Presentation on theme: "WWI - The War to End War ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1WWI - The War to End War (1917-1918) Chapter 30 – Part I Notes
2Woodrow Wilson’s War Message, April 2, 1917 “The world must be made safe for democracy. It’s peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.”
3IntroductionWilson was still committed to neutrality after winning the election of 1916.On January 22, 1917, he delivered a moving address restating America’s commitment to peace, stating America’s commitment to neutrality and to “peace without victory”Germany responded on January 31, 1917 by declaring unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking all ships, including America’s, in the war zone.Germany was running out of supplies and no longer concerned with distinguishing b/t military and civilian combatantsWilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany but refused to declare war until the Germans took “overt” actions against Americans.
4War by Act of GermanyWilson asked Congress to arm American merchant shipsMidwestern senators launched a filibuster to block Wilson’s measureZimmerman NoteIntercepted and published on March 1, 1917Proposed German alliance with Mexico, and the return of land in the southwest to MexicoAmericans were infuriated
5Declaration of WarOvert Acts - German U Boats sank four unarmed American merchant shipsRussian Revolution begins – Russian despotism was not longer a hindrance to war.US Declaration of War – April 2, 1917Myth that wall street and bankers dragged US into warGang of Thieves (British) vs. Gang of Murderers (Germany)
6Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned For more than a century American people had prided themselves of on their isolation from the Old World violence.Six senators, and fifty reps. voted against the war including Jeannette Rankin (first congresswoman)To gain support Wilson espoused to “Make the world safe for democracy” not for riches or conquestAmericans, crusaders vs. isolationistsWilson’s utilized his rhetorical style to broaden public support
7Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson became the leader of the allied causeDelivered 14 Points on January 8, 19181) Proposed to abolish secret treaties – pleased liberals of all countries2) Freedoms of the seas – appealed to the Germans and Americans3) Removal of economic barriers4) Removal of armament burdens5) Re-adjustment of colonial claims and– undermined the old empires
8Wilson’s 14 Points Cont… Additional points Self-determination Reached out oppressed minority groups – such as the Polices in Germany and A-HPoint 14 proposed a League of NationsProviding a system of collective securityPredecessor to United NationsNot everyone supported the 14 Points- Allied Nations with expansionist ideation“Old Guard” Republicans also criticized Wilson
9Creel Manipulates Minds Committed on Public Information was createdGeorge Creel was chosen to create US support for the warCreel Organizationworkers home and overseasSent out 75,000 four minute men who would espouse US patriotic idealsPosters, leaflets, bookletsMoves were made to deface the KaiserSongs – “Over There”Over there, over thereSend the word, send the word over there,That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are comingThe drums rum-tumming ev’rywhere
10Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent German Americans numbered over 8 million, counting those with at least on parent foreign-born (total pop was 100 million)German DiscriminationSome were tarred and featheredExtreme case – German Socialist lynched in IllinoisOrchestras stooped playing Wagner and BeethovenBooks removed from librariesGerman language classes canceledSauerkraut “liberty cabbage”, hamburger “liberty steak”Pabst and Schiltz were suspect
11Espionage and Sedition Acts Espionage Act of 1917Imposed fines of $5,000 and 10,000 and jail sentences up to 20 years1900 prosecutions (including antiwar socialists and IWW members)IWW leader Big Bill HaywoodObjective was to make it illegal to write or utter any statement that could be construes as criticizing the flag, constitution, or opposing the military draft.Eugene Debs received a 10 year jail term for an antiwar speechShneck v. United States (1919) – court affirmed legality of limiting free speechHarding pardoned Debbs in 1921
12The Nation’s Factories Go To War America was not immediately ready for “total war”1915 War PreparednessCreation of civilian Council of National Defense,Shipbuilding programIncreased standing army to 100,000 – (5th among armies of world)How much steel and gunpowder could be produced?States Rights?1918 – Wilson appointed Bernard Baruch to head the War Industries Board – never very strong, disbanded shortly after the armistice.
13Worker’s in Wartime “Labor Will Win the War” If you were unemployed you could be immediately draftedTaft chaired the National War Labor BoardArbitrated Labor disputesPressed employers to grant concessionHigh wagesEight hour work dayDid not guarantee right to organize unionsWhy was there a war labor board?
14Workers in Wartime Cont.. AF of L and Gompers supported the warMore than doubled membership, more than 3 mill.Real wages rose more than 20% in coal, manufacturing, and transportation industriesIWW “Wobblies” opposed the warSabotaged several businesses b/c of poor working conditions, often beaten by employers or arrested.Workers UnrestWartime Inflation – prices doubled b/t lessened importance of new wages6,000 strikes occurred in war years¼ million went on strike in steel industry – owners brought in 30,000 African Americans to keep mills running.Steel industry collapsed and dozens died in conflicts
15Great MigrationMany African Americans started migrated North to work in factories during WWIBy 1920 nearly 1.5 million African Americans had migrated NorthEventually migration would grow to massive proportionsInterracial violence occurred as a result of white discriminationSt Louis riot of 1917 – nine whites and forty African Americans deadChicago Riots – white beachgoer threw a rock that killed an African American swimmer.Two weeks of race rights ensued – 15 whites and 23 African Americans were killed
16Reported number of African American migrants in New Jersey, September, 1917. (USDOL) New York Central camp,Weehawken 500Erie camps: Weehawken 300 Jersey City 100Philadelphia & Reading, Pennsylvania Railroad, etc.,Camps 1,2000Jersey City 3,000Newark 7,000Carneys Point 800Trenton 3,000Camden 2,000Bayonne, Paterson, and Perth Amboy 4,000Wrightstown and South Jersey 3,000Total for New Jersey 25,000
20Suffering Until Suffrage Thousands of women worked in factories and in the armed forcesWomen’s movement splitNational Women’s Party (Anti-war)– Alice PaulNational Women’s Suffrage Org. (supported war)Believed winning democracy abroad would bring democracy at home.Wilson supported the 19th Amendment – provided all women with the right to vote in 1920Women’s Bureau added to DOLMost women gave up jobs after the warSheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921 provided federal dollars for maternity education
22Carrie Chapman’s Address to Congress 1917 “How can our nation escape the logic it has never failed to follow, when its last unenfranchised class calls for the vote? Behold our Uncle Sam floating the banner with one hand, “Taxation without representation is tyranny,’ and with the other seizing the billions of dollars paid in taxes by women to whom he refuses ‘representation.’… Is there a single man who can justify such inequality of treatment, such outrageous discrimination? Not one
23Forging A War Economy Herbert Hoover led the Food Admin during WWI Quaker HumanitarianPreviously led charitable drive to feed people of BelgiumLed propaganda campaign to conserve foodOpposed voluntary rationingWheat less Wednesdays, Meatless Tuesdays, etc.Vegetable “Victory Gardens”Gov. restricted foodstuffs for brewing alcoholMany brewers were German, which garnered more support for 18th Amend.
24War Time Economy Farm production rose by ¼ Exports to Allies tripledFuel Admin supported heatless Mondays and lightless nights, and gasless SundaysTreasury DepartmentParades “Halt the Hun”Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds raised 21 billion dollars (2/3 cost of war)German Americans may find a yellow paint on their house or face physical assault if they did not buy war bondsOne German American baker was lynched in Illinois (1918), defendants were found not guiltyWilson admin begrudgingly took control of railroad industry and hurriedly constructed new ships
25Making Plowboys into Doughboys The Draft (Selective Service Act)All men ages had to registerNo subs, key men in industry were exemptArmy quickly grew to 4 million menSupposed to receive 6 months in training in US and 2 months overseas, rarely occurred337,000 dodged draft4,000 objectors were excusedWomen – 11,000 to the navy and 269 to marinesAfrican AmericansSegregated units – non-combat rolls369th fought on the frontlines assigned to the FrenchUshered in Jazz to Europe
33Fighting in France-Belatedly Russian Revolutionaries overthrew the Czar, signed a treaty with Germany, and withdrew from the “capitalistic” war in early 1918The Germans could now focus their main efforts on the Western Front in FranceGerman AssumptionsDefeat British in six months with unrestricted submarine warfareAmerican soldiers would arrive and have difficulty transporting troopsAmericans arrived about one year after Congress declared war.First Americans relieved British and French in quiet sectorsTroops also fought in Belgium, Italy, and Russia at ArchangelRussia – goal was to protect munitions from Germans, rescue Czech troops, and inhibit Japanese expansion in Siberia
34Americans in Battle Allies united under a French Commander Before allies had been fighting with limited coordinationGerman troops advanced to within 40 miles of ParisAmericans arrive in Chateau Thierry near the Marne RiverSecond Battle of the Marne – Americans and French gained the advantageSeptember 1918, about 243,00o troops fight alongside French to at St. Mihiel salient
35Americans in Battle Cont.. Meuse Argonne Offensive September – November 1918Americans cut German railroad linesLasted 47 days, 1.2 American troops foughtHeavy fighting in Argonne Forest killed or wounded 120,000 AmericansMany died from lack or training in “no-mans land”War Hero - Alvin C. YorkCritical Food Shortages occurred in Germany just as the allies transport lines were slowingPropaganda leaflets were dropped into Germany to convince soldiers to surrender
36American Leaflet from the Friends of German Democracy: BROTHERS! The world is in great need. You and you alone can end this need rapidly. We are American citizens of German descent. We know you and trust you. We beg you to trust us. The great German nation is the barbarian and the breaker of trust in the eyes of the world. You can recover your good reputation only if you overthrow this government, which has made German intelligence and German industry a danger to the world. Take the determination of your destiny into your own hands.... If you will do this the world war will end. In the name of America we give you our word, that the new Germany will be taken up as an honorable member of the society of nations. Your intelligence and industry will once again be a blessing to humanity, instead of a curse.... Arise for a struggle for a free Germany! In the name of Americans of German descent. UNION OF FRIENDS OF GERMAN DEMOCRACY New York, March, 1918
37Men Killed in Battle Russia 1,700,000 France 1,385,000 British 900,000 Austria800,000Italy462,000USA53,000Germany1,600,000
38The Armistice (Chapter Notes Part III) Germany was ready to end the warWilson insisted the Kaiser abdicateThe Kaiser fled to HollandGermany signed an Armistice agreement on 11/11/1918
40US War ContributionsMainly: Foodstuffs, munitions, loans, oil for this first mechanized war, and manpowerNo battlefield victoriesFought only two major battlesSt. MihielMeuse ArgonneLast two months of the four year warsThe prospect of endless reinforcements demoralized Germany
41Wilson’s Attempts Instill Lasting Peace Wilson had become a household to Europeans who wished for peace and self-determination.Streets and buildings in Serbia still bare his name.During the pinnacle of his popularity he made several errorsAppealed for a Democratic Congressional victoryRepublican majority returned to CongressWilson went to Paris without a mandate at homeUnlike other leaders in EuropeRepublicans were furious with Wilson’s decision to travel to Paris (first US president in Europe)Did not bring a Republican representative, such as his rival Lodge
42The Idealist Battles the Imperialists Big Four Peace ConferenceUS - Wilson at the leadItaly – Premier Vitorrio OrlandoBritain – David Lloyd GeorgeFrance – ClemenceauLeaders believed a settlement was urgent to ward off te tide of communismImperialists wanted annexation of Territory and Wilson wanted an end to imperialismThe CompromiseThe French mandate of Syria and the British mandate of IraqThe diplomats also agreed to the League of Nations covenant
43Treaty of Versailles Negotiations Republicans despised the League of NationsWilson returned to the US to repudiateThe “irreconcilables” led by Lodge, Hiram Johnson, and Borah, stood ready to refute the League of Nations39 Republicans vowed not to ratify The Treaty of Versailles in its current formWhen Wilson returned to Paris the imperialists had the advantageFrance wanted the Saar Basin and the RhinelandWilson brokered the UN mandate of the Saar basinUS Security Treaty with France and Britian – later negated in the US Senate
44Negations Cont…Italy turned against Wilson when he insisted the port of Fiume reside with the Yugoslavs.US sternly opposed Japanese annexation of Shandong and the German islands in the PacificJapan threatened to walk out and won temporrary economic rights to ShandongThe Chinese were outragedClemenceau jeered that Wilson“talked like Jesus Christ and acted like Lloyd George
45The Peace that Bred a New War The completed treaty was presented to GermanyThey had capitulated, believing the 14 points would be utilizedHowever, only 4 of the 23 points were fully honoredThe Germans exclaimed they had been betrayed, later reiterated by HitlerGermany lost colonial territory, gave Alsace Lorraine to France, had to pay reparations to allies, destroy war machinery/munitions, lost Saar coal mine, and demobilize army.As a side note, the allies considered creating numerous pre-unification territories in Germany, to avoid another warHowever, Wilson’s ideals of “peace without victory” inhibited this possibility
46A New War…Wilson had to compromise on his 14 Points to preserve the League of NationsHe was hoping a League with America as the leader would ameliorate the inequailitiesPositives of the Treaty of VersaillesLiberated millions of minority ethnicities, i.e., Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, Finish, etc.If Wilson had not attended the negotiations imperialists victors would have dominated
47Detractors of the Treaty Isolationists“Irreconcilables”Rabid Hun-hatersGerman AmericansItalian AmericansIrish Americans
48Wilson’s Tour and Collapse The Republicans hoped to amend the treaty rather than defeat it.Republicans could claim creditLodge stalled – read the entire 264 page treaty aloud in the Senate Foreign Relations CommitteeWilson needed the 2/3 majority voteHe Embarked on a national tour to push treaty ratificationThe midwest was unimpressed – German AmericansJohnson and Borah spoke in the same cities days laterThe Rocky mountain and western states embraced himNear the end of the tour a stroke paralyzed one side of his bodyFor seven months he did not speak to his cabinetHis wife ran his presidency for his remaining term
49Defeat Through Deadlock Lodge wrote his own 14 formal reservations to the treatyHe found Article X- The League of Nations most alarmingOn the day of the vote Wilson insisted all Democrats vote against the treaty with the appended Lodge reservationsIn time, it was clear the treaty could only be ratified with the Lodge reservationsAnother vote occurred, Wilson again instructed to Democrats to negate the treatyOnce again a 2/3 “yay” ratification vote was not achieved
50The Referendum of 1920Wilson believed the next president would enable treaty ratificationElection of 1920 – Harding (Rep.) vs. Cox (Dem.)Warren Harding – wavered of the LeagueJames Cox – supported the LeagueElection resultsHarding 7 million 16,143,407 (404 electorate)James Cox – 9,130, 328 (127 electorate)Debbs in Prison – 919,799Voters were oversaturated with morality and wished to return to “normalcy”Harding’s election was a death sentence to the LeagueConservative Referendum vs. Liberal ReformWilson died in 1924The US never ratified the Treaty of VersaillesSigned a separate treaty with Germany
52Great Expectations Betrayed The mightiest power, the USA, never joined the League of NationsCould US involvement averted WWII?Without the US the complicated Treaty was unenforceableHitler cited the treaty to incite fascisismIf party politics had not derided the treaty perhaps the war could have been preventedHowever, the US learned its lesson and after WWI, the US assumed the role of “super-power” after WWII and guided recover plans in Europe and Japan.