5 What is the Scientific Method? The steps someone takes toidentify a questiondevelop a hypothesisdesign and carry out steps to test the hypothesisdocument observations and findings to share with someone else.In other words…it’s a way to solve a problem.
6 The steps of the Scientific Method are: State The ProblemGather InformationForm a HypothesisTest The HypothesisCollect and Analyze DataConclusion
7 Scientists have to take the time to think logically when they are investigating a question or problem.They break things down into many steps that make sense.
8 Scientists develop a question, gather information, and form an hypothesis.
9 The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their hypothesis.
10 A key to experiments is observing what happens and writing it down. Gathering information or data and documenting it so it is readable and makes sense to others is very important.
11 Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get the same findings and results.This is really what we call verification, or checking things out to make sure everything was valid and will happen again and again.
12 Scientists share their experiments and findings with others. Because they share their experiments and findings, scientists can learn from each other and often use someone else’s experiences to help them with what they are studying or doing.
13 The steps of the Scientific Method are: State The Problem (Ask a Question)Gather Background InformationForm a HypothesisTest Hypothesis (Perform Experiment)Collect and Analyze DataDraw Conclusions
14 What Next?If the Hypothesis is supported then the experiment is repeated several times to verify the results.If the hypothesis is not supported then the hypothesis is modified and a new test of the hypothesis is performed.
15 Scientific Method in Action The Strange Case of BeriBeri1. State the Problem2. What was the hypothesis?3. How was the hypothesis tested?4. Should the hypothesis be supported or rejected based on the experiment?5. What should be the new hypothesis?
16 Scientific Method in Action How Penicillin was Discovered6. Identify the problem.7. What was Fleming's hypothesis?8. How was the hypothesis tested?9. Should the hypothesis be supported or rejected based on the experiment?
17 Apply the steps of the scientific method to each step of the following example: Jenny determines that her homemade solution was just as effective as the store-bought pesticidesJenny states that if she sprays her vegetables with a natural, homemade solution to help fight the bug problem, then her vegetables will still grow to the same size as they would if she used store bought pesticidesJenny goes to the library and looks up different kind of pesticides and their effect on vegetables and also looks up natural remedies to help solve her bug problemJenny sprays one third of her vegetables with store bought pesticides, one third with her homemade solution, and does not spray the remaining third (her control group)Jenny wonders how she can protect her plants from bugs without harming the vegetablesAfter one week, Jenny compares and tests the differences in her vegetables
18 Your guide to getting results Experimental DesignYour guide to getting results
19 Every Experiment has two parts: The Control GroupThis set-up is the standard by which the test results can be comparedThis group contains the population where nothing was changedThe Experimental GroupOne factor is changed between the control group and experimental groupThe changes found in this set-up are usually due to the variable (the factor that was changed)
20 The Independent Variable The Variable is something that can be changed between the control group and the experimental group.It is the goal of an experiment to determine the effect the variable has on what is being testedThere are usually two variables when an experiment is performed:The Dependent Variable &The Independent Variable
21 The Independent Variable is the factor that, as it changes, affects the measure of another variable. You (as the experimenter) set the independent variable.The Dependent Variable is the factor that changes as a result of changes in the independent variable.It DEPENDS on the other variables!!
22 Identify the Independent & Dependent Variable A group of college students were given a short course in speed-reading. The instructor was curious if a monetary incentive would influence performance on a reading test taken at the end of the course. Half of the students were offered $15 for obtaining an A or B on the test; the other half were not offered money.Independent variable:Dependent variable:Experimental group:Control group:
23 Lets take a look at an example Let’s say I am from Mars and have never seen the leaves change color. I decide to perform an experiment to find out why they change color.
24 My HypothesisSince the leaves change colors in the Fall and since it gets cold in the Fall, I believe that the leaves change color due to the drop in temperature.
25 My Set Ups (Groups)I went to Waterloo Gardens intent on finding two identical Maple Trees. I found two that were about the same height, had about the same number of leaves, were in the same type of soil, and were in the same amount of soil.
26 When I get home I...Placed one of the trees in a closet with a lamp that was on a timer so the tree would receive 12 hours of light each dayI placed the other tree in a different closet that was the same size and that received the same amount of light (12 hours)
27 After some research…I found that the average summer time temperature was 85 degrees and set a heater and a thermostat into one of the rooms to simulate summer time.I also found that the average temperature in the winter was 42 degrees and set a cooler and a thermostat into the other room to simulate winter time.
28 While conducting the experiment I…. Gave each plant the same amount of water at the same time each dayApplied the same amount of fertilizer on each treeKept a neat and detailed data log on each plant that kept track of the %-age of green leaves.
30 While analyzing, it is often a good idea to create a graph from data. A graph gives us a visual representation of our data.By looking at a graph, trends and relationships can often be seen.
31 Conclusion…After analyzing my data, was I was able to conclude that temperature was the cause of leaves changing color in the fall?
32 In the space in your notes can you... Identify the variables in the experimentWhich ones did I keep the same in each experiment?Which ones did I change in each experiment?Identify the independent variable?Identify the dependent variable?Identify the control set up (group)?Identify the experimental set up (group)?