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Mesopotamia. Warm-up for Monday, Oct. 6 scribe Fertile Crescent polytheism myth A professional writer A region in Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East);

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Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia. Warm-up for Monday, Oct. 6 scribe Fertile Crescent polytheism myth A professional writer A region in Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East);"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mesopotamia

2 Warm-up for Monday, Oct. 6 scribe Fertile Crescent polytheism myth A professional writer A region in Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East); site of the first civilizations The belief in many gods A traditional story; in some cultures, a legend that explains people’s beliefs

3 Review What does a city need in order to grow? Three things: A reliable source of drinking water Rich, fertile soil for farming Construction materials for houses and other buildings

4 The Fertile Crescent Fertile soil along the rivers Desert to the south, mountains to the north In Egypt, desert on both sides Modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Jordan, Israel, and Egypt PHSchool.com

5 Let’s practice Mesopotamia Mess o poe TAY me ah Tigris TIE griss Euphrates You FRAY tees

6 Warm-up for Tuesday, Oct. 7 In the map activity yesterday, we learned about the physical features of Southwest Asia (a.k.a the Middle East), and reviewed which physical features encouraged or discouraged human settlement. Imagine you are a hunter-gatherer and you are looking to settle down and farm. Describe your discovery of the ideal piece of land for you. STRIVE FOR FIVE: at least five sentences.

7 Guiding Question How did physical geography affect development and growth of this society?

8 Mesopotamia: geography What is Mesopotamia? Where is Mesopotamia? Mesopotamia is a region that is part of the Fertile Crescent. Its name describes its location. Meso = middle, between Potamia = river Mesopotamia = land between rivers It is located between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River, in modern-day Iraq.

9 Mesopotamia: geography What are the physical features of Mesopotamia? Why was it so great? It had rich soil for farming. It had life-giving rivers. It is one of the best places in Southwest Asia for growing crops. In spring, melting snow picked up topsoil as it rushed down from the mountains. The melting snow flooded the plains. When the floods receded, the topsoil was left on the plain. Every year the soil was renewed.

10 Mesopotamia: geography How did people interact with this environment? Farmers grew crops in the rich soil. People dug canals to direct the flow of the flood toward their fields. *irrigation The riverbanks provided clay for building and tall, strong reeds for making boats. But the floods did not always happen at the same time each year. They gave no warning. Big floods swept away people, animals, crops, and houses.

11 Mesopotamia: geography How did people interact with this environment? Survivors rebuilt in the same place, because the soil was so fertile. Farming leads to A food surplus, which leads to Population growth, which leads to the growth of cities. By 3500 BC, cities appeared in Sumer (a region of Mesopotamia). Cities in Sumer shared a common culture and language, but they did not unite under a single ruler. They were politically independent, so we call them city-states. Each city-state had its own government, its own ruler, its own army, its own special god or goddess.

12 Summary Questions Describe the geography of Mesopotamia. How did Mesopotamia’s geography help cities to develop? Challenge Question: We learned that the transition to agriculture was such a big change that it is called a revolution. Do you think we would have ever ended up at our current level of technology and civilization if farming had not been invented?

13 Warm-up for Monday, Oct. 13 Sumer was the earliest civilization to arise in the ______________, a region in Southwest Asia. ___________ were important because they kept records for kings and priests. Sumerians worshipped many gods and goddesses, a practice which is known as ___________________. Sumerian ____________ warned that the gods would punish people who angered them and promised rewards to people who served the gods well.

14 Sumer What was a Sumerian city-state like? Each city-state had its own government ruler army special god or goddess In a city-state, many people were not farmers. In the public square, we would find Merchants selling goods in outdoor stalls Musicians, acrobats, beggars Water sellers Scribes writing letters for money, for those who can’t read or write Sumerian houses faced away from the street, toward inner courtyards. On hot nights, people slept outdoors on the flat roofs of their homes. Oil lamps supplied light (and smoke).

15 Sumer How did the Sumerians practice their religion? They had temples called ziggurats. The ziggurat was a giant building of terraces linked by ramps and stairs. On top was a temple. The Sumerians believed that gods descended to Earth using the ziggurat as a stairway. Religious, social, and economic activities took place at the ziggurat.

16 Sumer How did the Sumerians practice their religion? The Sumerians worshipped many gods and goddesses **polytheism** Myths, or stories about gods that explain people’s beliefs, warned that the gods would punish people who angered them. Myths also promised rewards to people who served the gods well.

17 Sumer How did the Sumerians practice their religion? They honored their gods in ceremonies. Temple priests washed the statues of the gods before and after each ceremony. Musicians played and incense was burned. Huge plates of food were laid before the statues, to “feed” the gods. The food was often eaten after it was presented to the gods.

18 Sumer How did the Sumerians practice their religion? They also wrote and read poetry. For example: Behold the bond of Heaven and Earth, the city. Behold its well of good water. Behold its pure canal. -Sumerian poem Summary question: What do the religious practices of the Sumerians tell us about their values?

19 Warm-up for Tuesday, Oct. 14 Take out your homework and be ready to answer questions about it!

20 Partner Reading You and your partner will read the section and answer the questions at the end. Both of you must read aloud. Both of you must write the answers to the questions.

21 Warm-up for Wednesday, Oct. 15 Open your notebook to your answers to yesterday’s questions on the reading. You have 8 minutes from the bell to finish your answers solo.

22 Warm-up for Thursday, October 16 If you had a time machine and you could choose to live in just one of the civilizations we’ve studied so far, which one would you choose? Explain your reasons. STRIVE FOR FIVE!!


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