2Memory ModelsMemory—An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience.Three-stage model—humans need to store information for different lengths of time—sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memoryEncoding, storage and retrieval—(computer model) memory is a process of encoding, storage and retrievalBiological Approach—memory is explained by looking at biological changes in synapses
3Three-Stage Memory Model Sensory Memory—First memory stage that holds sensory information; relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few secondsRetains a relatively exact image of sensory experience(think of your “shopping cart”)
4Three-Stage Memory Model Short-term memory—Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory; capacity limited to 5-9 items and duration is about 30 seconds (think “cupboard or closet”)Maintenance rehearsal—repeating information over and over to maintain it in STMChunking—grouping pieces of information to form a single unit (or chunk)
5Short-term memoryVisuospatial sketchpad—holds and manipulates visual images and spatial informationPhonological rehearsal loop—holds and manipulates verbal informationCentral executive—supervises and coordinates the other two components as well as retrieval from LTM.
6Long-Term MemoryThird stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time’ its capacity is virtually limitless and its duration is relatively permanent(think “those boxes of important purchases that are in your attic”)
7Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Model Memory is like a computer (or computers are modeled after our memory)Information is Encoded, that is it is translated into neural codesNeurally coded information is retained over time (storage)Information stored in memory can be recovered (retrieval)
8A problem and solutionUnlike computers which store and retrieve information sequentially or linearly, the brain stores and retrieves information simultaneously through multiple networksParallel Distributed Processing (PDP)—Memory results from connections among interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network and all operating parallel
10Integrating EncodingOrganization—information is organized to aid in its encoding. STM may use chunking whereas LTM may use hierarchies (arranging items into broad categories that are further divided and subdivided)Rehearsal—in STM, maintenance rehearsal is used. In LTM, elaborative rehearsalLinking new information to previously stored material
11Elaborative rehearsal techniques Create a personal exampleExpand or elaborate on the informationActively explore and question new informationTry to find meaningfulness
12Integrating StorageExplicit/Declarative Memory—Subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information and personal life experiences.Semantic Memory—a part of explicit/ declarative memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionaryEpisodic Memory—a part of explicit/ declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events; a mental diary of a person’s life.
13Integrating StorageImplicit/nondeclarative Memory—Subsystem within LTM that consists of unconscious procedural skills, simple classically conditioned responses and primingPriming—prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning or storage
14Integrating Retrieval Retrieval Cue—a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from LTMRecognition—retrieving a memory using a specific cue (i.e., multiple choice and matching exam questions)Recall—retrieving a memory using a general cue (i.e., f-i-b, short answer and essay exam questions)
15Encoding Specificity Principle Retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when the information was encodedContext and retrievalMood congruenceState-dependent retrieval
16Biological Perspective Neuronal and Synaptic ChangesLong-Term Potentiation (LTP)—long-lasting increase in excitability believed to be a biological mechanism for learning and memoryHebb’s Law—If neuron i is near enough to excite neuron j and repeatedly participates in its activation, the synaptic connection between these two neurons is strengthened and neuron j becomes more sensitive to stimuli from neuron i.
17Hebb’s Law in Plain Language Neurons that fire together get wired together.On a neurological level, memory is demonstrated through the sensitivity of one neuron to another and the formation of neural pathways in the brain.
18Biological Perspective Hormonal ChangesHormones such as epinephrine and cortisol increase the encoding and storage of memoriesFlashbulb memories—vivid images of circumstances associated with surprising or strongly emotional events.
19Memory FailuresSerial position effect—remembering information at the beginning and the end of a list better than material in the middle.Spacing of practiceDistributed practice—practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periodsMassed practice—time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals (a.k.a., cramming)
20Theories of Forgetting Decay theory—(Hebb’s law in reverse) like all biological processes, memory degrades over time.Interference theory—one memory competes with or tries to replace another memoryRetroactive—new information interferes with remembering old informationProactive—old information interferes with remembering new information.
21Theories of Forgetting Motivated Forgetting Theory—we may have reasons to try to forget, such as unpleasant or anxiety-producing memoriesSuppression—consciously trying to forgetRepression—unconsciously forgetting anxiety-producing memoriesEncoding Failure—during encoding, we decided that the information was not worth remembering, so, it did not get encoded
22Theories of Forgetting Retrieval Failure Theory—(cue-dependent theory) memories are not forgotten but are momentarily inaccessible due to interference, faulty cues, emotional states, etc.Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon—a retrieval failure that involves a sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it.
23Organic Causes for Memory Problems Brain InjuryRetrograde Amnesia—Loss of memory for events before an injury; backward-acting amnesiaAnterograde Amnesia—Inability to form new memories after and injury; forward-acting amnesia
24Organic Causes for Memory Problems Alzheimer’s Disease—Progressive mental deterioration characterized by sever memory loss
25External Causes for Memory Problems Since memory is a Constructive Process problems may be created within the processes of encoding and retrievalConstructive Process—Organizing and shaping of information during encoding and retrieval that may cause memory errors and distortions
26External Causes for Memory Problems Source Amnesia—attributing to a wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined.Sleeper Effect—Tendency to initially discount information from an unreliable source, but later consider it more trustworthy because the source is forgotten
27External Causes for Memory Problems Eyewitness testimonyRepressed/Recovered Memory Debate
28Improving Memory—Helpful Tips Pay attention and reduce interferenceUse rehearsal techniques (maintenance and elaborative)Improve your organization (chunking, hierarchies)Counteract the serial position effectManage your time (distributed vs. massed practice)Use the encoding specificity principleEmploy self-monitoring and overlearning
29Mnemonic DevicesMnemonic (from the Greek for “memory”)—memory-improvement technique based on encoding items in a special wayMethod of loci—imagining the different pieces of information as rooms within a housePeg-word—rhyming words with position on a list (one in a bun, etc.)Substitute word—i.e., occipital—ox sip it allWord associations—i.e., Roy G. Biv, etc.
30Seven Sins of Memory Sins of forgetting Sins of Distortion Transcience—information not used is lostAbsentmindedness—lack of attention during encodingBlocking—retrieval process is unable to happenSins of DistortionMisattribution—incorrectly identifying the time, place, or person related to memorySuggestibility—incorporating information suggested by someone else into our memoryBias—current knowledge or needs distort memory of pastSin of Persistence—traumatic or emotional events may cause memories to persist even when we would like to forget