Presentation on theme: "Privacy. Privacy Quotes Search my house with a fine tooth comb Turn over everything ’cause I won’t be at home Set up your microscope and tell me what."— Presentation transcript:
Privacy Quotes Search my house with a fine tooth comb Turn over everything ’cause I won’t be at home Set up your microscope and tell me what you see You’ll still know nothing ’bout me [Sting] "The horror of that moment, " the King went on, "I shall never, never forget!" "You will, though, " the Queen said, "if you don't make a memorandum of it." [Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-glass] Why doesn't everybody leave everybody else the hell alone? [Jimmy Durante] "You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it." [Scott McNealy, Sun Microsystems]
What is Privacy ? A Historical View Definitions of Privacy The Merriam Webster Online dictionary defines privacy as: a : the quality or state of being apart from company or observation b : freedom from unauthorized intrusion EPIC (The Electronic Privacy and Information Center) offers a host of privacy resources, but never gives an up-front definition of the word. Privacy.Org gives no clear definition of privacy
Brandeis Warren Policy Paper In 1890 US Supreme Court Justices Brandeis and Warren formulated a policy paper over privacy issues. Their concern was over the growing use of technology, particularly the popularization of photography and inexpensive printing techniques
Brandeis Warren (2) “Recent inventions and business methods call attention to the next step which must be taken for the protection of the person, and for securing to the individual what Judge Cooley calls the right ‘to be let alone.’ Instantaneous photographs and newspaper enterprise have invaded the sacred precincts of private and domestic life; and numerous mechanical devices threaten to make good the prediction that "what is whispered in the closet shall be proclaimed from the house-tops." ….The alleged facts of a somewhat notorious case brought before an inferior tribunal in New York a few months ago, directly involved the consideration of the right of circulating portraits; and the question whether our law will recognize and protect the right to privacy in this and in other respects must soon come before our courts for consideration….
Brandeis Warren (3) The "right to be let alone" is the most succinct and perhaps most well used definition of the right to privacy, although concepts of privacy arose much before the legal concept of privacy was first formulated by Brandeis-Warren. During the pre-industrial period, privacy was considered to be an attribute of man in nature. John Locke stated that: "every Man has a Property in his own Person. This no Body has any Right to but himself." [Locke, Chapter 5. Of Property. Section 27]
Technology and Privacy (Census) The Babylonians and Chinese conducted censuses to help them make decisions on taxes and the military. The Egyptians used census data to designate those who would build pyramids, and to redistribute land after the annual flooding of the Nile. Then the Domesday Book, a census of land and property in medieval England, was launched by William the Conqueror.”
Census in History "And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered": Luke 2:1 The great census in Palestine that is referred to in Luke created riots, since people were suspicious of the Roman government collecting all the information, just like the information gathering today."
Census Canada’s first national census took place in 1871, and prior to that period there were many colonial and regional censuses. During the enumerations conducted between 1710 and 1760, there was a particular need to collect information on housing stock and armaments such as muskets and swords owned by households. Previous censuses had been more concerned with raising taxes or armies and assessing resources. In a 1765 Canadian enumeration, “priorities included assessing the balance between Catholics and Protestants, and recording the number of Acadians, settlers, Indians and Blacks.” [StatsCan, 2002].
Automation of the Census By 1880, the U.S. census had produced volumes of data nearly unmanageable without the use of technology. Data collection and management limits would be reached in the 1880 census, and any further censuses would require a new system for data processing. Herman Hollerith, an engineer who had worked on the 1880 Census, invented the punched card system for recording and tabulating the census returns. Hand-tallying of data was replaced by punching holes in cards in the 1890 US Census
Census and Privacy The automation of the Census, on one hand, removed the actual census return one step farther from the final statistical process. On the other hand, it made possible the collection of even more information on individuals. On balance, however, it is probable that the Hollerith system enhanced the anonymity, and thus the confidentiality,of census data, although technologically it was the forerunner of modern computer-based record keeping Thus, “automated” data collection of census information of a private nature first occurred in 1890, the same year that Brandeis and Warren expressed concerns that: “numerous mechanical devices threaten to make good the prediction that ‘what is whispered in the closet shall be proclaimed from the house-tops.’ “ [Brandeis-Warren, 1890]
The UN and Privacy In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly issued the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Drafted by New Brunswick Canadian John Humphrey, the first Director of the Human Rights Division in the United Nations Secretariat, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was proclaimed as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations". [UN, 1948] Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights explicitly states a privacy right: “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. “