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Memory. Memory Models  Memory—An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.  Three-stage model—humans need to store information.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory. Memory Models  Memory—An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.  Three-stage model—humans need to store information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory

2 Memory Models  Memory—An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.  Three-stage model—humans need to store information for different lengths of time—sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory  Encoding, storage and retrieval—(computer model) memory is a process of encoding, storage and retrieval  Biological Approach—memory is explained by looking at biological changes in synapses

3 Three-Stage Memory Model  Sensory Memory—First memory stage that holds sensory information; relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds  Retains a relatively exact image of sensory experience  (think of your “shopping cart”)

4 Three-Stage Memory Model  Short-term memory—Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory; capacity limited to 5-9 items and duration is about 30 seconds (think “cupboard or closet”)  Maintenance rehearsal—repeating information over and over to maintain it in STM  Chunking—grouping pieces of information to form a single unit (or chunk)

5 Short-term memory  Visuospatial sketchpad—holds and manipulates visual images and spatial information  Phonological rehearsal loop—holds and manipulates verbal information  Central executive—supervises and coordinates the other two components as well as retrieval from LTM.

6 Long-Term Memory  Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time’ its capacity is virtually limitless and its duration is relatively permanent  (think “those boxes of important purchases that are in your attic”)

7 Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Model  Memory is like a computer (or computers are modeled after our memory)  Information is Encoded, that is it is translated into neural codes  Neurally coded information is retained over time (storage)  Information stored in memory can be recovered (retrieval)

8 A problem and solution  Unlike computers which store and retrieve information sequentially or linearly, the brain stores and retrieves information simultaneously through multiple networks  Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)— Memory results from connections among interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network and all operating parallel

9 Integrating the two models Encoding Retrieval

10 Integrating Encoding  Organization—information is organized to aid in its encoding. STM may use chunking whereas LTM may use hierarchies (arranging items into broad categories that are further divided and subdivided)  Rehearsal—in STM, maintenance rehearsal is used. In LTM, elaborative rehearsal  Linking new information to previously stored material

11 Elaborative rehearsal techniques  Create a personal example  Expand or elaborate on the information  Actively explore and question new information  Try to find meaningfulness

12 Integrating Storage  Explicit/Declarative Memory—Subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information and personal life experiences.  Semantic Memory—a part of explicit/ declarative memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionary  Episodic Memory—a part of explicit/ declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events; a mental diary of a person’s life.

13 Integrating Storage  Implicit/nondeclarative Memory— Subsystem within LTM that consists of unconscious procedural skills, simple classically conditioned responses and priming  Priming—prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning or storage

14 Integrating Retrieval  Retrieval Cue—a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from LTM  Recognition—retrieving a memory using a specific cue (i.e., multiple choice and matching exam questions)  Recall—retrieving a memory using a general cue (i.e., f-i-b, short answer and essay exam questions)

15 Encoding Specificity Principle  Retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when the information was encoded  Context and retrieval  Mood congruence  State-dependent retrieval

16 Biological Perspective  Neuronal and Synaptic Changes  Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)—long-lasting increase in excitability believed to be a biological mechanism for learning and memory  Hebb’s Law—If neuron i is near enough to excite neuron j and repeatedly participates in its activation, the synaptic connection between these two neurons is strengthened and neuron j becomes more sensitive to stimuli from neuron i.

17 Hebb’s Law in Plain Language  Neurons that fire together get wired together.  On a neurological level, memory is demonstrated through the sensitivity of one neuron to another and the formation of neural pathways in the brain.

18 Biological Perspective  Hormonal Changes  Hormones such as epinephrine and cortisol increase the encoding and storage of memories  Flashbulb memories—vivid images of circumstances associated with surprising or strongly emotional events.

19 Memory Failures  Serial position effect—remembering information at the beginning and the end of a list better than material in the middle.  Spacing of practice  Distributed practice—practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods  Massed practice—time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals (a.k.a., cramming)

20 Theories of Forgetting  Decay theory—(Hebb’s law in reverse) like all biological processes, memory degrades over time.  Interference theory—one memory competes with or tries to replace another memory  Retroactive—new information interferes with remembering old information  Proactive—old information interferes with remembering new information.

21 Theories of Forgetting  Motivated Forgetting Theory—we may have reasons to try to forget, such as unpleasant or anxiety-producing memories  Suppression—consciously trying to forget  Repression—unconsciously forgetting anxiety-producing memories  Encoding Failure—during encoding, we decided that the information was not worth remembering, so, it did not get encoded

22 Theories of Forgetting  Retrieval Failure Theory—(cue-dependent theory) memories are not forgotten but are momentarily inaccessible due to interference, faulty cues, emotional states, etc.  Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon—a retrieval failure that involves a sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it.

23 Organic Causes for Memory Problems  Brain Injury  Retrograde Amnesia—Loss of memory for events before an injury; backward-acting amnesia  Anterograde Amnesia—Inability to form new memories after and injury; forward-acting amnesia

24 Organic Causes for Memory Problems  Alzheimer’s Disease—Progressive mental deterioration characterized by sever memory loss

25 External Causes for Memory Problems  Since memory is a Constructive Process problems may be created within the processes of encoding and retrieval  Constructive Process—Organizing and shaping of information during encoding and retrieval that may cause memory errors and distortions

26 External Causes for Memory Problems  Source Amnesia—attributing to a wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined.  Sleeper Effect—Tendency to initially discount information from an unreliable source, but later consider it more trustworthy because the source is forgotten

27 External Causes for Memory Problems  Eyewitness testimony  Repressed/Recovered Memory Debate

28 Improving Memory—Helpful Tips  Pay attention and reduce interference  Use rehearsal techniques (maintenance and elaborative)  Improve your organization (chunking, hierarchies)  Counteract the serial position effect  Manage your time (distributed vs. massed practice)  Use the encoding specificity principle  Employ self-monitoring and overlearning

29 Mnemonic Devices  Mnemonic (from the Greek for “memory”)—memory-improvement technique based on encoding items in a special way  Method of loci—imagining the different pieces of information as rooms within a house  Peg-word—rhyming words with position on a list (one in a bun, etc.)  Substitute word—i.e., occipital—ox sip it all  Word associations—i.e., Roy G. Biv, etc.

30 Seven Sins of Memory  Sins of forgetting  Transcience—information not used is lost  Absentmindedness—lack of attention during encoding  Blocking—retrieval process is unable to happen  Sins of Distortion  Misattribution—incorrectly identifying the time, place, or person related to memory  Suggestibility—incorporating information suggested by someone else into our memory  Bias—current knowledge or needs distort memory of past  Sin of Persistence—traumatic or emotional events may cause memories to persist even when we would like to forget


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