# Static Electrisity Physical Science/ Electricity Molly Kaiser

## Presentation on theme: "Static Electrisity Physical Science/ Electricity Molly Kaiser"— Presentation transcript:

Static Electrisity Physical Science/ Electricity Molly Kaiser
Science Fair Project Static Electrisity Physical Science/ Electricity Molly Kaiser

The Problem If a balloon is rubbed against a wool sweater, will it create static electricity? ? + =

Project Overview This project was designed to visually show how static electricity can be created. A balloon was rubbed against a wool sweater to energize electrons on the surface of an atom. The static discharge, or the spark created by the friction, allows electrons to jump from one electron field to another as the electrons are attracted to others. The hypothesis of this experiment was to prove that if you rubbed a balloon against a sweater more times, then more static electricity would be discharged.

Research There are 115 different atoms, all made of protons and neutron in the nucleus and electrons orbits around the nucleus. Protons carry a positive charge, neutrons carry a neutral charge and electrons carry a negative charge. Electrons can move from the outer limits of one atom to the outer limits of another atom. Opposite charges attract to each other. Electrons move from the wool sweater to the balloon surface when rubbed. When a neutral hand is moved close to the balloon with the extra negative electrons, the extra electrons move to the atoms in the hand. The spark seen is the static electrical discharge that is created from when the build up of when the electrons move.

Variables The independent variable in this experiment is the number of times the balloon is rubbed. This experiment tested independent variables of 10, 20, 30, and 40 rubs of a balloon against a sweater. The dependent variable in this experiment is the number of sparks that can counted after the balloon is rubbed against the sweater in each of category, 10, 20, 30 and 40 rubs. The controlled variables in the experiment are using the same sweater and the same type of balloons blown up with the same volumes of air. This will keep the surface volume of the balloon the same in each of the number of rub groups.

Hypothesis The hypothesis of this project is as stated: if a balloon is rubbed against a wool sweater 40 times, it will create more static electricity than when a balloon is rubbed against a wool sweater less than 40 times. This hypothesis may be true because the greater the friction, the more electrons will be released and static electricity will be created.

Materials Rubber latex water balloons 100% wool sweater dark closet
Rubber latex water balloons 100% wool sweater dark closet balloon air pump

Procedure Gathered all materials and separate balloons into 5 piles. Write on each balloon either control, 10, 20, 30 or 40 to identify which balloon was to receive which number of rubs. Use a balloon air pump and filled each of the labeled balloons with the same volume of air by pumping the air pump 5 times. Tie each balloon end in a knot to keep the air from escaping. Set 2 wool sweaters on the ground in a dark closet. Separate the balloons by group. Test the control group by rubbing a balloon against the sweater ten times and passing the experimenter's hand close to the balloon. Count and record the number of sparks visible. Repeat the experiment with the experimental groups, recording the data after each.

Photos

Data/Observations Quantitative Observations Qualitative Observations
The table below shows the relationship between the number of times a balloon was rubbed against a sweater and the number of static electricity discharges. To calculate the average number of sparks per trial, the total from the 3 trails were added together and divided by 3. An example equation for finding the average is for the 10 rub category, = 8; 8/3= 2.66 sparks observed. In summary, the outer electrons of an atom are sometimes loosely held in the atom field. Certain atoms with loosely held electrons allow electrons to be transferred from one atom field to another. These are called conductors. In this experiment, static electricity could be created by rubbing a balloon against a wool sweater. This experiment tested to see if it was possible to create more static electricity by creating more friction. This would allow the electrons from the balloon surface to be attracted to the wool sweater’s electrons. The electrons from one electron field would move to the other electron field when the electrons were excited by friction. The findings showed that it is possible to produce more static electricity with more friction. The experiment did not show a complete correlation, but the general observation proved there is positive correlation. Qualitative Observations This experiment began by blowing up the balloons. It was quickly noticed that the balloons were already electrically charged because they wanted to stick to the tester’s hands. The balloons appeared similar in size after they were blown up, however the inflating tool did not have a gauge to measure exactly how much air was in each balloon. The working hypothesis of this experiment was the more rubs on the surface of a balloon, the more discharges of static electricity. The hypothesis was proved, but the numbers of static electric discharges did not match up proportionally. It is possible that all of the charges were not observed because some of them may have been on the backside of the balloon. Another observation made after the experiment was finished that effort need to be taken to apply the same amount of force in the rubbing of the balloon against the sweater. This was a variable was not identified before the experiment. Number of Sparks Number of Rubs Number of Sparks

Qualitative Data Qualitative Observations
This experiment began by blowing up the balloons. It was quickly noticed that the balloons were already electrically charged because they wanted to stick to the tester’s hands. The balloons appeared similar in size after they were blown up, however the inflating tool did not have a gauge to measure exactly how much air was in each balloon. The working hypothesis of this experiment was the more rubs on the surface of a balloon, the more discharges of static electricity. The hypothesis was proved, but the numbers of static electric discharges did not match up proportionally. It is possible that all of the charges were not observed because some of them may have been on the backside of the balloon. Another observation made after the experiment was finished that effort need to be taken to apply the same amount of force in the rubbing of the balloon against the sweater. This was a variable was not identified before the experiment.

Quantitative Data The data shows the relationship between the number of times a balloon was rubbed against a sweater and the number of static electricity discharges. To calculate the average number of sparks per trial, the total from the 3 trails were added together and divided by 3. An example equation for finding the average is for the 10 rub category, = 8; 8/3= 2.66 sparks observed. In summary, the outer electrons of an atom are sometimes loosely held in the atom field. Certain atoms with loosely held electrons allow electrons to be transferred from one atom field to another. These are called conductors. In this experiment, static electricity could be created by rubbing a balloon against a wool sweater. This experiment tested to see if it was possible to create more static electricity by creating more friction. This would allow the electrons from the balloon surface to be attracted to the wool sweater’s electrons. The electrons from one electron field would move to the other electron field when the electrons were excited by friction. The findings showed that it is possible to produce more static electricity with more friction. The experiment did not show a complete correlation, but the general observation proved there is positive correlation.

Conclusion This hypothesis was true because the greater the friction, the more electrons will be released and static electricity will be created. The data supports the hypothesis when rubbed 40 times, it creates the most static electricity.

Possible Experimental Errors
Not doing the correct amount of rubs Not counting all of the rubs Not having the balloons the same size If you don’t do all of the rubs or do more, you will get the more/less static the expected. If you don’t count all of the sparks you data will be incorrect. If you don’t have the same size balloons, you will get different results.

Applications and Recommendations
Future experiment could control for the amount of force used to rub the balloon against a sweater. Have another person count the sparks. Use the knowledge learned about how static electricity is created to improve on materials used in different industrial situations. An example of this would be to use materials that do not easily allow for electron to move and create static discharges around gas pumps. Keeping accidental sparks away from gas pumps could increase safety.

Works Cited "HowStuffWorks "Static Electricity"" Howstuffworks "Science" Web. 13 Apr <http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/vdg1.htm>. "Science Projects - Make Your Own Lightning." Energy Quest Room. Web. 13 Apr <http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/projects/lightning.html>. "Static Electricity - What Creates Static Charge & Static Shock? Learn How to Create & Eliminate It." Science Projects, Ideas & Topics - Science Fair Projects - Easy Kids Science Projects & Experiments, Science Articles. Web. 13 Apr <http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/static.html>. VanCleave, Janice Pratt. Janice VanCleave's Guide to More of the Best Science Fair Projects. New York: Wiley, Print. "ZOOM . Activities . Sci . Static Electricity | PBS Kids." PBS KIDS: Educational Games, Videos and Activities For Kids! Web. 13 Apr <http://pbskids.org/zoom/activities/sci/staticelectricity.html>.