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1Unclassified Z. Shavit Israel Aerospace Industries, Engineering Division, Ben-Gurion Airport, 70100, Israel Advanced Energy Resources Conference – IFCBC.

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Presentation on theme: "1Unclassified Z. Shavit Israel Aerospace Industries, Engineering Division, Ben-Gurion Airport, 70100, Israel Advanced Energy Resources Conference – IFCBC."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Unclassified Z. Shavit Israel Aerospace Industries, Engineering Division, Ben-Gurion Airport, 70100, Israel Advanced Energy Resources Conference – IFCBC #6 Tel-Aviv University, 4 February 2010 Advanced Energy Resources Conference – IFCBC #6 Tel-Aviv University, 4 February 2010 Fuel Cell Propulsion Analysis of All-Electric Airplanes and the ENFICA-FC Project Status

2 2Unclassified Fuel cells powered airplanes and UAVs demonstrators תוכן העינינים 1.סטטוס בעולם של מל"טים עם הנעת תאי דלק 2.סטטוס פרויקט מו"פ אירופה (ENFICA-FC ) – הדגמה של מטוס דו מושבי עם הנעת תאי דלק 3.אנליזה של מטוס בין-עירוני המונע בתאי דלק

3 3Unclassified HALE UAV with Fuel Cell Propulsion & Liquid Hydrogen Fuel ($120M Program) The demonstrator was a scale down. UAV with a 15 meter wingspan. AeroVironment ’ s Global Observer HALE platform will be able to operate at 65,000 feet (19.8km) for over a week with a flexible payload-carrying capacity of up to 1,000 pounds (453kg) and has a wingspan of 80 meter.

4 4Unclassified Global Observer – Reasons for Fuel Cell Propulsion & Liquid Hydrogen Fuel  Too many limitations with solar-powered systems over the near term and mid-term. Solar Cell cost Latitude limitations for overnight flight during winter months Payload weight/power limitations  FC and liquid hydrogen vs. ICE engines with fossil fuel 4 to 8 times fewer takeoff and landing 1.5 to 2 fewer aircraft 10 to 50 times less fuel consumed annually Boeing Condor SOLAR IMPULSE

5 5Unclassified Puma Small UAS Achieves Record Flight Time Using Fuel Cell Battery Hybrid System  AeroVironment (AV) contract with the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) $4.7 million, five-year IDIQ contract March 7, 2008.The fuel cell hybrid-powered Puma flew for over nine-hours  Fuel cells propulsion by Protonex Technology Corporation  With a wingspan of 8.5 feet and weight of 12.5 pounds  Lightweight, hand-launched UAS that provides aerial observation at line-of-sight ranges up to 10 kilometers (Color and IR cameras)

6 6Unclassified The Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL's) Ion Tiger Fuel Cell Unmanned Air Vehicle Completes 23-Hour Flight (Oct. 15, 2009)  550-Watt fuel cell  Has about 4 times the efficiency of a comparable internal combustion engine.  The system provides 7 times the energy in the equivalent weight of batteries.  The Ion Tiger weighs approximately 37 pounds and carries a 4 to 5 pound payload.

7 7Unclassified Hyfish - An unmanned jet powered by hydrogen fuel-cell technology  development between DLR and its international partners, including Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies of Singapore.  Weight 6kg, speeds reaching 108 KNOTS  Fuel Cells propulsion with 1 kW power and 3 kg weight

8 8Unclassified United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) Pioneers Fuel Cell-Powered Rotorcraft Flight The latest step in fuel cell flight has taken to the skies with the world’s first hydrogen helicopter flew for more than 20 minutes.  The power plant is a PEM fuel cell prototype developed by UTRC and based on UTC Power proprietary fuel cell technology.  A 4200 psi hydrogen source and air were used.  Maximum output power was 1.75 kW.  System power density exceeded 500 W/kg.  Self sustained system, with the power plant automatically started with hydrogen supply and no additional batteries.  5 lb. payload capable

9 9Unclassified IAI is involved together with the European R&D in a research project the: ENvironmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft powered by Fuel Cells (ENFICA-FC) The idea behind the project is a future all-electric propulsion inter-city aircraft (10-15 seats) or air-taxi aircraft (4-8 seats) that could be completely equipped by fuel cells, realizing in such way a more silent and less polluting aircraft that will be able to takeoff and land from congested urban areas using short airfields.

10 10Unclassified 1. POLITECNICO TORINO (Coordinator) POLITOItaly 2. METEC (Adm. Management)METECItaly 3. ISRAEL AEROSPACE INDUSTRY IAIIsrael 4. EVEKTOR EVECzech Rep. 5. JIHLAVAN Airplanes JACzech Rep. 6. INTELLIGENT ENERGY IEUnited Kingdom 7. AIR PRODUCTS APLUnited Kingdom 8. UNIV. LIBRE de BRUXELLES ULBBelgium 9. UNIV. PISA dept. Electric&AutomationDESAItaly ENFICA-FC Consortium

11 11Unclassified A two-seat electric-motor-driven airplane powered by fuel cells was already developed by the ENFICA-FC consortium and will be validated by flight-test, by converting a high efficiency aircraft. JIHLAVAN Airplanes Skyleader 500 LSA (RAPID 200)

12 12Unclassified The Two Seater Demonstrator (Owned by POLITO)

13 13Unclassified Aircraft Typologies Air Taxi Small Commuter Regional Jet Three Different Typologies of Aircraft have been studied: Air Taxi (EVEKTOR) Small Commuter (EVEKTOR) Regional Jet (IAI) Feasibility study regarding transport aircraft propulsion systems that can be provided by fuel cell technologies.

14 14Unclassified Preliminary Definition Of The Fuel Cell Propulsion System For Various Transport Airplanes 1.Propulsion system for the Two-seat airplane - About 45 kW PEM fuel cell engine with 9 kg of gaseous hydrogen fuel. 2.Propulsion system for the Air-taxi airplane - About 180 kW PEM fuel cell engine or two 90 kW PEM fuel cell engines with 40 kg of liquid hydrogen fuel. 3.Propulsion system for the All-electric fuel cell Inter-city airplane - About two 250 kW PEM fuel cell engine with 100 kg of liquid hydrogen fuel. 4.SOFC Power Unit for the More-electric 32 passengers regional jet airplane - 85 kW SOFC Power Unit.

15 15Unclassified Feasibility Of The Fuel Cell Propulsion System For Various Transport Airplanes All-Electric Two-seat 2 Passenger All-Electric Air-Taxi 4 Passenger All-Electric Inter-City 9 Passenger More-Electric Regional Jet 32 Passenger System Power [kW) Fuel Cell Technology PEM SOFC Minimum fuel cell feasible / practical technology [W/kg] 600* 800*300* Typical true flight speed [KM/HR] Altitude [ft] 0-10, ,000 Max Flight time [HR] Fuel weight [kg] Fuel Gaseous H2Liquid H2 Kerosene Minimum hydrogen storage efficiency feasible / practical technology 6-8%30%35%- * Stack + auxiliary systems

16 16Unclassified Automotive Stack Targets a Excludes hydrogen storage, power electronics, electric drive and fuel cell ancillaries: thermal, water and air management systems. b Power refers to net power (i.e., stack power minus auxiliary power). Volume is “box” volume, including dead space. c Average of data from selected industry press releases issued in 2004 and d Ratio of output DC energy to lower heating value of hydrogen fuel stream. Peak efficiency occurs at about 25% rated power. Assumes system efficiency is 92% of stack efficiency. e Based on 2002 dollars and cost projected to high-volume production (500,000 stacks per year). f Status is from 2005 TIAX study and will be periodically updated. g Durability is being evaluated through Technology Validation activity. Steady-state stack durability is 20,000 hours (See Table 3.4.5). h Based on the test protocol to be issued by DOE in i Includes electrical energy and the hydrogen used during the start-up and shut-down procedures. j 8-hour soak at stated temperature must not impact subsequent achievement of targets.

17 17Unclassified Automotive System Targets a Targets exclude hydrogen storage, power electronics and electric drive. b Ratio of DC output energy to the lower heating value of the input fuel (hydrogen). Peak efficiency occurs at about 25% rated power. c Based on corresponding data in Table divided by 3 to account for ancillaries. d Based on 2002 dollars and cost projected to high-volume production (500,000 systems per year). e Status is from 2005 TIAX study and will be periodically updated. f Includes electrical energy and the hydrogen used during the start-up and shut-down procedures. g Durability with cycling is being evaluated through the Technology Validation activity. Steady-state stack durability is 20,000 hours (See Table 3.4.4). h Based on test protocol to be issued by DOE in i 8-hour soak at stated temperature must not impact subsequent achievement of targets.

18 18Unclassified Honda FCX Clarity Fuel Cell Vehicle $600/month leasing in USA PEM Fuel Cell stack with power output of 100kW, Weight 148 (lbs), Power density 1500W/kg, Size 57 liters, with 4 kg of compressed hydrogen, 450 km range les.honda.com/f cx-clarity/ Hydrogen Tank Fuel Cell stack

19 19Unclassified Ballard® fuel cell power Mark1100™ 99 kW / 110 kg = 900 W/kg (Not includes the radiator, the compressor and the air filter)

20 20Unclassified Modifications From ISC-TP To IICFC-10P  Fuselage Extension 2.75 m.  New Doors and Windows Arrangement.  New Wing Design (enlarging the wing area by 50%, and increasing the wing aspect ratio by 25% ).  No pressurization of the fuel cell airplane  Transform into a triple surfaces Configuration (A Canard was Added ).  Internal Design for 10 Pass including Galley, lavatory and closet.  Cockpit Design.  New and Inverse Engine Nacelle (Pusher Engine) Including Internal arrangement.  New Sizing for the Tails.  Relocation of landing gears and redesign of ground lines.  New wing Fuselage faring.  Relocation and redesign of main landing gear bay and fairing

21 21Unclassified Internal Design 85 ft 3 Cargo Bay Hydrogen Tank Main Landing Gear Bay Nose Landing Gear Lavatory 10 passengers Cabin Galley & Closet Cockpit Wing Assy. Aircraft Systems Installations

22 22Unclassified H 2 Storage System Requirements* *Source: ENFICA-FC Deliverable D4/4b - Analysis, Installation And Mission Performance Of The Fuel Cell All-electric Intercity Transport Aircraft, Table 5-8, pp. 30

23 23Unclassified Hydrogen Tank Volume & Location 2.75 m Ø1.73 m Hydrogen Tank Lavatory Cargo

24 24Unclassified Intercity FC Powered All Electric A/C

25 25Unclassified Engine Nacelle Prop Ø2.6 m Fuel Cells Stacks Electric Motor Inverter Spinner Electric Motor (Water or Air cooled) Heat Exchanger Air Intake Additional Volume For The Fuel Cell Supporting Systems Tubing, Pumps, valves etc.

26 26Unclassified The Fuel Cell Propulsion Components Fuel cell stacks Fuel cells auxiliary systems Air intake and heat exchanger Electric motor (water or air cooled) Electric motor's & driver/inverter The propeller

27 27Unclassified

28 28Unclassified Pros and Cons of the Fuel Cell Intercity Airplane Relative to Typical Turboprop Commuter Airplane (First Iteration Data) All-Electric Fuel Cell Intercity Airplane Small Commuter Turboprop Airplane pollution NO Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Sulfur oxides, Nitrous oxides and soot. Noise LOWHIGH Easy start up of engine YESStarter Power plant power density 400 W/kg (including the driver & electrical motor) 3000 W/kg High Cruise Speed [km/hr] Service Ceiling [ft] 10,00030,000 Range [km]

29 29Unclassified Fuel Cells Propulsion System - Projected Technology (We assumed In our study) 1.Projected COTS Technology fuel Cells + electric motor + inverter 1/Power Density = 1/ / /4500 >>> Power Density=310 W/kg 2.Projected Intermediate Technology fuel Cells + electric motor + inverter 1/Power Density = 1/ / /6000 >>> Power Density=405 W/kg 3.Projected Advanced Technology fuel Cells + electric motor + inverter 1/Power Density = 1/ / /7500 >>> Power Density=500 W/kg DOE Road Map for 2010 >>>>> Power Density = 650 W/kg

30 30Unclassified PEMFC Cost  Max. power required: 600 [kW]  Max. power margin: 10% (included)  PEMFC cost per kW: 30 [$/kW] (for automotive application)  Aviation to Automotive Factor: 10 Smaller quantity Aviation standard (weight & safety) Added compressor for 30 [kft] flight  PEMFC cost: 180,000 [$]

31 31Unclassified Propulsion Cost Summary

32 32Unclassified Estimate Production Cost Comparison between the Turbo-Prop Commuter (ISCTP-10P) and the All-Electric Fuel Cell Inter-City Commuter Airplane (IICFC-10P)

33 33Unclassified Flight hour operation cost distribution comparison

34 34Unclassified Small Turbo-Prop commuters average true speed comparison & MAX Number of Passengers

35 35Unclassified Small Turbo-Prop commuters ASM cost comparison * ASM cost = Flight Hour cost / (#passengers x Miles/hr)

36 36Unclassified Operating Cost Conclusions  Flight Hour operation cost The all-electric fuel cell inter-city airplane is the cheapest due to very low fuel expense and low propulsion maintenance cost  Operation Cost per Mile per passenger (ASM- Available Seat Mile cost) the all-electric fuel cell inter-city airplane has the highest ASM cost


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