Presentation on theme: "SEM 1V2 Chapter 9 Structured Cabling. 18.104.22.168. Describe network installation safety procedures. Safety is the primary concern. Electrical Never work on."— Presentation transcript:
SEM 1V2 Chapter 9 Structured Cabling
Describe network installation safety procedures. Safety is the primary concern. Electrical Never work on a device with the case open and the line voltage plugged in. Test electrical sockets Locate all electrical conduits and power wires Properly ground all networking equipment. Never cut or nick a live 120 V AC line. Mechanical/Construction Wear safety glasses Measure carefully Investigate what you will be drilling or cutting into, before you begin.. cleanliness Follow proper ladder placement and safety procedures whenever you must use a ladder.
Describe network documentation - planning and as- built documents. Your very first responsibility then will be to have your client specify the desired outcome of the project. Your responsibility as the designer will also include written documentation, including fact-finding assessments, work-in-progress reports, and final reports and test results. engineering journal logical topology physical topology cut sheets problem-solving matrices labeled outlets labeled cable runs summary of outlets and cable runs summary of devices, MAC addresses, and IP addresses
Describe the optimal functioning of a network installation team. project manager - responsibilities include: implementing safety procedures ensuring the documentation of materials and activities keeping other team members focused on their tasks communicating with the instructor materials and tools manager - responsible for tool kits, cable, connector, and testers cable runner - responsible for planning and running cable, safely, and according to specifications, and for testing the cable run jack and patch panel terminator - responsible for performing quality punch downs, and for installing and testing jack installations
Schedule the work flow. The flowchart should include the following tasks: installing outlets installing jacks running cables punching cables into patch panels testing cables documenting cables installing NICs installing hubs, switches, bridges, and routers configuring routers installing and configuring PCs
Schedule the materials flow. Your plan should include the following: building materials suppliers tools date and length of time tools required Here is a list of basic materials: Cat 5 UTP Plenum Cable (solid wire) RJ-45 Plugs (Connectors) RJ-45 jacks RJ-45 Flush or surface mounting boxes and related hardware to hold the jacks RJ-45 patch panels Cable ties Velcro Raceway, gutter, and/or conduit Tools you will probably need: Some form of cable tester -- Fluke 620 or equivalent Wire cutters/strippers RJ-45 Crimping Tool RJ-45 Punchdown Tool Hacksaw Key saw Vacuum cleaner Safety glasses
Review EIA-TIA 568-B standards. EIA/TIA-568B specifies that, in a horizontal cabling scheme, an RJ-45 jack be used for making the connection to a CAT 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable, at the telecommunications outlet. To position an RJ-45 jack onto a wall - the surface mount, and the flush mount.
Describe some of the advantages of surface- mounting an RJ-45 jack. The advantages of adhesive surface mounted jacks or with a screw box are discussed: they are faster to install (reducing labor costs) and they are the only option in some cases. However, once affixed, you can't move them List some of the factors that you should consider before flush-mounting an RJ-45 jack. Type of material from which the wall is made. If there are wide wooden baseboards on the wall, you may want to install jacks there. The last step is to determine whether the jack is to be mounted in a box, or whether it's to be mounted in a low-voltage mounting bracket
Describe how to flush-mount a jack in drywall. Mount 12"-18" above the floor You need to determine if there are any obstructions behind that spot be careful about mounting the box within 2 inches of the floor due to the sole plate of the wall.. Trace an outline by using the template that was supplied with the box, or bracket, you intend to use to flush-mount the jack. Before you cut into the wall, make sure the opening will be straight. Check the size of the opening, whether the box or bracket will fit inside. Turn off the power to all circuits that go to, or pass through, the work area!
Describe how to flush-mount a jack in plaster. If you attempt to cut all the way through one side before cutting into the other side, the saw will cause the lath to vibrate when you make the second cut. This can cause the plaster around the opening to crack and separate from the lath Describe how to flush-mount a jack in wood Describe the procedure for placing the copper wires of the cable into the jack. A LAN's performance is closely linked to the quality of its connections
Describe the procedure for punching the wires down into the jack Demonstrate RJ-45 jack and outlet installation Describe the basics of installing UTP cable The more wire exposed, the poorer the connection, and the greater the signal loss. For CAT 5 UTP, the maximum amount of untwisted wire that is allowed is ½”. If you must bend it, in order to route it, be sure to maintain a bend radius that is four times the diameter of the cable. Never bend cable to the extent that it exceeds a 90 o angle. If you exceed 25 pounds of pull, the wires inside the cable can untwist, and as you have already learned, that can lead to interference and crosstalk. Never tighten the ties too much, they can damage the cables. Never allow cables to be pinched or kinked. Never be stingy when determining the amount of cable that you will need for the run allow 2 to 3 feet for slack.
Cable do’s and Don’ts
Describe the proper method for documenting cable runs Cut sheets, A cut sheet is a rough diagram that shows the locations of the cable runs. It also indicates the numbers of the classrooms, offices, or other rooms, to which the cables have been run. floor plans, architectural drawings of the project physical and logical topologies, Ip addressing and topology cable labels, UL 969 adhesion, defacement, legibility labels to id cables at both the workstation and closet and journal entries document work completed justify your work are just some of the techniques for properly documenting cable runs. Do not present this as an optional part of cable installation but rather as an integral part of a professional installation job.
List specifications provided by EIA/TIA-606 for labeling cable The importance (and necessity of adhering to standards) of labeling cable terminations (jacks, patch panels) should be stressed to the students. Room Describe the kind of labels that should be used A systematic alphanumeric labeling system should be used to label cable runs and terminations. Ultimately this information should be stored in a spreadsheet and database for reference and maintenance purposes.
Describe the process for preparing cable for routing and labeling Place the spools at the central point or wiring closet. Unwind a short segment of cable from each spool. Use a permanent waterproof marker to mark the end of each cable so that it corresponds to the letter assigned to its spool. Rather than run the cable four times over the same route, your work would be easier, and you would save time, if you routed all four cables at the same time. To do this, you need four spools of cable.
Describe when and how cable is labeled at the opposite end Allow enough cable for the ends to reach all the way to each jack location plus enough excess or slack to reach the floor and extend another 2'-3'. Use the labels on each spool as a reference, then mark each cable with the appropriate room number and letter. Do not cut the cables unless they have a label
Describe the easiest procedure for routing cable. Several less desirable methods for routing cable are described. First of all, stapling is unacceptable. Duct taping is unacceptable. Unattractive but easy is the method of tie-wrapping the cable together and then screw-mounting the tie-wraps to the wall. To drive screws into a masonry wall, the first thing you must do is bore holes in the wall. However, this can present problems. If you need holes smaller than 3/8" in diameter, you can use an electric drill equipped with a carbide bit. Holes larger than 3/8" in diameter For this task, you need to use a tool called a hammer drill. Never use staples to attach cable to walls. The use of staples to secure cable does not conform to EIA/TIA-568A specifications.
Describe how to mount cable in raceway. Raceway and gutter are introduced as two preferred ways of routing cable. However, this drives up cost as raceway can have considerable cost especially as your cable runs get long. Raceway is a wall-mounted channel that has a removable cover. There are two types. The first is called decorative raceway, Another type of raceway is called gutter. As its name infers, gutter is a less attractive alternative to decorative raceway.
Describe how to determine whether a cable can be routed in existing raceway. There are generally two concerns with routing cable in existing raceway. First, is there room? The new bundle of cable you want to route in the raceway may exceed the capacity of the raceway. Second, it is preferably not to route cable in a raceway with power wiring. This can potentially cause noise problems.
List the personal safety precautions you must take before you install cable. The first thing you should do is turn off power to all circuits that might pass through those work areas! Learn the locations of all fire extinguishers in the area. Wear appropriate clothing If you anticipate working in a dropped ceiling area, survey the area. You need to cut or saw, protect your eyes with safety glasses. Consult the building's maintenance engineer to find out if it there is asbestos, lead, or PCB where you will be working. Keep your work area orderly and neat
Instructor Note: Again, safety precautions are reviewed. Do not attempt cable installations until you have adequately trained and mature students and sufficient adult supervision. Cable installations can be incredibly fun and rewarding, but since they are essentially construction projects, there are many precautions that must be taken List the safety precautions you should take to ensure the safety of the building. Some building codes may prohibit drilling or cutting holes in certain areas like fire walls or ceilings. If you drill through walls, you may have to fill holes completely with a noncombustible patching compound. Spaces where air is circulated, you will need to use a fire-rated cable.
Describe the process for supporting horizontal cabling in an attic or a room that has a dropped ceiling. Many installers like to run cable in attics or dropped ceiling spaces because it is out of sight. When running cable in a dropped ceiling space, never lay the cable on top of the ceiling. Some other means of support must be provided for the cable. If there is air circulated you must use Fire rated cable Wall mounted gutter You could attach tie-wraps to the wires A third option for supporting the cable is to use a ladder rack.
Describe how to string cable in an attic, or a room that has a dropped ceiling. Attics and dropped ceiling spaces can be uncomfortable and difficult places in which to work. A telepole offers an easy and simple solution to these problems Describe how to fish cable through from above a wall. You ordinarily work from an attic or dropped ceiling space. To fish cable through a wall, you must, first, locate the top plate of the wall, and bore a 3/4" hole through it. Then, slowly feed fish tape through the hole you bored, down into the wall Describe how to fish cable from below a wall. When you run horizontal cabling in a building that has a basement, you can fish cable from there to the work areas on the first floor. To do this you must, first, drill a 1/8" hole, at an angle, through the floor, next to a baseboard. Push a coat hanger Go to the basement and locate the wire. Use a tape measure to mark a spot under the areas of the wall. This mark should be 2 1/4" from the hole. Then, drill a new hole in this spot. This hole should be 3/4" in diameter. Unlike the first hole that was drilled at an angle, drill this hole straight up through the subfloor and wall plate.
Define wiring closet. A wiring closet is a specially designed room that serves as a central junction point for the wiring and wiring equipment used to connect devices in a local area network (LAN). It is the center point of a star topology. Normally, the equipment in a wiring closet includes patch panels, wiring hubs, bridges, switches, and routers Explain whether a network can have more than one wiring closet. The concepts of MDFs and IDFs
Describe what the horizontal cabling runs are connected to, in the wiring closet. In an Ethernet LAN star topology, the horizontal cabling runs, which come from the work areas, usually terminate at a patch panel. A patch panel is an interconnecting device through which horizontal cabling runs can be connected to other networking devices, such as hubs and repeaters. More specifically, a patch panel is a gathering of pin locations and ports. Patch panel acts as a switchboard, where horizontal cables coming from workstations, can connect to other workstations to form a LAN. Describe the structure of a patch panel Punch downs and RJ 45s.
Describe how the wires are laid down on a patch panel. In any LAN system, connectors are the weakest links. If not properly installed, connectors can create electrical noise, and can cause intermittent electrical contact between wires and pins. The 1/2"maximum untwisting must be strictly adhered to and can be difficult unless the student is careful Describe how wires are punched down on a patch panel. The patch panel type determines whether you use a 110 or a Krone punch tool. A punch tool has spring-loaded actions. This allows it to perform two functions at the same time. As it pushes a wire between two metal pins, and skins the sheath from the wire (so that it can make an electrical connection with the pins) the punch tool's blade also cuts off any extra wire.
Describe how to mount a patch panel. Mounting of patch panels on brackets, racks, and cabinets is discussed. Emphasize that all of this is part of keeping the cabling structured and easy to manage. One of the most commonly used pieces of equipment is the distribution rack. A distribution rack is a simple skeletal frame that holds equipment such as patch panels, repeaters, hubs, and routers that are used in the wiring closet. It can range in height between 39" and 74". The advantage of a distribution rack is that it allows easy access to both the front and the back of the equipment. To ensure stability, a floor plate attaches the distribution rack to the floor. While a few companies currently market a 23" wide rack, the standard, since the 1940s, has been the 19" rack.
Describe the procedure for testing cable that has already been installed. A simple troubleshooting model for cable testing is presented. Layer 1 is the cause of large numbers of network problems and troubleshooting layer 1 is a key part of any networking professional's skill set. You have also learned that a network is only as reliable as its cabling. In fact, many experts consider it the most important component of any network. The quality of the network installation must be determined. In spite of the fact that it may have been built with the best quality cable, connectors, patch panels, and other equipment, poor installation practices can prevent a network from operating at its optimal level
To test your network, follow these steps: 1.Break the system into logically conceived functional elements. 2.Note any symptoms. 3.Use the symptoms to determine the most likely dysfunctional element. 4.Use substitution or additional testing to discover if the most likely element is, in fact, dysfunctional. 5.Proceed to the next most likely element, if the previous element proves not to be the problem. 6.Repair the dysfunctional element as soon as you find it. 7.Replace the element if you cannot repair it.
Describe how you would know that your network is operating correctly. The importance of a baseline measurement of network performance is introduced. The baseline is the set of data about your network that you check periodically to ensure the network is still functioning properly. If your network passes this test and is certified as meeting the standards, you can use this measurement as an established baseline. You should continue to test your network on a periodic basis in order to ensure that it performs at its peak Describe any special equipment or training needed to test cable. The importance of dedicated cable testing equipment is emphasized.
Define cable testers and what they measure. Some basic parameters that cable testers measure are introduced. One example is the Fluke 620 Cable meter (or equivalent), which can determine cable continuity and pinout, perform cable identification, cable distance, locate bad connections, provide wire maps for detecting crossed pairs, detect split pairs, and trace cable behind walls Describe how a cable tester measures distance. Distance measurements using TDR -- time domain reflectometry -- are described. Using the formula distance = rate x time, and know the rate at which signals travel down a particular medium (which can be measure and calculated and is entered into the meter by the manufacturer), the meter sounds out a pulse and waits for the return "echo" reflection. One half of this time is the time of propagation of the pulse down the cable, and when multiplied by the velocity of signal propagation gives the cable distance. You might think of this a cable radar.
Describe how to use distance measurements to determine whether there are good connections at patch panels and telecommunications outlets Describe how a cable tester can detect whether an installer has connected wires, in reverse order, to a plug or jack. Cable testers use a feature called a wire map to indicate which wire pairs connect to which pins, on lugs and sockets. When wires are connected in reversed order, they are referred to as crossed-pairs.
Explain why a wire map will not detect split pairs. Visual inspection and cross-talk measurements are the only ways to detect a condition known as split pairs Although current can flow in the circuit, making the system appear to work, no shielding is in effect. Consequently, the signals are not protected.
Describe how a cable tester measures signal attenuation. It generally requires a fairly expensive cable meter (over $1000) to test signal attenuation. These measurements are described. One such device is the Fluke DSP This reduction in the power of a signal is called attenuation. It occurs because a signal (pulses representing bits of data) loses energy to a cable Describe causes of near-end crosstalk. It generally requires a fairly expensive cable meter (over $1000) to test near-end cross talk (NEXT). Several factors can contribute to near-end crosstalk Near-end crosstalk can also be caused by twisted pairs that have become untwisted, when attached to cross-connect devices such as patch panels, by patch cords that are untwisted, or by cables that have been pulled too tightly around sharp corners, causing pairs to change position inside the cable jacket.
Describe the types of problems that a noise level test can detect. fluorescent lights heaters radios air cleaners televisions computers motion sensors radar motors switches welders auto ignitions electronic devices of all kinds
Describe how a cable tester can locate sources of outside interference. To use a cable tester is to take a noise reading on a cable, you should disconnect all cables from the computer equipment. High reading levels usually indicate a problem. A simple way to locate the precise source is to unplug each electrical device until the source of the noise is found. The End