Presentation on theme: "THE HISTORY OF CLIMATE IMPACT ON THE BUILT HERITAGE C.M. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, I. Harris."— Presentation transcript:
THE HISTORY OF CLIMATE IMPACT ON THE BUILT HERITAGE C.M. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, I. Harris.
Millennial architecture Studies of the durability of building materials are limited to years/ decades “I am of the opinion, if violence does not happen, this fabrick will stand 1000 years” Restoration of Westminster Abbey Nicholas Hawksmoor Sta María del Naranco La Nueva España, Feb, 1937 Balancing types of damage: Climate change and reduction in pollution is likely to alter the balance of damage mechanisms to our heritage
Sharp phase boundaries Small changes in climate can show big effects – i.e. number of events. Climate Phase change and amplification Frost and salt crystallisation Phase transitions at precise thermo-hygrometric conditions
From pollution to climate: Climate is a factor of increasing importance In the weathering and management of buildings. Noah’s Ark. HERITAGE CLIMATOLOGIES: transform traditional meteorological parameters into those relevant to cultural heritage HadCM3 – maps - vulnerability atlas
Vulnerability atlas: F uture projections of potential damage Grossi et al (2007): Science of the Total Environment. Map: Ian Harris
Vulnerability atlas: Salt Crystallisation Transitions thenardite-mirabilite at P > 10 MPa Central England Czech Republic
Bonazza et al (in press) Surface recession
…lighter or darker is OK but not like that Blackening perception: Aesthetics Redistribution processes Desire for cleaning increases with the amount of soiling.
Evidence of warming of soot colour e.g. Tower of London Sulfation and iron oxidation Also likely to be oxidation of diesel soots – possibly both surface organic compounds and the carbon core Different biological growth Colour change Future yellowing?
Going to the pass Balancing climate and pollution “these soft kinds have the advantage that they can be easily worked…, but in open and exposed situations the frost and rime make them crumble…. On the seacoast, the salt eats away and dissolves them” De architectura 2:VII:2 VITRUVIUS Relative damage Thresholds - aesthetics Frost-salt-pollution
Climate input Millennium long damage to building materials in London P Brimblecombe (2008)
Millennium long damage to building materials in London Pollution input P Brimblecombe (2008)
Modelled recession KARST WET DRYμm/year PREDICTED P Brimblecombe (2008)
WESTMINSTER ABBEY "… you rather behold the skeleton of a church than any great comeliness in her appearance, being so shrivelled and parcht by the continual blasts of the northern winds, to which she stands exposed, as also the continual smoaks of the sea- coal which are of a corroding and fretting quality…". Keepe (1682)
Salt climatology Grossi et al. Stone 2008 London Norwich Rouen Caen Paris Prague Oviedo León Burgos Granada MeteoFrance T and RH data Rouen