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Section 2 The Hebrews. The Hebrews Hebrews are Israelites Greatest influence on the world…. Hebrews are Israelites Greatest influence on the world….

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2 The Hebrews. The Hebrews Hebrews are Israelites Greatest influence on the world…. Hebrews are Israelites Greatest influence on the world…."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 2 The Hebrews

2 The Hebrews Hebrews are Israelites Greatest influence on the world…. Hebrews are Israelites Greatest influence on the world….

3 Judaism

4 Early Hebrews Nomadic (wandering herders or traveling merchants) Lived in Ur (were artisans and merchants) Nomadic (wandering herders or traveling merchants) Lived in Ur (were artisans and merchants)

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6 Went to Haran – city near Turkish mountains – to trade Traveled Mediterranean coast to trade with Egyptian, Phoenician, and Cretan merchants Went to Haran – city near Turkish mountains – to trade Traveled Mediterranean coast to trade with Egyptian, Phoenician, and Cretan merchants

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8 The God of Abraham Story of Hebrews comes from the BibleStory of Hebrews comes from the Bible Yahweh (God) made an agreement (covenant) with AbrahamYahweh (God) made an agreement (covenant) with Abraham Story of Hebrews comes from the BibleStory of Hebrews comes from the Bible Yahweh (God) made an agreement (covenant) with AbrahamYahweh (God) made an agreement (covenant) with Abraham

9 Genesis 12:1 (NIV)Genesis 12:1 (NIV) Leave Ur and travel to CanaanLeave Ur and travel to Canaan Genesis 12:1 (NIV)Genesis 12:1 (NIV) Leave Ur and travel to CanaanLeave Ur and travel to Canaan

10 The Lord had said to Abram, “Leave your country, your people and your father’s household and go to a land I will show you.”

11 Abraham’s Journey to Heran

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13 Canaan Canaan was promised to Abraham and his descendants (offspring) Genesis 12:2 Canaan was promised to Abraham and his descendants (offspring) Genesis 12:2

14 “I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing.”

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16 Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world: Judaism, Christianity and Islam

17 “Father of many Nations”“Father of many Nations” Christians and Muslims also believe that Abraham is the Founder of their religionsChristians and Muslims also believe that Abraham is the Founder of their religions “Father of many Nations”“Father of many Nations” Christians and Muslims also believe that Abraham is the Founder of their religionsChristians and Muslims also believe that Abraham is the Founder of their religions Abraham

18 Timeline Birth of Abram (Abraham) in Ur 1813 B.C. Abram leaves Ur (75 yrs. old) 1743 B.C. Marries Sarai Goes to Egypt (famine)

19 Timeline Abram marries Hagar (Sarai’s maidservant) Birth of Ishmael (Hagar’s son)

20 Timeline Angels tell Abraham that Sarah will have a child Isaac is born; Sarah sends Hagar & Ishmael away 1713 B.C. God commands Abraham to sacrifice his son

21 Timeline Death of Sarah (127 yrs. old) 1677 B.C. Isaac marries Rebecca; Abraham marries Keturah (6 sons) Birth of Jacob and Esau 1653 B.C B.C. Abraham dies

22 Timeline Isaac blesses Jacob 1590 B.C. Joseph is born 1562 B.C.

23 Each son led a separate family group – became the 12 Hebrew tribes Abraham Isaac Jacob (called Israel) 12 sons (including Joseph)

24 Hebrews remained in Canaan about 100 years.

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40 Timeline Joseph Born 1562 B.C. Joseph sold into slavery Isaac dies; Joseph becomes Egypt’s viceroy B.C B.C. Jacob and family move to Egypt 1546 B.C.

41 Life of Joseph Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers; sent to EgyptJoseph was sold into slavery by his brothers; sent to Egypt He became very important in EgyptHe became very important in Egypt Drought struck CanaanDrought struck Canaan Jacob sent sons to buy foodJacob sent sons to buy food in Egypt in Egypt Egypt (“Breadbasket of the Mediterranean”)Egypt (“Breadbasket of the Mediterranean”) Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers; sent to EgyptJoseph was sold into slavery by his brothers; sent to Egypt He became very important in EgyptHe became very important in Egypt Drought struck CanaanDrought struck Canaan Jacob sent sons to buy foodJacob sent sons to buy food in Egypt in Egypt Egypt (“Breadbasket of the Mediterranean”)Egypt (“Breadbasket of the Mediterranean”)

42 Sons did not recognize JosephSons did not recognize Joseph Joseph eventually forgave brothers and sent for rest of familyJoseph eventually forgave brothers and sent for rest of family Hebrews now lived in EgyptHebrews now lived in Egypt Sons did not recognize JosephSons did not recognize Joseph Joseph eventually forgave brothers and sent for rest of familyJoseph eventually forgave brothers and sent for rest of family Hebrews now lived in EgyptHebrews now lived in Egypt

43 Hebrews in Egypt Eventually enslaved by Pharaoh 600 years in Egypt Eventually enslaved by Pharaoh 600 years in Egypt

44 Timeline Jacob dies 1523 B.C. Jacob dies 1452 B.C. Egypt begins enslaving the Hebrews 1429 B.C.

45 The Story of Moses

46 Enslavement of Hebrews (Israelites)

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58 The Plagues

59 1. Water to Blood 7:19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.

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61 2. Frogs 8:2 And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs:

62 3. Gnats or Lice 8:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

63 4. Flies 8:21 Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are.

64 5. Livestock Diseased 9:3 Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.

65 6. Boils 9:8 And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.

66 7. Thunder and Hail 9:18 Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now.

67 8. Locusts 10:4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:

68 9. Darkness 10:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.

69 10. Death of the Firstborn 11:4 And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:

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73 Timeline Moses born 1393 B.C. Moses encounters the burning bush 1314 B.C. Joshua Born The Exodus 1313 B.C.

74 The Exodus Moses came to end Hebrew enslavementMoses came to end Hebrew enslavement The escape of the Israelites from captivity in EgyptThe escape of the Israelites from captivity in Egypt Moses came to end Hebrew enslavementMoses came to end Hebrew enslavement The escape of the Israelites from captivity in EgyptThe escape of the Israelites from captivity in Egypt

75 After the Pharaoh agreed to free the Hebrews, they escaped into the Sinai DesertAfter the Pharaoh agreed to free the Hebrews, they escaped into the Sinai Desert At Mt. Sinai, Moses received the Ten Commandments from GodAt Mt. Sinai, Moses received the Ten Commandments from God God made a covenant (agreement) with theGod made a covenant (agreement) with the Hebrew people Hebrew people After the Pharaoh agreed to free the Hebrews, they escaped into the Sinai DesertAfter the Pharaoh agreed to free the Hebrews, they escaped into the Sinai Desert At Mt. Sinai, Moses received the Ten Commandments from GodAt Mt. Sinai, Moses received the Ten Commandments from God God made a covenant (agreement) with theGod made a covenant (agreement) with the Hebrew people Hebrew people

76 Hebrews were to remain faithful to God and obey certain laws and God would lead them back to Canaan – “The Promised Land”Hebrews were to remain faithful to God and obey certain laws and God would lead them back to Canaan – “The Promised Land” Hebrews were expected to give everyone the right to be treated fairly (social justice)Hebrews were expected to give everyone the right to be treated fairly (social justice) Hebrews were to remain faithful to God and obey certain laws and God would lead them back to Canaan – “The Promised Land”Hebrews were to remain faithful to God and obey certain laws and God would lead them back to Canaan – “The Promised Land” Hebrews were expected to give everyone the right to be treated fairly (social justice)Hebrews were expected to give everyone the right to be treated fairly (social justice)

77 Moses led Hebrews through wilderness for 40 yearsMoses led Hebrews through wilderness for 40 years Moses died before the Hebrews reached Canaan.Moses died before the Hebrews reached Canaan. Moses led Hebrews through wilderness for 40 yearsMoses led Hebrews through wilderness for 40 years Moses died before the Hebrews reached Canaan.Moses died before the Hebrews reached Canaan.

78 Timeline Moses receives the Ten Commandments 1312 B.C. Moses dies; Joshua leads Hebrews into Canaan 1272 B.C. Wilderness – 40 years The Exodus 1313 B.C.

79 “The Promise Land”

80 “The Promised Land” CanaanCanaan Joshua became leader and brought the Hebrews into the “Promised Land”Joshua became leader and brought the Hebrews into the “Promised Land” By 1200 B.C., the Israelites controlled CanaanBy 1200 B.C., the Israelites controlled Canaan CanaanCanaan Joshua became leader and brought the Hebrews into the “Promised Land”Joshua became leader and brought the Hebrews into the “Promised Land” By 1200 B.C., the Israelites controlled CanaanBy 1200 B.C., the Israelites controlled Canaan

81 Hebrews in the “Promised Land” Borrowed ideas from the Canaanites: tools and alphabetBorrowed ideas from the Canaanites: tools and alphabet Lived one room houses, made of mud-bricks or stone plaster with mud, thatched roofLived one room houses, made of mud-bricks or stone plaster with mud, thatched roof Borrowed ideas from the Canaanites: tools and alphabetBorrowed ideas from the Canaanites: tools and alphabet Lived one room houses, made of mud-bricks or stone plaster with mud, thatched roofLived one room houses, made of mud-bricks or stone plaster with mud, thatched roof

82 Who will lead the people? After Joshua died, the 12 Tribes will split Each tribe will be led by a council of elders Judges settled disputes and led in times of crisis ( B.C. After Joshua died, the 12 Tribes will split Each tribe will be led by a council of elders Judges settled disputes and led in times of crisis ( B.C.

83 Do they need a king?

84 KingsKings Kings ruled for the next 100 yearsKings ruled for the next 100 years Saul became the first kingSaul became the first king Kings ruled for the next 100 yearsKings ruled for the next 100 years Saul became the first kingSaul became the first king

85 Saul Lost support of his people Died in battle Lost support of his people Died in battle

86 King David Reunited the HebrewsReunited the Hebrews Defeated the CanaanitesDefeated the Canaanites Established Jerusalem as the capital in 1000 B.C.Established Jerusalem as the capital in 1000 B.C. Wrote many psalms (songs and poems) in the BibleWrote many psalms (songs and poems) in the Bible Reunited the HebrewsReunited the Hebrews Defeated the CanaanitesDefeated the Canaanites Established Jerusalem as the capital in 1000 B.C.Established Jerusalem as the capital in 1000 B.C. Wrote many psalms (songs and poems) in the BibleWrote many psalms (songs and poems) in the Bible

87 King Solomon Brought peace to the kingdomBrought peace to the kingdom Build the temple in JerusalemBuild the temple in Jerusalem Many Hebrews were unhappy with Solomon because of working on building projects and high taxesMany Hebrews were unhappy with Solomon because of working on building projects and high taxes Brought peace to the kingdomBrought peace to the kingdom Build the temple in JerusalemBuild the temple in Jerusalem Many Hebrews were unhappy with Solomon because of working on building projects and high taxesMany Hebrews were unhappy with Solomon because of working on building projects and high taxes

88 Solomon eventually dies!

89 After Solomon’s Death… The Hebrew kingdom split into two kingdoms 10 tribes split to the north to form Israel 2 tribes (Benjamin & Judah) formed Judah to the south Fought for 200 years Became weak for conquerors

90 Timeline Judges Rule B.C. Saul becomes king 879 B.C. David becomes king 877 B.C. 836 B.C. Solomon becomes king

91 Timeline Temple Built B.C. Kingdoms Split 796 B.C.

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93 ProphetsProphets Persons claiming to have a message from GodPersons claiming to have a message from God Reminded the Hebrews of their responsibilities and duties to God and one anotherReminded the Hebrews of their responsibilities and duties to God and one another Persons claiming to have a message from GodPersons claiming to have a message from God Reminded the Hebrews of their responsibilities and duties to God and one anotherReminded the Hebrews of their responsibilities and duties to God and one another

94 Prophets also… warned Yahweh would punish them if they didn’t return to His wayswarned Yahweh would punish them if they didn’t return to His ways were teachers, farmers, shepherdswere teachers, farmers, shepherds warned Yahweh would punish them if they didn’t return to His wayswarned Yahweh would punish them if they didn’t return to His ways were teachers, farmers, shepherdswere teachers, farmers, shepherds

95 What happened to the Israelites? Prophets foretold they would be conquered!

96 Assyrian Rule 722 B.C. Assyrians conquered Israel Cruel did not invade Judah to south 722 B.C. Assyrians conquered Israel Cruel did not invade Judah to south

97 Babylonian Rule 586 B.C. Judeans were forced to move to Babylonia (exiled) Destroyed the temple 586 B.C. Judeans were forced to move to Babylonia (exiled) Destroyed the temple

98 Timeline Assyria Rules 722 B.C. Babylonia Rules 586 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon conquers Judea 510 B.C. 492 B.C. Temple in Jerusalem is destroyed

99 The Sabbath Because they had no temple, they held meeting on Sabbath “Day of Rest” Because they had no temple, they held meeting on Sabbath “Day of Rest”

100 The Torah put laws, sayings, teachings, stories of the past on scrollsput laws, sayings, teachings, stories of the past on scrolls Ezra, a scribe, wrote down the Laws of Moses in the Torah (first five books of the Old Testament)Ezra, a scribe, wrote down the Laws of Moses in the Torah (first five books of the Old Testament) put laws, sayings, teachings, stories of the past on scrollsput laws, sayings, teachings, stories of the past on scrolls Ezra, a scribe, wrote down the Laws of Moses in the Torah (first five books of the Old Testament)Ezra, a scribe, wrote down the Laws of Moses in the Torah (first five books of the Old Testament)

101 Timeline Persians Rule 539 B.C. 2 nd Temple Built 516 B.C. 2 nd Temple destroyed by Romans (Titus) A.D B.C. Alexander / Greeks Rule

102 Persian Rule 539 B.C. mild rulers allowed Jews to return to their homeland allowed Jews to rebuild the temple 539 B.C. mild rulers allowed Jews to return to their homeland allowed Jews to rebuild the temple

103 Roman Rule Date Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70 and never rebuilt Date Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70 and never rebuilt

104 Major Contributions Judaism – first religion to worship one God God is just and all people should be treated fairly Influenced Christianity and Islam Judaism – first religion to worship one God God is just and all people should be treated fairly Influenced Christianity and Islam

105 Why is there so much controversy in Israel? Especially Jerusalem?

106 Timeline Alexander Dies 322 B.C. Ruled by Egyptian Ptolemies B.C. Rule of the Syrian Seleucids (169 B.C. – Judaism is outlawed) B.C B.C. Maccabean Revolt & Rule

107 Timeline Pompey captures Jerusalem (Roman) 63 B.C. Rome appoints King Herod 40-4 B.C. Jesus is Born 6-3 B.C. 26 B.C. – A.D. 36 Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea

108 Timeline Jesus Crucified A.D. 31ish Jews revolt against Rome: The Great Revolt A.D Temple Destroyed A.D. 70 A.D. 73 Fall of Masada

109 Timeline Bar Kochba's war of freedom - Jerusalem again the Jewish Capital A.D Hadrian (Rome): Expels the Jews from Jerusalem A.D. 135 Queen Helena - Church of the Holy Sepulchre A.D. 326 A.D. 438 Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem

110 Timeline Persian conquest of Jerusalem — They destroy most churches and expel Jews A.D. 614 Jerusalem recaptured by Byzantines A.D. 629 Muhammad born A.D. 579 A.D. 610 Muhammad’s vision

111 Timeline Muhammad dies A.D. 632 Caliph Omar enters Jerusalem and Jews are readmitted to Jerusalem A.D. 638 Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik A.D. 691 A.D. 701 The construction of the al-Aqsa mosque completed by Caliph al-Walid

112 Timeline Caliph al-Hakim orders destruction of synagogues and churches A.D Crusaders, led by Godfrey de Bouillon A.D Kurdish general Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders (Jews and Muslims return) A.D A.D Richard the Lion Heart attempts to re-capture Jerusalem but fails. Treaty with Saladin permitting Christians to worship at their Holy sites

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114 Jerusalem Holy city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims Political and religious struggle Controlled by Israel (1967) Holy city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims Political and religious struggle Controlled by Israel (1967)

115 Holy to Jews Within “Promised Land” Site of Solomon’s Temple (destroyed by Babylonians and Romans) Within “Promised Land” Site of Solomon’s Temple (destroyed by Babylonians and Romans)

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119 Holy to Muslims Site of Solomon’s Temple Grey rock – holiest place in Jerusalem Believed Muhammad ascended from rock into paradise on a ladder of light Site of Solomon’s Temple Grey rock – holiest place in Jerusalem Believed Muhammad ascended from rock into paradise on a ladder of light

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124 Holy to Christians Site of Solomon’s Temple Church of Holy Sepulchre (site where Jesus was crucified and location of tomb) Site of Solomon’s Temple Church of Holy Sepulchre (site where Jesus was crucified and location of tomb)

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129 The Garden Tomb The Talpiot Tomb

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