Patricia Hearst Heiress, Captive, and Survivor APUSH 7 th period Brittany Gillespie, Brandy Leonard, Beka Bullard, and Veronica Franke
IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction In 1974, Patricia Hearst was kidnapped by the SLA. She was held for almost two years, eventually even joining the SLA and helping to commit a bank robbery. Patty was kept blindfolded in a closet for many months before she became indoctrinated into the SLA. She had no hope for returning home. When she helped the SLA rob the Hibernia National Bank, she was caught on the security cameras and found. After returning home; at her trial she claimed she was brainwashed and had no choice but to participate. Despite this defense, she was found guilty of armed robbery and served twenty-two months in jail.
VocabularyVocabulary The SLA: Symbionese Liberation Army A revolutionary movement in California. Started 1973. Result of prison visitation programs by radical left-wing groups in Soledad Prison. Donald DeFreeze escaped from prison and formed the SLA Symbionese comes from symbiosis, defined as "a body of dissimilar bodies and organisms living in deep and loving harmony and partnership in the best interest of all within the body." Marxism Economic theory also called Scientific socialism The proletariat (workers) will over throw the bourgeoisie (middle class). Then the proletariat will centralize all means of production, speeding up the production process. After this, there will be no more class divisions, because the means of production will not be in any one group's hands. Maoism form of Marxism -Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong the force behind this was the agrarian workers rather than the urban proletariat. One doctrine is a continuous revolution is needed if the leaders of a communist state are to be kept in touch with the people
Fascism totalitarianism based on strict nationalism and loyalty to one's leader. glorifies the state and the nation the individual must submit to the state. involves military strength suppresses democratic values Stockholm Syndrome when kidnap victims become sympathetic to their captors victims sympathize with their captors, first out of fear, but acts of kindness seemed magnified during a hostage situation. captives may resist rescue attempts, seeing them as a threat, because the captive may be injured. the term was first used when a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden went awry, four hostages were taken and at the end of their captivity, the hostages resisted rescue and refused to testify against their captors Bourgeoisie social class made up of the middle class mostly a Marx idea: the bourgeoisie have constituted every revolution, but in the end the proletariat must take over. Proletariat the laboring class the lowest socioeconomic class of a community
the New Left radical, liberal political movements in the 1960's mostly student groups differed from the "old left" in that they focused less on traditional issues such as labor, but on issues such as authoritarianism. anti-Establishment social activists, wanted to lead a social revolution the SLA was one New Left group United Nations Geneva Convention On Prisoners of War under this prisoners of war must be treated humanely, allowed to correspond regularly with relatives, provided with quarters not inferior to their captors. the SLA claimed to be treating Patty Hearst according to the Geneva Convention, but they were not. Guerrilla warfare unconventional combat where small groups attempt to use surprise tactics to defeat a larger army. today, terrorist, insurgents and revolutionary groups. i.e. the SLA Brainwashing forcible coercion to abandon one's beliefs and replace them with others. Ransom the practice of holding a prisoner hostage to extort money or other payment to secure their release. also refers to the sum of money involved.
Family Background Patricia Hearst was the granddaughter of William Randolph Hearst. He was know for practically inventing tabloid journalism. He was even the inspiration for Orson Welles’ classic 1941 movie, “Citizen Kane”. At his peak William owned 28 major newspapers and 18 magazines, not to mention radio stations and movie studios. Randolph Apperson Hearst is Patricia’s father. Randolph was the chairman of the board of the Hearst Corporation. Also he served as the editor and president of the San Francisco Examiner. Catherine Hearst was Patricia’s mother and she was a University of California regent. Patricia was one of five Hearst daughters.
C A P T U R E On February 4, 1974 a woman knocked on the door of Patty Hearst and Steven Weed's Berkeley Apartment. She asked to use the phone because she said she had backed into a car on the street. As Patty walked away, two men burst into the house. One pushed Patty down and tied her hands. The other asked Steven for the safe, but they had no safe. A gag was thrust into Patty's mouth and she was blindfolded. The SLA members dragged Patty out to their car and stuffed her in the trunk. When they arrived at the safe house, Patty was pushed into a closet and kept there.
Ransom -The SLA required Patty's father to give a "good faith gesture" to show that he was willing to negotiate. -They demanded that the Hearst Corporation give seventy dollars worth of food to every poor person in the state of California. -Mr. Hearst said it was beyond his means to purchase that much food, but he made a counteroffer. -He announced a $2 million program as a good faith gesture, called People in Need. -this did not satisfy the SLA, they demanded another four million dollars.
Her contact with the outside world was limited. CAPTIVITYCAPTIVITY She changed her name to ‘Tania’ after joining the SLA. She was kept blindfolded and regularly threatened with execution. For two months she was confined to a small closet that was barely large enough for her to lie down in. She was only fed twice a day: breakfast and dinner. During both meals her hands were remained tied. Patty was forced to record tapes that were sent to the press. In one tape recording, she announced that she had decided to become a revolutionary, join the SLA, and go underground. While in the closet, Patty was taunted, sexually assaulted, and raped repeatedly by multiple SLA members.
Brainwashing Techniques include: keeping victim in filth, sleep deprivation, partial sensory deprivation, physiological harassment, development of guilt, and group social pressure Exact techniques used on Patty were: ~ She was isolated and told no one was going to rescue her ~ Physically and sexually abused ~Told she might die ~ Forced to record messages denying her loved ones ~ Locked in a closet and blindfolded for two months, unable to even use the bathroom in privacy In her mental state she was unable to tell right from wrong and that is why she robbed Hibernia National Bank “They debilitate you by locking you up. You’re deprived of sight, light, sleep, and food. You depend on them for all information. …And the dread is just the threat constantly you’ll be killed if you don’t cooperate.” -Patty Hearst to Larry King(1988)
Bank Robbery April 15, 1974 (tax day) 9:30AM The Hibernia Bank in Sunset district of San Francisco Four white women (including Patty Hearst) and a black man entered the bank. They all had guns and yelled commands at the customers and tellers, telling them to get on the floor. In under four minutes, they robbed the bank. They stole $10,000 and wounded two innocent bystanders. They escaped in a get away car.
Then on May 16, Patty was seen firing an automatic weapon from a van, enabling SLA members Bill and Emily Harris to escape a security guard at Mel's Sporting Goods store in Los Angeles. The very next day the Los Angeles Police surrounded a house commandeered by SLA members. A gun fight broke out which turned the house into an inferno. Six SLA members ended up dead and Patty was no where to be found. WANTEDWANTED The robbery was caught on the bank’s security cameras and Patty was immediately recognized. Looking back at the robbery, one robber announced to the terrified customers and the automatic bank cameras that she was "Tania …Patricia Hearst." The police issued federal arrest warrants for eight SLA members. The FBI chose to seek Hearst's capture only as a "material witness" to the holdup. Finally on September 4,1957, FBI agents captured Patty in San Francisco. But instead of being freed, she was arrested for the Hibernia Bank robbery and taken to jail to undergo the first of many psychiatric examinations.
Court Defendant: Patricia C. Hearst Crimes Charged: Bank robbery and use of a firearm in the commission of a felony Chief Defense Attorneys: F. Lee Bailey and J. Albert Johnson Chief Prosecutor: James L. Browning, Jr. Judge: Oliver J. Carter Place: San Francisco, California Dates of Trial: February 4-March 20, 1976 o Bailey declared that for 20 months, Patty had been via "prisoner of war" whose actions were entirely governed by her desire to stay alive. Also she had suffered from Stockholm syndrome. o There was no dispute over her presence at the Hibernia Bank heist. o The jury's real objective was to decide whether she had acted willingly or not. o Bailey hoped to confine the trial just to the circumstances of her kidnapping, her mistreatment by the SLA, and the robbery itself. o However, Browning was intent on establishing that Patty's behavior before and after the robbery reflected her voluntary participation in the crime.
Trial Bailey argued that Patty's claims of deliberate participation in the robbery were made under duress and that they should not be admitted in the trial. The judge denied that claim and ruled, "the statements made by the defendant after the happening of the bank robbery, whether by tape recording, or oral communication, or in writing, were made voluntarily.“ This ruling allowed the prosecutor to introduce all the tapes and testimonies. The prosecutor also introduced a confiscated manuscript known as "The Tania Interview," in which Patty spoke of her conversion to the SLA and denied being brainwashed. Patty took the stand to described her violent abduction and captivity. She explained that SLA members had written the text of the audiotapes and “The Tania Interview.” Also Patty clarified that the reason for not trying to escape during the open opportunities was due to the fact, she feared both the SLA and FBI. When questioned about the “ missing year” Patty was advised to plead the fifth; she ended up pleading the fifth 42 times. Psychiatric analysis was done and there were results to support both sides of the argument. Verdict: Guilty Sentence: 7 years imprisonment
Pardoning On March 20,1976, after serving only twenty-two months, President Jimmy Carter commuted her sentence. Patty was finally granted a full pardon by President Bill Clinton on January 20, 2001,which was his final day of presidency.
Patty Hearst T H E N NOWNOW She has appeared in several productions including ‘Veronica Mars’, ‘A Dirty Shame’, and ‘Second Best’
Why was this important in United States History? The kidnapping of Patty Hearst was the culmination of radical movements in the 1960's. The SLA was a Socialist/Communist violent revolutionary group, akin to a terrorist organization today. The uniqueness of the SLA was the fact that they were Americans, and not foreigners discontent with American policy. Also the media played a large part in this event. The SLA wanted exposure and so contacted the media about their own crime. Her kidnapping would not have been as big of a deal if the SLA had not wanted the attention from the rest of the country. She might not have also been released alive. Even though the SLA was not successful in achieving their political and social goals, the capture of Patty Hearst, through the media portrayal, made many people aware of another class of poverty stricken, discontent Americans.
Conclusion When Patty Hearst was kidnapped, the United States was affected profoundly. Her unexpected abduction and horrifying captivity brought Americans around to realize the reality of the world that we live in. Also her subsequent conversion to the SLA's beliefs and crimes were monumental in the historical context. This was an unprecedented event in our country and it changed the way radical groups were seen forever.
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"Patty Hearst Profile." CNN.Com. 2001. Cable News Network LP. 10 May 2007. "Patty Hearst Trial:1976." Law Library. 2007. 11 May 2007. Reagan, Gillian. "The Hearst Family." The New York Observer. 17 Dec. 2006. 08 May 2007. Ross, Rick. Symbionese Liberation Army/ "SLA" 2001. 11 May 2007. "Symbionese Liberation Army." Wikipedia. 2007. 14 May 2007. "The Arrest." Crime Library. 2007. Courtroom Television Network. 16 May 2007. "Many times people who have been held hostage say, 'Well, they were really nice to me' and what they really mean is, you know, 'Thank God they didn't kill me.' " - Patty Hearst, in a CNN interview