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1 Apostasy. 2 3... I will build my church. Matthew 16:18.

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1 1 Apostasy

2 2

3 3... I will build my church. Matthew 16:18

4 Let no man deceive you by any means; for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition. 2 Thessalonians 2:3 “Falling away” is derived from the Greek term “apostasia,” which means “defection, departure, revolt, to depart from.” 4

5 Modern definition of “Apostasy”: 1 renunciation of a religious faith, 2 abandonment of a previous loyalty: defection. Merriam-Webster Dictionary 5

6 Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. 2 John 1:9 6

7 I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel. Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. Galatians 1:6-7 7

8 8 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord... Matthew 21:9

9 9 This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me... This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. Luke 22:19-20 I tell you the truth, one of you will betray me. Matthew 26:21

10 10 My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death... And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt. Matthew 26:38-39

11 11... Behold, he is at hand that doth betray me. And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with a great multitude with swords and staves.... he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master: and kissed him. Matthew 26:46-49

12 12 And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes... And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death... Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, I am... And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands. Luke 14:53, 55, 61-62,65

13 13 And they cried out again, Crucify him. Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him. And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified. Mark 15:13-15

14 14 And so Pilate... had scourged him Mark 15:15

15 15 And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium... And they clothed him with purple, and plaited a crown of thorns, and put it about his head, and began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews! And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshiped him. And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him. Mark 15:16-20

16 16 And they took Jesus, and led him away. And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha... John 19:16-18

17 17 And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. Mark 15:25 And when they were come to the place which is called Calvary, there they crucified him... Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. Luke 23:33-34

18 18 They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall... And they crucified him, and parted his garments... Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left. And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads... Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others; himself he cannot save... Matthew 27:34-42

19 19 Father, into thy hands I commend my Spirit. Luke 23:46

20 20 Jesus is the Only Person Who Ever Conquered Death... he is risen, as he said. Matthew 28:6

21 21... I will not believe... Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands: and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing. And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. John 20:25, 27-28

22 22 The Great Commission Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe whatsoever I have commanded you, and lo, I am with you always, unto the end of the world. Matthew 28:18-20

23 23 Jesus Ascended to Heaven And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And they worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Luke 24:50-53 Jesus Ascended to Heaven And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. And they worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Luke 24:50-53

24 24 Day of Pentecost And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues... the multitude came together and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. Acts 2:2-4

25 The Needs of All Were Met And they continued steadfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles. And all that believed were together, and had all things common, and sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need. Acts 2:

26 The Power of God’s Spirit Was So Strong That They Were Willing to Sacrifice Everything Neither was there any among them that lacked: for as many as were possessors of lands or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things that were sold, and laid them down at the apostles’ feet: and distribution was made unto every man according as he had need. Acts 4:

27 Therefore night shall be unto you, that ye shall not have a vision; and it shall be dark unto you, that ye shall not divine; and the sun shall go down over the prophets, and the day shall be dark over them. Then shall the seers be ashamed, and the diviners confounded; yea, they shall all cover their lips; for there is no answer of God. Micah 3:6-7 27

28 And they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. Amos 8:11-12 WILL WORK FOR SPIRITUAL FOOD Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord; 28

29 For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears. And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. 2 Timothy 4:3-4 29

30 That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled by letter, except ye receive it from us; neither by spirit, nor by word, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means; for there shall come a falling away first... 2 Thessalonians 2:2-3 30

31 For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them. Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years I ceased not to warn everyone night and day with tears. Acts 20:

32 WHAT BECAME OF THE CHURCH THAT CHRIST BUILT? 32

33 John Wesley ( ), co-founder of the Methodist movement: It does not appear, that these extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost were common in the church for more than two or three centuries. We seldom hear of them after that fatal period, when the emperor Constantine called himself a Christian... From this time they almost totally ceased: very few instances of the kind were found. The cause of this was not, (as has been vulgarly supposed,) “because there was no more occasion for them,” because all the world was become Christians.(continued) 33

34 Wesley (continued): This is a miserable mistake: not a twentieth part of it [the world] was then nominally Christians. The real cause was, “the love of many,” almost of all Christians, so called, was “waxed cold.” The Christians had no more of the Spirit of Christ, than the other heathens. The Son of Man, when he came to examine his church, could hardly “find faith upon the earth.” This was the real cause, why extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost were no longer to be found in the Christian church; because the Christians were turned heathens again, and had only a dead form left. John M. Wesley, Sermons on Several Occasions, Vol. 2 (New York: J. Emory and B. Waugh, 1830),

35 Johann von Mosheim ( ), German Lutheran church historian and chancellor of Gottingen University: During this [seventh] century true religion lay buried under a senseless mass of superstitions, and was unable to raise her head. The earlier Christians had worshiped only God and His Son; but those called Christians in this century worshiped the wood of a cross, the images of holy men, and bones of dubious origin. Johann Lorenz Mosheim, Mosheim’s Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern, Fifth Edition (London: Willam Tegg, 1867),

36 Martin Luther ( ), launched the Protestant Reformation and Lutheran Church: In 1517, Martin Luther, a Catholic priest, nailed 95 criticisms of the church to the door of the Castle church in Wittenburg, Germany. At that time, the Catholic church was the only existing Christian church in Europe. If you wanted to get to heaven, it would have to be through papal authority. Initially, Luther wanted to reform the Catholic church, but after the Diet [Council] of Worms, Germany in 1521, he saw that he would have to separate from Catholicism. 36

37 Roger Williams ( ), advocate for religious freedom and founder of the first Baptist church in America: What would it take to leap the whole way, into perfect and pure congruence with the ancient pattern? It would take, Williams reluctantly concluded, more than mere mortals by themselves could ever achieve... But how, sixteen hundred years later, could such a church be formed? The doctrine of apostolic succession might seem to be the answer; that the authority and commission of Christ had been transmitted, generation by generation, from his own time to the present. But that would mean that a wholly false church... could in its impurity faithfully preserve and rightly pass on a wholly pure power. And that made no sense at all. (continued) 37

38 Roger Williams (continued): After Constantine, a true ministry no longer existed, and none but God could now bring it back. Williams did not come to this position easily, nor did he find it easy to persuade others that recreating the true church of Christ was a vain pursuit – apart from direct divine intervention. Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),

39 Roger Williams: He seems rather to have conceived that the church of Christ had so fallen into apostasy, as to have lost both its right form and the due administration of the ordinances, which could only be restored by some new apostolic, or specially commissioned messenger from above... He conceived “that the. apostasy of anti-Christ hath so far corrupted all, that there can be no recovery out of that apostasy, till Christ shall send forth new apostles to plant churches anew. Edward B. Underhill, Struggles and Triumphs of Religious Liberty (New York: Edward Colby, 1851),

40 Roger Williams: On his return from England he [Roger Williams] refrained from fellowship with the Church [the Baptist church in Providence that he founded], and lived in an isolated religious condition, preaching the gospel to the Indians, as he found opportunity, but refusing to participate in the ordinances. He had embraced a singular notion, which is thus stated by one of his biographers: “He denied that any ministry now exists, which is authorized to preach the gospel to the impenitent, or to administer the ordinances.” John Mockett Cramp, Baptist History: Foundation of the Christian Church to the Close of the Eighteenth Century (London: Elliot Stock, 1868),

41 Almighty God of love, Set up the attracting sign, And summon whom thou dost approve, For messengers divine. From favored Abraham's seed The new apostles choose, In isles and continents to spread The soul-reviving news. Charles Wesley 41

42 Alexander Campbell ( ) was a major force in the “American Restoration” movement. He tried to avoid denominational labels. With his father and Barton Stone, he started what eventually came to called the Disciples of Christ or Churches of Christ: We argue that all Christian sects are more or less apostatized from the institutions of the Savior: that by all of the obligations of the Christian religion, they that fear and love the Lord are bound to return to the ancient order of things, in spirit and truth. Alexander Campbell, The Christian Baptist, Volume 5 (Bethany, VA: A. Campbell, 1827),

43 In 1830, Alexander Campbell severed ties with the Baptist Church and ceased publication of the Christian Baptist monthly. He began a new monthly publication called the Millennial Harbinger, in which he said: We have to pattern after the first church as well as we can. But we can never equal it. With all our efforts, the great disparity will ever remain. And could The Apostles and primitive Christians be here, they would doubtless weep at beholding it. Alexander Campbell, Millennial Harbinger: A Monthly Publication Devoted to Primitive Christianity, Vol. 5 (Bethany, VA: A. Campbell, ),40. 43

44 44

45 I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel. Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. Galatians 1:6-7 45

46 Alexander Campbell: The day of light, so illustrious in its beginning, became cloudy... By the Reformation of the seventeenth century that dark cloud was broken in fragments; and though the heavens of gospel light are still obscured by many clouds – the sects of various names – the promise is that “at even-time it shall be light.” The primitive gospel in its effulgence and power, is yet to shine out in its original splendor to regenerate the world. A.S. Hayden, Early History of the Disciples in the Western Reserve, Ohio (Cincinnati: Chase & Hall, 1875)

47 Alexander Campbell: Besides, do not the experience of all the religious – the observation of the intelligent – the practical result of all creeds, reformations and improvements – and the expectations, and longings of society, warrant the conclusion that either some new revelation, or some new development of the revelation of God, must be made, before the hopes and expectations of all true Christians can be realized, or Christianity save and reform the nations of this world? We want the old gospel back, and sustained by the ancient order of things; and this alone by the blessing of the Divine Spirit, is all that we do want, or can expect, to reform and save the world. Alexander Campbell, The Christian System: In Reference to the Union of Christians and a Restoration of Primitive Christianity (Pittsburg: Forrester & Campbell,1839),

48 John Wesley: What could God have done which He hath not done, to convince you that the day is coming, that the time is at hand, when He will fulfill His glorious promises; when He will arise and maintain His own cause, and to set up His Kingdom over all the earth? John M. Wesley, Sermons on Several Occasions, Vol. 2 (New York: B. Waugh & T. Mason, 1830),

49 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them... they shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain... And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left... And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. Isaiah 11:6, 9,

50 Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people; but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. Isaiah 60:1-2 50

51 51 Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock. And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house: and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. Matthew 7:26-27

52 52 Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me. Revelation 3:20

53 53

54 APPENDIX 54

55 Roger Williams 55

56 One member baptized [Roger] Williams, who in turn baptized all the others. About twenty persons joined in the creation of this, the first church of Baptist identification not only in Rhode Island but in all of North America as well... For Williams, who wrote of the “restless unsatisfiedness of my soul,” found no enduring peace, not even in the church molded by his own hands. What authority did he have to be baptized or to baptize others? What line of apostolic continuity could be traced to that score of Bible believers who agreed to worship together? What biblical commission or divine command set this church apart or perhaps even above all others? Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),

57 In writing to John Winthrop as early as 1636, Williams bemoaned the spiritual nakedness of New England’s churches but added the hope that within a few years the Lord would reveal “the first and most ancient path” more plainly “to you and me.” More than a dozen years later, in a letter to Winthrop’s son, Williams indicated that he found no churches organized “after the first pattern”... His growing unease about the nature of all man-made (as opposed to Christ-created) churches led to his departure from the Providence church after only a few months of fellowship in that congregation’s midst. Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),

58 In four ways, he wrote, the modern ministry fell short of its New Testament pattern: in gifts, in calling, in work, and in wages. With respect to the first, Williams argued that the greatest gift of all was missing – namely, an apostolic commission, a discipleship like that enjoyed by those whom Jesus appointed. A simple proof of this lack was that present leaders could not even agree on such matters as the proper baptism or the ceremony of laying on of hands for ordination or even church membership. Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),

59 But it was the fourth point that attracted Williams’ chief attention: the matter of wages, and more particularly of wages paid by means of a forced tithe collected by the civil power. The ministry was a calling, not a trade, Williams argued... He who haggles over his wages, who bargains for his keep, who “makes the cure of Souls, and the charge of men’s eternal welfare, a trade, a maintenance, and living” was never sent of God to be a laborer in his vineyard. Like servants hired by the year, today’s clergy leave one parish for another the minute they hear offers “of more Ease and better wages.” Indeed, they even leave one religion for another... in order to keep their comfort and their salary. Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),

60 We also learn from Williams in 1649 that the Baptists not only persisted in rejecting infant baptism but came to require that adult believers be fully immersed. Not content with sprinkling, as was the case with infants, Baptists now wanted all members “dipped,” symbolically buried with Christ in baptism and raised with him into a new life. “I believe,” Williams wrote, that this baptism “comes nearer the practice of our great Founder, Christ Jesus, than other religions do, and yet...” For Williams, always that “and yet.” His qualification pertained, of course, to his conviction that until Christ came again and created new apostles, all church ordinances lacked full validity. Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991),

61 61

62 Examples of Doctrinal Error 62

63 63 The Rock of the Revelation of Jesus Christ Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God... Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven... Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. Matthew 16:16-18

64 What was the rock that Christ built his church upon? The Restored Gospel tells us that the “rock” was “the revelation of Jesus Christ.” Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches believe that the rock was simply “Christ” himself. However, Peter was “blessed” because God revealed Jesus’ identity directly to Peter. 2.Some teach that “Peter” was the rock pointing to a succession of authority through the centuries. There isn’t sufficient evidence to establish that Peter was ever a Bishop in Rome or that he chose Clement as his successor. It is the revelation of Jesus Christ that undergirds his church. 64

65 “What does it mean to say “the gates of hell shall not prevail against” Christ’s church? Restoration View: Ultimately, Christ’s church will be victorious. Every knee will bow and every tongue confess. However, the spiritual battle will swing back and forth between good and evil until that final victory. Catholic View: Catholicism suggests that there has been a pattern of continuous, uninterrupted papal succession from Peter assuming leadership of the church in Rome until today. However, there is no evidence, certainly not in scripture, that Peter ever led the church in Rome or ever chose Clement as his successor. In fact, the last mention of Peter is in Acts 15 regarding the Council in Jerusalem, but nothing about activities in Rome. Even his epistles, 1 Peter and 2 Peter, do not mention Rome. 65

66 “What does it mean to say “the gates of hell shall not prevail against” Christ’s church? Protestant View: The Reformation maintains that the Catholic church successfully carried the gospel ball for centuries and then made a hand-off to Protestantism. But Roger Williams said that, if the Catholic church was truly in apostasy by the 1500s, this idea “made no sense at all.” Secondly, Protestants rail against the system of papacy and priesthoods found in the Catholic church. Are they really saying that ministerial priesthoods of the Catholic church were acceptable for 1500 years, but when the Reformation occurred, God changed his mind about church governance and instituted a new “priesthood of all believers”? This also makes no sense. 66

67 67 For behold, the time cometh, and is not far distant, that with power, the Lord Omnipotent who reigneth, who was, and is from all eternity to all eternity, shall come down from heaven, among the children of men, and shall dwell in a tabernacle of clay. Mosiah 1:97 Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but he revealeth the secret unto is servants the prophets. Amos 3:7

68 Does God still want to reveal his will to man as he has in times past? The Restored Gospel affirms “continuing modern revelation.” Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches believe that, based on passages such as Revelation 20:12, the canon of scripture is closed, and that the Bible is all the revelation believers will ever need. Nothing about this passage precludes further revelatory insight (See Deuteronomy 4:2). 2.Some churches teach that the gifts, including the gift of prophecy, all ceased centuries ago. But if the gifts cease, then any ministry we can hope to offer is empty and meaningless. 68

69 69 Paul Was Highly Educated, But He Was Taught the Gospel by Revelation But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ. Galatians 1:11-12

70 What about ministerial offices in Christ’s church? Christ’s restored church affirms a lay ministry with many different offices and functions to serve the many needs of the body of Christ. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches assert that a “priesthood of all believers” replaced ministerial functions at the cross. However, the New Testament makes it clear that there were functions exclusive to the ministers of Christ’s church. 2.Some churches claim a continuous succession of ministerial authority from the New Testament church down to the present day. Succession is important, however, ministerial authority is validated by the fruit that is borne, the Spirit that accompanies such ministry, and how aligned those ministers are with the teachings of Jesus. 70

71 71 Ministerial Authority And they were astonished at his doctrine; for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes. Mark 1:22

72 Helps and Governments In the New Testament church, 1 Corinthians 12 tells us that God provided “helps and governments,” such as ministers and spiritual gifts, to bless his people: And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. 1 Corinthians 12:28 72

73 73 And no man taketh this honor unto himself, but he that is called of God as was Aaron. Hebrews 5:4

74 What about ministerial offices in Christ’s church? Christ’s restored church calls ministers to serve in keeping with Hebrews 5:4 and ordains ministers in keeping with passages like Acts 6:6 and Acts 13:2-3. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.In some churches, an individual merely “feels” a call and enrolls in seminary training. However, Exodus 28:1 says that Aaron was called by Moses, one in spiritual authority. 2.Some churches believe that ordaining is indistinguishable from calling and that both terms are strictly limited to the meaning “to appoint,” and nothing more. However, John 15:16 makes clear that calling and ordaining are two separate functions. The laying on of hands is how power was conveyed to Timothy, to the disciples, and to the seven men designated for ministerial service in Acts 6. 74

75 Apostles and Prophets Some churches believe that: apostles ceased to exist after the first century, and prophets were no longer needed to reveal the mind and will of God to his people in the form of scriptural guidance. However, Ephesians 4:11-13 makes it clear that apostles, prophets and other ministers should continue to function in Christ’s church. 75

76 Are apostles and prophets still needed? Christ’s restored church can achieve its greatest spiritual potential when the offices of apostle and prophet are fully functioning in his church. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches believe that the office of apostle or even prophet ended in the first century or in an “apostolic period.” However, Ephesians 4:11-13 tells us that these two offices will continue until we reach “the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ.” So they are still needed. 2.Some churches claim that the roles of apostle and prophet have continued until our day, just in a different form and with different titles. We do not see these functions being fulfilled by other churches in the same manner that the New Testament church experienced. 76

77 Ephesians 4:11-13 Ministerial Offices “And he gave some, apostles; and some prophets; and some, evangelists; and some pastors and teachers;” What is their Purpose? “For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ;” How long will they remain in the Christ’s Church? “Till we: 1.in the unity of the faith, 2.all come to the knowledge of the Son of God, 3.unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ.” 77

78 78 Holy Ordinances Holy ordinances, that follow the pattern given in the New Testament church, provide a blessing to God’s people and a means for us to align our lives with the will of God. God’s ministers are given the responsibility to bring holy ordinances to the body of Christ, such as: Water Baptism Baptism of the Holy Spirit Communion Administration to the Sick Marriage Blessing Children Ordaining Ministers Patriarchal Blessing

79 Are apostles and prophets still needed? Christ’s restored gospel specifies how holy ordinances should be administered. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.For baptism, some churches pour or sprinkle. But this does not represent the death and resurrection of Jesus as baptism should (Romans 6:4-5). 2.Some churches teach that there is no need for laying on hands to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. However, Acts 8:12-17 tells us there were believers who did not receive this gift until there was a laying on of hands. 3.Regarding communion, some churches teach that the bread or wafer are literally transformed into the body of Jesus. However, the power of this ordinance resides in a changed life, not what happens to the emblems that are served. 79

80 80 I am the bread of life... Then said Jesus unto them, Verily, verily I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life... He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. John 6:48, 53, 54, 56 Holy Ordinances

81 The Doctrine of Christ Therefore [not] leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of: repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God. of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of the resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. Hebrews 6:1-2 (IV ) 81

82 What is repentance? Christ’s restored gospel teaches that true repentance will bear fruit in the life of the believer. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches believe that the concept of repentance is strictly limited to being a “change of mind” about who Christ is, and nothing more. However, repentance is more than simply a change of mind. Acts 3:26 tells us that repentance involves “turning away” from sin. 2.Some churches teach that we are saved by faith alone and that repentance is indistinguishable from faith. However, repentance is a separate concept that is also necessary for salvation, and according to Luke 3:8 repentance must bear fruit in the life of the believer. 82

83 83 19 Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out turning away every one of you from his iniquities. Acts 3:19 & 26 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance. Luke 3:8 Repentance

84 Behold, he sendeth an invitation unto all men; for the arms of mercy are extended toward them, and he saith, Repent, and I will receive you. Alma 3:57 84 Repentance

85 What is faith? Christ’s restored gospel teaches that we are saved by faith, but a true faith must bear fruit in the life of the believer. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches teach that faith is merely an intellectual understanding that Jesus is Lord and that he died for my sins. But Galatians 5:6 talks about “faith which worketh by love” is what has the power to truly change lives. 2.Some churches teach that we can simply believe and never have to act on our faith. However, Matthew 14: makes it clear that faith is a principle of action as well. Peter had to act on his faith and step out of the boat to go to Jesus. 85

86 86 For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love. Galatians 5:6 And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea... And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. Matthew 14:25, Faith

87 What are baptisms, and do they save? Christ’s restored gospel teaches that we are saved when we bring a faithful and repentant heart to the holy ordinance of baptism and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Examples of doctrinal error: 1.Some churches teach that baptism is a work that has nothing to do with salvation. However, a person who has a true faith, when presented with the opportunity to be baptized, will do so. In Acts 22:16, Ananias instructed Saul to be baptized and wash away his sins. 2.Some churches teach that laying on hands has nothing to do with receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit, but in Acts 2:37- 38, Acts 8:12-17 and Acts 19:1-6 we are told of believers who did not receive the gift of the Holy Spirit until there was a laying on of hands. 87

88 Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do? Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Acts 2:37-38 And now why tarriest thou? Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord. Acts 22:16 Baptism 88

89 INFANT BAPTISM If the person being baptized is unable to make a conscious decision to serve Jesus Christ, baptism has no value; it is an empty and meaningless act. Rationale to baptize infants: “It removes both the guilt and the punishment due to Original Sin, delaying baptism until a child can understand the sacrament may put the child's salvation in danger, should he die unbaptized.”... I know that it is solemn mockery before God, that ye should baptize little children... Behold, baptism is unto repentance to the fulfilling the commandments unto the remission of sins. But little children are alive in Christ... For awful is the wickedness to suppose that God saveth one child because of baptism, and the other must perish because he hath no baptism... And he that saith that little children need baptism, denieth the mercies of Christ... Moroni 8:

90 THE NEED TO RESTORE CHRIST’S CHURCH There was an urgent need to restore, and not simply reform, Christ’s church in light of doctrinal error that had developed over the centuries. Any attempt to restore his church would include doctrines, gifts of the Spirit, holy ordinances and ministerial offices that adhere more closely to the pattern found in the New Testament. 90

91 91

92 Doctrinal Error in Catholicism 92

93 PAPAL INFALLIBILITY This is a dogma of the Catholic church that says when the pope speaks “ex cathedra” (i.e., when he speaks about doctrine or morals in the discharge of his duties as pastor over all Christians), the supernatural assistance of the Holy Spirit will prevent him from making any mistakes. The book Catholic Dogma says, “The Pope is judged by nobody.” The supreme teacher is unilaterally responsible to have jurisdiction over all matters of church life. So the pope is supposed to be infallible when he speaks ex cathedra. The idea of papal infallibility had existed for centuries. It became the majority view of Catholics during the Counter- Reformation ( ) in reaction to dissension caused by Reformers. However, it did not become official doctrine until the First Vatican Council of

94 “THE GATES OF HELL SHALL NOT PREVAIL” And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.Matthew 16:18 The phrase “and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it” is often used by Catholics to suggest that Christ’s church will remain intact without interruption throughout history. They point to, what they believe to be, a continuous succession of the church down through the centuries until our day. 94

95 “THE GATES OF HELL SHALL NOT PREVAIL” It is true that “the gates of hell shall not prevail against” Christ’s church. But it is misleading to infer that there will never be an apostasy and therefore no need for a restoration of Christ’s gospel. Christ leaves people’s free will intact, and the battle between good and evil continues. Just like the score in a football game, the lead can potentially swing back and forth, but we know who will ultimately win the struggle. The Lord Jesus and his church will be victorious. He will conquer his enemies. All of creation will submit to his will. Eventually, every knee will bow and every tongue will confess that he is Lord. In this sense, the gates of hell shall not prevail against his church. 95

96 PAPAL SUCCESSION This is the idea that there was an unbroken chain of papal succession from Peter in Rome until today. However, there is no record in scripture of Peter ever assuming leadership of the church in Rome. Peter’s activities are described in Acts 15, and then that is it -- nothing about passing his leadership to Clement. In fact there were time periods when there was no Bishop of Rome at all: the years 304 to 308, , , , , , and For hundreds of years, five episcopal sees of the Roman empire, each one with their own bishop, battled over who would be victorious. That issue was not settled until Rome became dominant under Gregory the Great (Bishop in Rome from 590 to 604 AD). At that point, to justify Rome’s pre-eminent position, a myth was constructed about Peter leading the church in Rome and continuous succession down through the centuries. 96

97 SEVEN SACRAMENTS Baptism: Catholics say, “Infant baptism removes both the guilt and the punishment due to Original Sin.” However, this is not true; unbaptized infants will not go to hell. Confirmation: Around the age of twelve, a bishop or priest can anoint a member to consecrate and empower them for service to God. However, Acts 8 indicates that the gift of the Holy Spirit should be conferred soon after water baptism. Eucharist: The communion or Mass involves ingesting the Real Presence of Jesus (i.e., literal body and blood of Christ). However, this is not true, the bread and wine should be merely symbolic of Christ’s body and blood. Penance (Confession): Members allegedly atone for their sins by performing an act or paying a price. Sacraments also include Matrimony, Anointing the Sick and Holy Orders (i.e. ministerial ordination). 97

98 PRIESTS’ ROLE IN TRANSUBSTANTIATION The book Catholic Dogma states, “When the priest announces the tremendous words of consecration at the Mass, he reaches up into the heavens, he brings Christ down from His throne and places Him upon our altar to be offered up again as the victim for the sins of man. It is a power greater than that of saints and angels, greater than that of seraphim and cherubim." At the Mass or Eucharist, bread and wine are placed on the altar, and through a supernatural power greater than the angels, the priest raises his arms, allegedly to enact a miracle every time that Mass occurs (i.e., change the water and wine into the literal body and blood of Christ). This is called transubstantiation. One conclusion from the Council of Trent in 1546 was that even the bread and wine are therefore worthy of worship. Also, Mass can supposedly be conducted to atone for the sins of the dead as well. With upraised arms, the priest is able to transform bread and wine into the literal body and blood of Christ. However, the power of this ordinance resides in a changed life, not what happens to the bread that is served. What about Jesus saying, “This is my body, and this is my blood?” 98

99 CELIBACY OF CLERGY Celibacy had been practiced for centuries, but in 1079, Pope Gregory VII made it an official doctrine and began to rigorously enforce celibacy as an obligation of Roman clergy. The problem with this unscriptural requirement is described in 1 Corinthians 7:9: “It is better to marry than to burn.” In other words, it is better to marry than to have lust burn in the heart of the believer. The rationale for the celibacy requirement is supposedly Matthew 19:12, which talks about voluntarily being a eunuch for the kingdom’s sake. The celibacy requirement has contributed to the large number of sexual scandals that have rained down in torrents upon the Catholic church in recent decades. 1 Timothy 4:1-3 says, “Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith... speaking lies in hypocrisy... forbidding to marry... 99

100 PURGATORY In 1439, the Council of Florence made the concept of Purgatory official dogma of the Catholic church. Prayers had been offered for the dead for centuries, and the concept of Purgatory helped to promote an active relationship between those on earth and those who had passed on. Revelation 21:17 supposedly offers a rationale by saying that no unclean thing can enter heaven. So Catholics believe that we go to Purgatory to be purged or cleansed of sin. However, there actually is no scriptural justification for the concept of Purgatory. In the 1500s, Johann Tetzel sold indulgences to shorten people’s stay in Purgatory. This was a way to raise money to build St. Peter’s Basilica. This helped to launch the Reformation and Martin Luther’s stinging criticisms of the Catholic church. 100

101 MARY: IMMACULATE CONCEPTION This is the idea that, at her birth, Mary was not subject to original sin. In 1854, Pope Pius IX made this official dogma by issuing Bull Ineffabilis Deus which said: “Mary was preserved by Immaculate Conception when conceived in her mother's body and was miraculously free from pollution of sin inherited from Adam. She was in soul and body holy, sinless, stainless, undefiled, pure innocence... the Most Blessed Virgin Mary in the first instance of her conception by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of Original Sin. This is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful.” 101

102 MARY: PERPETUAL VIRGINITY This is the idea that, through a miracle, Jesus was born without passing through the birth canal, thus not injuring the body of Mary. It also includes the idea that Mary remained a virgin throughout her life – perpetual virginity. In 649 AD, Pope Martin made this an official belief. He stated, "Mary gave birth in miraculous fashion without any opening of her womb and injury to her body and without pain.“ However, Matthew 1:18 says,”... when as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together... (This passage tells us that Mary and Joseph eventually “came together.”) Matthew 13:55 tells us that Jesus had brothers named “James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas.” 102

103 THE ASSUMPTION OF MARY This is the idea that, at the end of her life on earth, Mary ascended into heaven with her body intact just like Jesus did. It is also believed that when that happened, everyone who was in Purgatory was released from there. Even though this belief existed as early as the fifth century, it was not official doctrine until November 1, 1950 when Pope Pius XII stated,“The bodily assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into heaven is a dogma of the divine and Catholic faith.” The idea of the assumption of Mary showed up in the 400s AD but was labeled as heresy at that time. Prayers to Mary were officially instituted around 600 AD. Rosary beads to aid in prayers to God and Mary were implemented in 1090 AD. But it was not until 1950 that the assumption of Mary became official belief. 103

104 MARY AS “MOTHER OF GOD” AND “QUEEN OF HEAVEN” In the fifth century, the Bishop of Alexandria referred to Mary as the “Mother of God.” In 431 AD, Mary’s title as “Queen of Heaven” became official dogma when Pious XII said, “The Blessed Virgin Mary is to be called queen not only on account of her divine motherhood, but also because by the will of God she had a great part in the work of our salvation... she took a unique part in our salvation by desiring it, praying for it and so obtaining it.” Some of our Catholic friends say this is “veneration” rather than “worship.” This seems to us like a distinction without a difference. 104

105 MARY AS “MOTHER OF GOD” AND “QUEEN OF HEAVEN” In 1745, St. Alphonsus Delaguarie, a cardinal who became a saint, wrote The Glories of Mary, which continues to be reprinted by the Catholic church today, and which identifies tributes to Mary used in the Catholic church. Here is one example: "O immaculate and holy, pure Virgin Mary, mother of God, queen of the world, thou art the joy of the saints, thou art the peacemaker between sinners and God, thou art the advocate of the abandoned, the secure haven of those who are on the sea of this world, thou art the consolation of this world, the ransom of slaves, the comforter of the afflicted, the salvation of the universe." 105

106 MARY AS “MOTHER OF GOD” AND “QUEEN OF HEAVEN” It is disturbing to think about Mary’s immaculate conception, sinlessness, perpetual virginity, ascension into heaven, so- called appearances (which is part of the church’s official belief), and that she suposedly mediates all divine graces to members because she is co-redeemer with the Lord Jesus Christ. Mary plays a much more prominent role in congregational names and statues than either the Father or Son. In the rosary, there are 50 prayers to Mary (10 prayers said five times) and only five “Our Fathers.” "Mary has changed the Trinity into a holy quartet. Mary is viewed as the spouse of the Holy Spirit, the mother of the Son and the daughter of the Father. And even an outsider looking in can see that she is treated as a fourth member of the Godhead.“ Newsweek Magazine, August

107 MARY AS CO-MEDIATOR Catholic theologian Ludwig Ott catalogued much of official doctrine. He said, ”Mary's sublime dignity as Queen of Heaven makes her supremely powerful in her maternal intercession for her children on earth. She intercedes to God and Christ to get the grace for whatever we need and it never comes except by her intercession." Delaguarie said, “We may be afraid to go to God because it is His infinite majesty we have offended, Mary has nothing in her to terrify us.” The idea here is that, as our advocate, Mary is tender, merciful, and compassionate, whereas the Son and Father are thought to be less approachable. So Mary, as the sinless Mother of God, has great influence on Jesus to convince him to have mercy on us. We have to go through her. 107

108 MARY AS CO-REDEEMER This is not official dogma, but it is such a widely-held belief that, in the 1990s, 4.4 million Catholics from many nations signed a petition to John Paul II imploring him to make it an official belief of the Catholic church that, “Mary is co-redemptrix with Jesus Christ.” The widely familiar St. Peter Catechism says, “God willed that our redemption and all its consequences should depend on the free consent of the Blessed Virgin Mary.” St. Bernard said, "All men past, present and to come, should look upon Mary as the means and negotiator of salvation.“ St. Ambrose: "Open to us, O Mary, the gates of paradise since thou hast its keys." Richard of St. Lawrence said, "Mary is the mistress of heaven, for there she commands as she wills and admits into heaven whom she wills." Catholic Theology: “O Lady, since thou art the dispenser of all graces and since the grace of salvation can only come through thy hands, our salvation depends on thee.” 108

109 THE TREASURY OF MERIT This begins with the concept of Purgatory and includes the idea that most people will not immediately go to heaven. So to “purge” their sins, they must first go to Purgatory, perhaps for hundreds or thousands of years. Time in Purgatory can be shortened by experiencing the pain that we rightly deserve, by prayers for the dead that are offered here on earth, or perhaps by having someone else’s excess merit applied to us. Dead saints have excess righteousness or more merit than necessary. The excess merit of saints is deposited in the treasury of merit, and that is supposedly available to us. In fact, you can even obtain merit before you die: you can purchase an indulgence whereby excess merit will be credited to your account, and your stay in Purgatory will be shortened. You can also pay a priest to hold Mass for a departed loved one, who will receive merit to shorten their stay in Purgatory. 109

110 Things the Catholic Church Has Done Very Well:  Preserved the scriptures for all Christians.  Perpetuated a belief that the Bible is inspired by God.  Maintained certain essential doctrines of the Christian faith.  Preserved morality and excellence through schools.  Catholic charities provide outstanding support for the poor.  Strong family orientation.  Service to communities and the country.  Fearless advocate regarding social issues such as abortion. 110

111 THE NEED TO RESTORE CHRIST’S CHURCH There was an urgent need to restore, and not simply reform, Christ’s church in light of doctrinal error that had developed over the centuries. Any attempt to restore his church would include doctrines, gifts of the Spirit, holy ordinances and ministerial offices that adhere more closely to the pattern found in the New Testament. 111

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