Presentation on theme: "Speech-Language Pathologists’ Importance in Early Childhood Special Education: Creating Supportive Learning Environments for Young Children with Disabilities."— Presentation transcript:
1 Speech-Language Pathologists’ Importance in Early Childhood Special Education: Creating Supportive Learning Environments for Young Children with Disabilities – Part 1Jane Minnema, Ph.D., SLP-CCCSt Cloud State University
2 Preface to Part 1 Who I am … and where I’ve been Who you are … and where you’ve beenWhat we “know” from daily professional experiences … to a much deeper understanding of the field of ECSEJane’s approach to adult learningIntro words: Honor to be invited; in your presence; returning to my professional roots; hopefully not completing a full circle; much more to give to future practitioners, young children w/ disabilities, and their families; thank you for your good will and attention I really enjoy sitting where you are right now … I want be engaged, challenged, and learn to apply to my educational practice. So … that actually catches my attention when preparing for my time with you. I mean, really catches my attention. You have paid to participate and expect something great. That is the pressure that I put on myself … So, to that end – I want to say up front that I detest a speaker opening with a long litany of “who I am and what I’ve done.” Having said that, what am I going to do first …
3 Session Outcomes – Part 2 What I hope for:I. Understanding EBP per ASHA and DECII. Pondering current research findings for dual or multiple language learnersWhat I wish I knew when teaching!III. The importance of SLPs for setting the ECSE learning environments!
4 Session Outcomes What I hope for: Realizing our different ways of thinking about children and familiesRe-thinking service delivery within ECSE learning environmentsA deeper understanding of ECSE practices, settings, and the importance of the SLP
5 Why is this important to me? Many, many years invested in our field!Always hoped to make a difference …But now … a Grammy!Ethan Isaiah, 7 moAt 18 mo – Delayed language skillsEd’s sped story that prompted me to rethink service delivery!
6 Young Children Attend Variety of Learning Environments Various settings in which young children w/ disabilities receive services:Early Intervention – Birth to 3 yearsFamily Home Visiting ProgramsChild Care Programs*Early Childhood Special Education – 3 to 7 yearsSecluded multi-categorical ECSE preschool*Inclusive preschool programs*Head Start** Our focus today
7 Starting with Definitions Supportive learning environments – those “natural” instructional delivery settings in which young children progress toward age appropriate developmental outcomesNatural – young children with disabilities attend EC programs with same aged peersInstructional delivery – service provision per IFSPs or IEPsDevelopmental outcomes – acknowledges uniqueness of sequence, rate, and proficiency
8 I am most privileged to observe … Many wonderful program models that deliver high-quality servicesHighly proficient ECSE service providers, SLPs, and other IFSP/IEP team membersFor that, I am grateful!
9 (Information that I wish I knew when I was teaching!) On the surface …IFSP and IEP education teams are providing effective, high-quality servicesMany models across MN in which SLPs provide servicesSeems simple … without much for us to learn?!But, let’s look more closely at various issues(Information that I wish I knew when I was teaching!)
10 How did Ethan develop? Ethan, 12 mo Delayed language comprehension Delayed babbling w/ no jargoningWalking – quickly!Ethan, 3 yr, 11 moDelayed language developmentPhonological delayRiding bicycle – no training wheels!!!
11 Why would my son deny services? Because ….Ethan, age 4 yrExpressive language delayPhonological delayCluttering (??)Attending Montesorri Preschool(Beginning Kg curriculum)Older brother, Sean, born at 35 weeksAbbot Northwestern NICU, Level 2Two weeksAttended Montesorri Preschool
12 Family looking for … Natural milieu language stimulation Normal language peer modelingBut, were offered –Individualized therapyTable top activities w/ SLP in isolationFamily involvement discouraged
13 Professional “Ways of Thinking” ECSE/EC Pedagogy Applied CDProfessional ethics and standards + competencies + principlesEducational practices or Clinical practicesTheoretical underpinnings that guide decision-making about children and familiesApproaches to intervention or teaching
14 Crossing Speech/Language Services, ECSE, and EC ChildASHA: Knowledge & Skills per TopicDEC: Recommended PracticesNAEYC: Developmentally Appropriate PracticesInterventionFamily
15 Approaches to Service Delivery ChildSpeech/Language: Clinical Service Delivery to RemediateECSE: Educational Service Delivery to RemediateEC: Educational Programming to Support DevelopmentInterventionFamily
16 So … View of Children Child Intervention Family Speech/Language: One ChildCommunicationECSE:Child w/in Family5 Learning DomainsEC:Groups of ChildrenCurricular ContentInterventionFamily
17 Speech Language Service Delivery My “old” SLP TrainingObserved Today in ECSEAssessment of child in isolation for diagnosisFocused on communication onlyBehavioral approach to speech/language remediation through IEP-based interventionPull out intervention in “broom closet”Integrated SLP “therapy”Leading group activities (e.g., Circle Time)Leading small group activity (e.g., Center Time)Supporting child through activity (e.g., augmentative communication device)OR … my “old” SLP training???
18 ECSE Service Delivery My “old” ECSE Training Observed Today in ECSE Assessment of child in isolation for diagnosisIsolated learning domain focusBehavioral approach to learning + free playRemediation through IEP-based interventionParent trainingSupported pull out intervention in “broom closet”Evaluation for eligibilityEmbedded learning opportunitiesFamily systems approachAdapted learning through IEP-based interventionParent partnershipsInclusive practice across all domains of learningOr … “old” ECSE training???
19 My “old” EC Observations EC Pre-Service Training ‘11 EC ProgrammingMy “old” EC ObservationsEC Pre-Service Training ‘11Some children attend (missing ELLs, children living in poverty except Head Start, children w/ disabilities)Considered all learning domainsUnderstood play’s importanceAssessment not presentParent training – if consideredSupported pull out intervention in “broom closet”More children included!Holistic view of children (integrated learning domains)Advocate for social-emotional importance w/ play-based learningAssessment measures learningParent collaborationsOr … “old” EC format???
20 What can we say about these differences? Cross-disciplinary practice impeded – communication, overlap or gaps in services, inefficient service deliveryPresent different child assessment, functional, or developmental information to familiesCan de-emphasizes the importance of play and social/emotional development of young children with and without disabilitiesOther suggestions?
21 Audience Perceptions?!! In Pair Share: What is new information? Where do you agree?Where do you disagree?Where do you fall between the “old” and the “current?”
22 What can we take forward? The BEST from each field:SLP: Systematic, technical, supported skill development in specialized areaECSE: Embedded learning practicesEC: Holistic view of child with integration of all learning domains
23 Brown-Grisham, J., Hemmeter, M., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (2005) Where does this take us?Blended PracticesBrown-Grisham, J., Hemmeter, M., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. (2005)One current recommended approach for c reating authentic learning environmentsBlend of ECSE + EC instructional practicesCan we add SLP service delivery?
24 What are Blended Practices? ECSE primarily influenced by special education – individualized approach to meet the unique needs of one child at a timeWith the advent of inclusive practice … a movement toward blending EC & ECSE teaching and licensure pre-service training programs
25 How to blend SLP service delivery? Think intentionally about authentic learning environment by analyzing the important critical elementsDetermine communicative critical skill(s) from speech/language instructional objectivesEmbed these critical skills into the daily preschool routineIn other words, let’s take a step forward from integrated speech/language service delivery!
26 Integrated Therapy“Integrated therapy is the coordination of therapies or consultative special education within the ongoing routines of the classroom. While the therapists are working with the child and classroom teachers in the classroom, those teachers have the opportunity to see what the therapist does with the child and implement those same strategies into the rest of the week when the therapist is not present. When therapists and teachers work together to provide services and education to a child, the child benefits by receiving well-coordinated intervention.”McWilliams, R. (1993)
27 Legal Aspects of Integrated Therapy EI/ECSE programs are required by law to offer a range of services. No one approach to service delivery is appropriate for every child.· As used in this part, the term special education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including (i) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings. (IDEA, Sec )· To the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the child, early intervention services must be provided in natural environments, including the home and community settings in which children without disabilities participate. (IDEA, Sec (b)
28 Integrated Therapy … Meets continuum of educational needs Isolating portion of classroom may be necessary (e.g., alternative feeding, articulation therapy)Provides opportunities for consultative services “in real time”Maximizes classroom routine-based learning (e.g., snack time, circle time, table top activity)May be isolating for child – even within classroom activity
29 A deeper level of Practice Activity-based Intervention Activity-based intervention is defined as a "child-directed, transactional approach that embeds intervention on children's individual goals and objectives in routine, planned, or child-initiated activities, and uses logically occurring antecedents and consequences to develop functional and generative skills" (Bricker & Cripe, 1992).
30 Activity-based Intervention Terms Defined The first key element of activity-based intervention (ABI) is based on the premise that activities and actions initiated by children are more likely to attract and hold a child's attention and as a result maintain their involvement. The term transactional refers to the child acting upon his or her environment and the social and physical environment responding in a reciprocal manner (Bricker & Carlson, 1980; Sameroff & Chandler, 1975).When an child reaches out to his parent and the parent responds by smiling back and giving him a ball, the interaction is considered to be transactional. The child initiated the interaction and, because the adult responded in a positive manner the child will be more likely to make future social gestures.
31 Activity-based Intervention More Terms Defined The second element of ABI involves the embedding of training and intervention (addressing IFSP/IEP goals and objectives) within routine, planned, or child-initiated activities.Routine refers to those events that occur on a predictable or regular basis.Planned activities are those which the adults in the environment organize and prepare for the children's participation.Child-initiated activities are simply activities which the children initiate on their own.
32 Important to Remember … The focus of ABI is not on the activity itself, but rather on the opportunity for the child to practice target skills during ongoing activities throughout the classroom day.Speech/language an EC/ECSE learning domain – element of developmental practiceCommunicative target behaviors can be embedded in daily preschool instructional delivery to be meaningfully learning experiences for children
33 Blending Speech/Language Services w/ ABI Advantages …Leave skills with teaching teamGenerative skills without targeted programmingService delivery in natural learning environmentChallenges …TimeNew practices – change!Others’ misperceptions
34 How to embed S/L targets into classroom learning environment Understand what the routine, planned, or child-directed activitiesOR …Think carefully about instructional and directional language used in the classroomMeaningfully embed instructional objectives!By consulting, modeling, direct intervention
35 For example … Imitating a simple sentence, embed as: At leave taking – T: “I wanna go home.”During Circle Time – T: “I’m gunna sing.”At Play Time – T: “I wanna play with Sophie.”Completing a classification activity:During Art Time – T: “Can you find everything we use for art?”Articulating /s/:During Circle Time – Surprise Box of all “S” items
36 How would you apply ABI to your SLP practice? Pair-Share or Multiple Share for application activity by:Think of a speech or language instructional objective.Select – a) routine preschool activity, b) planned preschool activity, or c) child-directed activity.How would you embed the instructional objective (communicative target) into the preschool activity?
37 EBP – Where to Begin??! From a research perspective: Sam Odom, Indiana University“Teachers begin using a strategy exactly as it is proposed. As the teacher gains experience and collects information about the students’ performance, he or she may make modifications where needed.”
38 Remaining Questions … Just like kittens … SLPs can accomplish anything NEW!