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WWI - The War to End War ( )

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1 WWI - The War to End War (1917-1918)
Chapter 30 – Part I Notes

2 Woodrow Wilson’s War Message, April 2, 1917
“The world must be made safe for democracy. It’s peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.”

3 Introduction Wilson was still committed to neutrality after winning the election of 1916. On January 22, 1917, he delivered a moving address restating America’s commitment to peace, stating America’s commitment to neutrality and to “peace without victory” Germany responded on January 31, 1917 by declaring unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking all ships, including America’s, in the war zone. Germany was running out of supplies and no longer concerned with distinguishing b/t military and civilian combatants Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany but refused to declare war until the Germans took “overt” actions against Americans.

4 War by Act of Germany Wilson asked Congress to arm American merchant ships Midwestern senators launched a filibuster to block Wilson’s measure Zimmerman Note Intercepted and published on March 1, 1917 Proposed German alliance with Mexico, and the return of land in the southwest to Mexico Americans were infuriated

5 Declaration of War Overt Acts - German U Boats sank four unarmed American merchant ships Russian Revolution begins – Russian despotism was not longer a hindrance to war. US Declaration of War – April 2, 1917 Myth that wall street and bankers dragged US into war Gang of Thieves (British) vs. Gang of Murderers (Germany)

6 Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned
For more than a century American people had prided themselves of on their isolation from the Old World violence. Six senators, and fifty reps. voted against the war including Jeannette Rankin (first congresswoman) To gain support Wilson espoused to “Make the world safe for democracy” not for riches or conquest Americans, crusaders vs. isolationists Wilson’s utilized his rhetorical style to broaden public support

7 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Wilson became the leader of the allied cause Delivered 14 Points on January 8, 1918 1) Proposed to abolish secret treaties – pleased liberals of all countries 2) Freedoms of the seas – appealed to the Germans and Americans 3) Removal of economic barriers 4) Removal of armament burdens 5) Re-adjustment of colonial claims and– undermined the old empires

8 Wilson’s 14 Points Cont… Additional points Self-determination
Reached out oppressed minority groups – such as the Polices in Germany and A-H Point 14 proposed a League of Nations Providing a system of collective security Predecessor to United Nations Not everyone supported the 14 Points- Allied Nations with expansionist ideation “Old Guard” Republicans also criticized Wilson

9 Creel Manipulates Minds
Committed on Public Information was created George Creel was chosen to create US support for the war Creel Organization workers home and overseas Sent out 75,000 four minute men who would espouse US patriotic ideals Posters, leaflets, booklets Moves were made to deface the Kaiser Songs – “Over There” Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there, That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming The drums rum-tumming ev’rywhere

10 Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent
German Americans numbered over 8 million, counting those with at least on parent foreign-born (total pop was 100 million) German Discrimination Some were tarred and feathered Extreme case – German Socialist lynched in Illinois Orchestras stooped playing Wagner and Beethoven Books removed from libraries German language classes canceled Sauerkraut “liberty cabbage”, hamburger “liberty steak” Pabst and Schiltz were suspect

11 Espionage and Sedition Acts
Espionage Act of 1917 Imposed fines of $5,000 and 10,000 and jail sentences up to 20 years 1900 prosecutions (including antiwar socialists and IWW members) IWW leader Big Bill Haywood Objective was to make it illegal to write or utter any statement that could be construes as criticizing the flag, constitution, or opposing the military draft. Eugene Debs received a 10 year jail term for an antiwar speech Shneck v. United States (1919) – court affirmed legality of limiting free speech Harding pardoned Debbs in 1921

12 The Nation’s Factories Go To War
America was not immediately ready for “total war” 1915 War Preparedness Creation of civilian Council of National Defense, Shipbuilding program Increased standing army to 100,000 – (5th among armies of world) How much steel and gunpowder could be produced? States Rights? 1918 – Wilson appointed Bernard Baruch to head the War Industries Board – never very strong, disbanded shortly after the armistice.

13 Worker’s in Wartime “Labor Will Win the War”
If you were unemployed you could be immediately drafted Taft chaired the National War Labor Board Arbitrated Labor disputes Pressed employers to grant concession High wages Eight hour work day Did not guarantee right to organize unions Why was there a war labor board?

14 Workers in Wartime Cont..
AF of L and Gompers supported the war More than doubled membership, more than 3 mill. Real wages rose more than 20% in coal, manufacturing, and transportation industries IWW “Wobblies” opposed the war Sabotaged several businesses b/c of poor working conditions, often beaten by employers or arrested. Workers Unrest Wartime Inflation – prices doubled b/t lessened importance of new wages 6,000 strikes occurred in war years ¼ million went on strike in steel industry – owners brought in 30,000 African Americans to keep mills running. Steel industry collapsed and dozens died in conflicts

15 Great Migration Many African Americans started migrated North to work in factories during WWI By 1920 nearly 1.5 million African Americans had migrated North Eventually migration would grow to massive proportions Interracial violence occurred as a result of white discrimination St Louis riot of 1917 – nine whites and forty African Americans dead Chicago Riots – white beachgoer threw a rock that killed an African American swimmer. Two weeks of race rights ensued – 15 whites and 23 African Americans were killed

16 Reported number of African American migrants in New Jersey, September, 1917. (USDOL)
New York Central camp, Weehawken 500 Erie camps:  Weehawken 300   Jersey City 100 Philadelphia & Reading, Pennsylvania Railroad, etc., Camps 1,2000 Jersey City 3,000 Newark 7,000 Carneys Point 800 Trenton 3,000 Camden 2,000 Bayonne, Paterson, and Perth Amboy 4,000 Wrightstown and South Jersey 3,000 Total for New Jersey 25,000


18 Great Migration by Jacob Lawrence


20 Suffering Until Suffrage
Thousands of women worked in factories and in the armed forces Women’s movement split National Women’s Party (Anti-war)– Alice Paul National Women’s Suffrage Org. (supported war) Believed winning democracy abroad would bring democracy at home. Wilson supported the 19th Amendment – provided all women with the right to vote in 1920 Women’s Bureau added to DOL Most women gave up jobs after the war Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921 provided federal dollars for maternity education

21 Women Factory Workers WWI

22 Carrie Chapman’s Address to Congress 1917
“How can our nation escape the logic it has never failed to follow, when its last unenfranchised class calls for the vote? Behold our Uncle Sam floating the banner with one hand, “Taxation without representation is tyranny,’ and with the other seizing the billions of dollars paid in taxes by women to whom he refuses ‘representation.’… Is there a single man who can justify such inequality of treatment, such outrageous discrimination? Not one

23 Forging A War Economy Herbert Hoover led the Food Admin during WWI
Quaker Humanitarian Previously led charitable drive to feed people of Belgium Led propaganda campaign to conserve food Opposed voluntary rationing Wheat less Wednesdays, Meatless Tuesdays, etc. Vegetable “Victory Gardens” Gov. restricted foodstuffs for brewing alcohol Many brewers were German, which garnered more support for 18th Amend.

24 War Time Economy Farm production rose by ¼
Exports to Allies tripled Fuel Admin supported heatless Mondays and lightless nights, and gasless Sundays Treasury Department Parades “Halt the Hun” Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds raised 21 billion dollars (2/3 cost of war) German Americans may find a yellow paint on their house or face physical assault if they did not buy war bonds One German American baker was lynched in Illinois (1918), defendants were found not guilty Wilson admin begrudgingly took control of railroad industry and hurriedly constructed new ships

25 Making Plowboys into Doughboys
The Draft (Selective Service Act) All men ages had to register No subs, key men in industry were exempt Army quickly grew to 4 million men Supposed to receive 6 months in training in US and 2 months overseas, rarely occurred 337,000 dodged draft 4,000 objectors were excused Women – 11,000 to the navy and 269 to marines African Americans Segregated units – non-combat rolls 369th fought on the frontlines assigned to the French Ushered in Jazz to Europe





30 “Harlem Hellfighters” 369th

31 Harlem Hellfighters Clip
Complete a KWL – while you view

32 WWI Notes Part II

33 Fighting in France-Belatedly
Russian Revolutionaries overthrew the Czar, signed a treaty with Germany, and withdrew from the “capitalistic” war in early 1918 The Germans could now focus their main efforts on the Western Front in France German Assumptions Defeat British in six months with unrestricted submarine warfare American soldiers would arrive and have difficulty transporting troops Americans arrived about one year after Congress declared war. First Americans relieved British and French in quiet sectors Troops also fought in Belgium, Italy, and Russia at Archangel Russia – goal was to protect munitions from Germans, rescue Czech troops, and inhibit Japanese expansion in Siberia

34 Americans in Battle Allies united under a French Commander
Before allies had been fighting with limited coordination German troops advanced to within 40 miles of Paris Americans arrive in Chateau Thierry near the Marne River Second Battle of the Marne – Americans and French gained the advantage September 1918, about 243,00o troops fight alongside French to at St. Mihiel salient

35 Americans in Battle Cont..
Meuse Argonne Offensive September – November 1918 Americans cut German railroad lines Lasted 47 days, 1.2 American troops fought Heavy fighting in Argonne Forest killed or wounded 120,000 Americans Many died from lack or training in “no-mans land” War Hero - Alvin C. York Critical Food Shortages occurred in Germany just as the allies transport lines were slowing Propaganda leaflets were dropped into Germany to convince soldiers to surrender

36 American Leaflet from the Friends of German Democracy:
BROTHERS! The world is in great need. You and you alone can end this need rapidly. We are American citizens of German descent. We know you and trust you. We beg you to trust us. The great German nation is the barbarian and the breaker of trust in the eyes of the world. You can recover your good reputation only if you overthrow this government, which has made German intelligence and German industry a danger to the world. Take the determination of your destiny into your own hands.... If you will do this the world war will end. In the name of America we give you our word, that the new Germany will be taken up as an honorable member of the society of nations. Your intelligence and industry will once again be a blessing to humanity, instead of a curse.... Arise for a struggle for a free Germany! In the name of Americans of German descent. UNION OF FRIENDS OF GERMAN DEMOCRACY New York, March, 1918

37 Men Killed in Battle Russia 1,700,000 France 1,385,000 British 900,000
Austria 800,000 Italy 462,000 USA 53,000 Germany 1,600,000

38 The Armistice (Chapter Notes Part III)
Germany was ready to end the war Wilson insisted the Kaiser abdicate The Kaiser fled to Holland Germany signed an Armistice agreement on 11/11/1918


40 US War Contributions Mainly: Foodstuffs, munitions, loans, oil for this first mechanized war, and manpower No battlefield victories Fought only two major battles St. Mihiel Meuse Argonne Last two months of the four year wars The prospect of endless reinforcements demoralized Germany

41 Wilson’s Attempts Instill Lasting Peace
Wilson had become a household to Europeans who wished for peace and self-determination. Streets and buildings in Serbia still bare his name. During the pinnacle of his popularity he made several errors Appealed for a Democratic Congressional victory Republican majority returned to Congress Wilson went to Paris without a mandate at home Unlike other leaders in Europe Republicans were furious with Wilson’s decision to travel to Paris (first US president in Europe) Did not bring a Republican representative, such as his rival Lodge

42 The Idealist Battles the Imperialists
Big Four Peace Conference US - Wilson at the lead Italy – Premier Vitorrio Orlando Britain – David Lloyd George France – Clemenceau Leaders believed a settlement was urgent to ward off te tide of communism Imperialists wanted annexation of Territory and Wilson wanted an end to imperialism The Compromise The French mandate of Syria and the British mandate of Iraq The diplomats also agreed to the League of Nations covenant

43 Treaty of Versailles Negotiations
Republicans despised the League of Nations Wilson returned to the US to repudiate The “irreconcilables” led by Lodge, Hiram Johnson, and Borah, stood ready to refute the League of Nations 39 Republicans vowed not to ratify The Treaty of Versailles in its current form When Wilson returned to Paris the imperialists had the advantage France wanted the Saar Basin and the Rhineland Wilson brokered the UN mandate of the Saar basin US Security Treaty with France and Britian – later negated in the US Senate

44 Negations Cont… Italy turned against Wilson when he insisted the port of Fiume reside with the Yugoslavs. US sternly opposed Japanese annexation of Shandong and the German islands in the Pacific Japan threatened to walk out and won temporrary economic rights to Shandong The Chinese were outraged Clemenceau jeered that Wilson “talked like Jesus Christ and acted like Lloyd George

45 The Peace that Bred a New War
The completed treaty was presented to Germany They had capitulated, believing the 14 points would be utilized However, only 4 of the 23 points were fully honored The Germans exclaimed they had been betrayed, later reiterated by Hitler Germany lost colonial territory, gave Alsace Lorraine to France, had to pay reparations to allies, destroy war machinery/munitions, lost Saar coal mine, and demobilize army. As a side note, the allies considered creating numerous pre-unification territories in Germany, to avoid another war However, Wilson’s ideals of “peace without victory” inhibited this possibility

46 A New War… Wilson had to compromise on his 14 Points to preserve the League of Nations He was hoping a League with America as the leader would ameliorate the inequailities Positives of the Treaty of Versailles Liberated millions of minority ethnicities, i.e., Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, Finish, etc. If Wilson had not attended the negotiations imperialists victors would have dominated

47 Detractors of the Treaty
Isolationists “Irreconcilables” Rabid Hun-haters German Americans Italian Americans Irish Americans

48 Wilson’s Tour and Collapse
The Republicans hoped to amend the treaty rather than defeat it. Republicans could claim credit Lodge stalled – read the entire 264 page treaty aloud in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Wilson needed the 2/3 majority vote He Embarked on a national tour to push treaty ratification The midwest was unimpressed – German Americans Johnson and Borah spoke in the same cities days later The Rocky mountain and western states embraced him Near the end of the tour a stroke paralyzed one side of his body For seven months he did not speak to his cabinet His wife ran his presidency for his remaining term

49 Defeat Through Deadlock
Lodge wrote his own 14 formal reservations to the treaty He found Article X- The League of Nations most alarming On the day of the vote Wilson insisted all Democrats vote against the treaty with the appended Lodge reservations In time, it was clear the treaty could only be ratified with the Lodge reservations Another vote occurred, Wilson again instructed to Democrats to negate the treaty Once again a 2/3 “yay” ratification vote was not achieved

50 The Referendum of 1920 Wilson believed the next president would enable treaty ratification Election of 1920 – Harding (Rep.) vs. Cox (Dem.) Warren Harding – wavered of the League James Cox – supported the League Election results Harding 7 million 16,143,407 (404 electorate) James Cox – 9,130, 328 (127 electorate) Debbs in Prison – 919,799 Voters were oversaturated with morality and wished to return to “normalcy” Harding’s election was a death sentence to the League Conservative Referendum vs. Liberal Reform Wilson died in 1924 The US never ratified the Treaty of Versailles Signed a separate treaty with Germany


52 Great Expectations Betrayed
The mightiest power, the USA, never joined the League of Nations Could US involvement averted WWII? Without the US the complicated Treaty was unenforceable Hitler cited the treaty to incite fascisism If party politics had not derided the treaty perhaps the war could have been prevented However, the US learned its lesson and after WWI, the US assumed the role of “super-power” after WWII and guided recover plans in Europe and Japan.

53 Allied vs. Central Powers

54 Before and After WWI

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