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Presentation on theme: "Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory

2 Memory Models Memory—An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience. Three-stage model—humans need to store information for different lengths of time—sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory Encoding, storage and retrieval—(computer model) memory is a process of encoding, storage and retrieval Biological Approach—memory is explained by looking at biological changes in synapses

3 Three-Stage Memory Model
Sensory Memory—First memory stage that holds sensory information; relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds Retains a relatively exact image of sensory experience (think of your “shopping cart”)

4 Three-Stage Memory Model
Short-term memory—Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory; capacity limited to 5-9 items and duration is about 30 seconds (think “cupboard or closet”) Maintenance rehearsal—repeating information over and over to maintain it in STM Chunking—grouping pieces of information to form a single unit (or chunk)

5 Short-term memory Visuospatial sketchpad—holds and manipulates visual images and spatial information Phonological rehearsal loop—holds and manipulates verbal information Central executive—supervises and coordinates the other two components as well as retrieval from LTM.

6 Long-Term Memory Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time’ its capacity is virtually limitless and its duration is relatively permanent (think “those boxes of important purchases that are in your attic”)

7 Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Model
Memory is like a computer (or computers are modeled after our memory) Information is Encoded, that is it is translated into neural codes Neurally coded information is retained over time (storage) Information stored in memory can be recovered (retrieval)

8 A problem and solution Unlike computers which store and retrieve information sequentially or linearly, the brain stores and retrieves information simultaneously through multiple networks Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)—Memory results from connections among interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network and all operating parallel

9 Integrating the two models
Encoding Retrieval

10 Integrating Encoding Organization—information is organized to aid in its encoding. STM may use chunking whereas LTM may use hierarchies (arranging items into broad categories that are further divided and subdivided) Rehearsal—in STM, maintenance rehearsal is used. In LTM, elaborative rehearsal Linking new information to previously stored material

11 Elaborative rehearsal techniques
Create a personal example Expand or elaborate on the information Actively explore and question new information Try to find meaningfulness

12 Integrating Storage Explicit/Declarative Memory—Subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information and personal life experiences. Semantic Memory—a part of explicit/ declarative memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionary Episodic Memory—a part of explicit/ declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events; a mental diary of a person’s life.

13 Integrating Storage Implicit/nondeclarative Memory—Subsystem within LTM that consists of unconscious procedural skills, simple classically conditioned responses and priming Priming—prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning or storage

14 Integrating Retrieval
Retrieval Cue—a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from LTM Recognition—retrieving a memory using a specific cue (i.e., multiple choice and matching exam questions) Recall—retrieving a memory using a general cue (i.e., f-i-b, short answer and essay exam questions)

15 Encoding Specificity Principle
Retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when the information was encoded Context and retrieval Mood congruence State-dependent retrieval

16 Biological Perspective
Neuronal and Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)—long-lasting increase in excitability believed to be a biological mechanism for learning and memory Hebb’s Law—If neuron i is near enough to excite neuron j and repeatedly participates in its activation, the synaptic connection between these two neurons is strengthened and neuron j becomes more sensitive to stimuli from neuron i.

17 Hebb’s Law in Plain Language
Neurons that fire together get wired together. On a neurological level, memory is demonstrated through the sensitivity of one neuron to another and the formation of neural pathways in the brain.

18 Biological Perspective
Hormonal Changes Hormones such as epinephrine and cortisol increase the encoding and storage of memories Flashbulb memories—vivid images of circumstances associated with surprising or strongly emotional events.

19 Memory Failures Serial position effect—remembering information at the beginning and the end of a list better than material in the middle. Spacing of practice Distributed practice—practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods Massed practice—time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals (a.k.a., cramming)

20 Theories of Forgetting
Decay theory—(Hebb’s law in reverse) like all biological processes, memory degrades over time. Interference theory—one memory competes with or tries to replace another memory Retroactive—new information interferes with remembering old information Proactive—old information interferes with remembering new information.

21 Theories of Forgetting
Motivated Forgetting Theory—we may have reasons to try to forget, such as unpleasant or anxiety-producing memories Suppression—consciously trying to forget Repression—unconsciously forgetting anxiety-producing memories Encoding Failure—during encoding, we decided that the information was not worth remembering, so, it did not get encoded

22 Theories of Forgetting
Retrieval Failure Theory—(cue-dependent theory) memories are not forgotten but are momentarily inaccessible due to interference, faulty cues, emotional states, etc. Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon—a retrieval failure that involves a sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it.

23 Organic Causes for Memory Problems
Brain Injury Retrograde Amnesia—Loss of memory for events before an injury; backward-acting amnesia Anterograde Amnesia—Inability to form new memories after and injury; forward-acting amnesia

24 Organic Causes for Memory Problems
Alzheimer’s Disease—Progressive mental deterioration characterized by sever memory loss

25 External Causes for Memory Problems
Since memory is a Constructive Process problems may be created within the processes of encoding and retrieval Constructive Process—Organizing and shaping of information during encoding and retrieval that may cause memory errors and distortions

26 External Causes for Memory Problems
Source Amnesia—attributing to a wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined. Sleeper Effect—Tendency to initially discount information from an unreliable source, but later consider it more trustworthy because the source is forgotten

27 External Causes for Memory Problems
Eyewitness testimony Repressed/Recovered Memory Debate

28 Improving Memory—Helpful Tips
Pay attention and reduce interference Use rehearsal techniques (maintenance and elaborative) Improve your organization (chunking, hierarchies) Counteract the serial position effect Manage your time (distributed vs. massed practice) Use the encoding specificity principle Employ self-monitoring and overlearning

29 Mnemonic Devices Mnemonic (from the Greek for “memory”)—memory-improvement technique based on encoding items in a special way Method of loci—imagining the different pieces of information as rooms within a house Peg-word—rhyming words with position on a list (one in a bun, etc.) Substitute word—i.e., occipital—ox sip it all Word associations—i.e., Roy G. Biv, etc.

30 Seven Sins of Memory Sins of forgetting Sins of Distortion
Transcience—information not used is lost Absentmindedness—lack of attention during encoding Blocking—retrieval process is unable to happen Sins of Distortion Misattribution—incorrectly identifying the time, place, or person related to memory Suggestibility—incorporating information suggested by someone else into our memory Bias—current knowledge or needs distort memory of past Sin of Persistence—traumatic or emotional events may cause memories to persist even when we would like to forget

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