script as CHYTHNK[Example B]
11Phonological translation Catford [X]Phonological translationJandl’s (1966) translation of Wordsworth’s famous poemMy heart leaps up when I behold / A rainbow in the skywhich beginsmai hart lieb zapfen eibe hold / er renn bohr iin sees kai[Example C]
12Catford [XI] Equivalence/correspondence Textual equivalent: any TL text (or portion of text) which is observed on a particular occasion.. to be the equivalent of a given SL text (or portion of text).Formal correspondent: any TL category… which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the “same‟ place in the “economy‟ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL.When these two concepts diverge,a “translation shift” takes place
13Catford [XII]Translation Shift – departure from formal correspondenceLevel Shifts something is expressed by grammar in languageA but by lexical units (i.e. through vocabulary) inlanguage BIl candidato X sarebbe in vantaggio - apparently, allegedly…Category Shifts four kinds:Structural: change of grammatical e.g. I like pizzaClass: change of part of speech e.g. a medical studentUnit/rank: replacing units of different “size” e.g. There you goIntra-system: SL and TL have roughly the same systems, butthe translation involves choosing anon-corresponding item in the TLe.g. definite articles and prepositions : his friend, shelooked at him
14Catford [XIII](+)First ever attempt to elaborate a coherent theoretical account of linguistic aspects of translation at largeInternal consistency and rigour of the approach, robust categories(-)Translation used as a tool of formal linguistic analysisUse of invented and decontextualised examplesTakes into account the potential rather than actual translator’s behaviourNo distinction between obligatory and optional shiftsFocus on the sentence level/no mention of context
15More on equivalence, adaptation, translation shifts…
16Linguistic Approaches (I) Micro-level (focus on linguistic system)R. JakobsonE. NidaP. NewmarkJ.-P. Vinay and J. DarbelnetJ. C. Catford (1965)(II) Macro-level (focus on ST/TT comparison)
18Translation Quality Assessment model (TQA) House [I]House, J. (1977) A Model for Translation Quality Assessment, Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Second edition 1981.House, J. (1997) Translation Quality Assessment: a Model Revisited, Tübingen: Gunter NarrTranslation Quality Assessment model (TQA)Comparative analysis ST/TT profilesEvaluative perspective adoptedLinguistic/textual features related to context (of both ST & TT)Analyses of complete texts rather than isolated sentencesAuthentic examples used
19House [II] Overall objectives Describing the linguistic & situational peculiarities of thesource textComparing source and target textsMaking objective statements about the relative match ofthe two texts
20House [III]Towards a definition of Translation… “Before attempting to develop a model for translation quality assessment, we first have to be more precise about what we mean by translation. The essence of translation lies in the preservation of ‘MEANING’ across two different languages” (House 1981:25). 3 basic aspects of meaningSEMANTICPRAGMATICTEXTUAL
21House [IV]Defining Translation Translation is the replacement of a text in the source language by a semantically and pragmatically equivalent text in the target language. (House 1981:29-30) Translation is “primarily a pragmatic reconstruction of its source text”. (House 1981:28) Semantic-pragmatic equivalence = equivalence in function
22House [V]The function of a text is “the application … or use which the text has in the particular context of a situation” (House 1981:37) Meaning is realized as function in a given context of situation
23Meaning is realized as function in a given context of situation House [VI]Meaning is realized as function in agiven context of situationFUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGEIDEATIONALINTERPERSONALTEXTUALExpressing contentExpressing speaker’s attitude towards interlocutors, expressing social roleswhere language makes links with itself andwith the situation; the construction of texts becomespossible because of this linkage
24House [VII] Meaning is realized as function in a given context of situationCONTEXT OF SITUATION: two dimensionsDimensions of Language User:1. Geographical Origin2. Social Class3. Time B. Dimensions of Language Use:1. Medium: simple/complex2. Participation: simple/complex3. Social Role Relationship4. Social Attitude5. Province
26House [IX]Functional Match Needed to Achieve Translation Equivalence A translation text should not only match its source text in function, but employ equivalent situational-dimensional means to achieve that function. (House 1981:49)
28House [XI] OVERT TRANSLATION COVERT TRANSLATION “An overt translation is one in which the TT addressees are quite ‘overtly’ not being directly addressed; thus an overt translation is one which must overtly be a translation, not, as it were, a ‘second original’.In an overt translation, the ST is tied in a specific way to the source language community and culture; the ST is specifically directed at source language addressees but is also pointing beyond the source language community because ST – independent of its source language origin – is also of potential general human interest. STs that call for an overt translation have an established worth or value in the source language community and potentially in other communities”. (House 1981:189)A covert translation is a translation which enjoys or enjoyed the status of an original ST in the target culture. The translation is covert because it is not marked pragmatically as a TT of an ST but may, conceivably, have been created in its own right.A covert translation is thus a translation whose ST is not specifically addressed to a target culture audience, i.e. not particularly tied to the source language community and culture. An ST and its covert TT are pragmatically of equal concern for source and target language addressees. Both are, as it were, equally directly addressed.A ST and its covert TT have equivalent purposes; they are based on contemporary, equivalent needs of a comparable audience in the source and target language communities”. (House 1981:194-95).
29House [XII](-)Model seemingly based on the assumptions that the socio-culturalexpectations of ST and TT readers are comparableNo special secondary function is added to TTPredominantly poetic-aesthetic or form-oriented works (such aspoetry) excludedComplexity of the analytical categories used (nature, terminology, etc)(+)First attempt at developing such a comprehensive and thorough analytical approach.1997 refinements
30Functionalist Approaches “Focusing on the function or functions of texts and translations”(Nord 1997:1)Translation as an activity, embedded in theory of human actionText Typology (Reiss)Skopostheorie (Reiss and Vermeer)Text Analysis model (Nord)Translational Action (Holz-Mänttäri)
31Reiss [I] Text Typology Informative texts Emphasis on content. New texts, business correspondence etcExpressive textsVarious literary genres, e.g. poetry, novels, short storiesInformative aspect overruled by aesthetic effectOperative textsAdvertisements, political propagandaBoth content and form are subordinate to extralinguistic effectPersuasive
33Reiss [III]The transmissionof the predominant function of the ST is the determining factor by which the TT is judged Different translation methods (depending on text type) TT of INFORMATIVE text translation in plain prose, no redundancy and explicitation when required TT of an EXPRESSIVE text translation should use the identifying method, with the translator adopting the standpoint of the ST author. TT of an OPERATIVE text translation should employ the adaptive method, creating an equivalent effect among the TT readers. TT of an AUDIO-MEDIAL text requires the supplementary method, supplementing written words with visual images and music. + intra/extralinguistic criteria
34Reiss [IV](+)Attempt to go beyond the lower linguistic level (words on a page) towards a consideration of the communicative purpose of translation(-)Three types of language functions identified: are they enough?Can text types really be differentiated?How are the translation methods to be applied in the case of a specific text?
35Skopos, Greek word meaning aim, purpose Vermeer [I]SkopostheorieSkopos, Greek word meaning aim, purposeEach text is produced for a given purpose and should serve this purpose. The Skopos rule thus reads as follows: translate/interpret/speak/write in a way that enables your text/translation to function in the situation in which it is used and with the people who want to use it and precisely in the way they want it to function (Vermeer, cited in, and translated by, Nord 1997:29)
36Vermeer [II] Underlying rules A translatum is determined by its skopos A translation is an offer of information in a target culture and its language about a source culture and its languageA TT is not clearly reversibleA translation needs to be coherent in itselfA translation needs to be coherent with the source textThe five rules above stand in hierarchical order, with theskopos rule predominating
37Vermeer [III] Commission Includes a goal and the conditions under which the goal is to be achievedAdequacyIt is the measure of translational actionIn the translation of a source text or element, adequacy refers to the relationship between the source and target text in relation to the skopos that followed in the translation process
38Criticisms of Functionalism Vermeer [IV]Criticisms of FunctionalismSource text is ‘dethroned’Applicability to literary translation?No distinction between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ purposesFascination with terminology and inconsistent use of thisNeglect of cultural difference? Concepts of source andtarget culture underdefinedNot based on empirical studies
39Nord [I]Nord, C. (1988/2005) Text Analysis in Translation: Theory, Methodology and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis, Amsterdam: RodopiNord, C. (1997) Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained, Manchester: St JeromeNord’s theory aims to provide translation students with a model of ST analysis which is applicable to all text types and translation situations (// Reiss and Vermeer)More attention devoted to the features of the ST + complex series of extratextual factors and intratextual features in the ST.
40Nord [II]Three aspects of functionalist approaches useful in translator training:Importance of translation commission (i.e. brief)it should give the following info about the text:Intended text functionAddressees (sender and recipients)Time and place of text receptionMedium (speech and writing)Motive (why the ST was written and why it is beingtranslated)
41Nord [III]Model of ST: deals with the criticism of Skopostheory not paying enough attention to the linguistic nature of the ST and TT more detailed functional model incorporating elements of text analysis to examine organization at or above sentence level.Intratextual factors is one possible model for ST analysis:Subject matterContent (including connotation and cohesion)Presuppositions (real-world factors of the communicativesituation presumed to be known to the participants)Composition (including micro- and macro-structure)Non-verbal elements (italics, illustrations, etc)Lexic (dialect, register, specific terminology)Sentence structureSuprasegmental features (stress, rhythm and stylisticpunctuation)
42Nord [IV]Function-based hierarchy of translation problems i.e. functional hierarchy when undertaking a translation.The intended function of the translation should be decided (documentary or instrumental cfr overt/covert by House)DOCUMENTARY‘Serves as a document of a source culture communication between the author and the ST recipient’INSTRUMENTAL‘serves as an independent message transmitting instrument in a new communicative action in the target culture, and is intended to fulfil its communicative purpose without the recipient being conscious of reading or hearing a text which, in a different form, was used before in a different communicative situation’
43Assessment of functionalist approaches (+) Useful for thinking about translation as a PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY, it puts translators into focus (-) To what extent does it account for the reality of the translation profession? idea of empowerment of the translator, who works on an equal footing with others Emphasis on skopos and function that it seems to subordinate translation to purely commercial issues (see House, Gentzler, etc)