# SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD.

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SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD

The scientific method is the means by which researchers are able to make conclusive statements about their studies with a minimum of bias.

What is Bias?

Prejudice Tendency Leaning Bias – to show prejudice for or against something, someone, or an opinion. Bias is decreased by using the scientific research method.

What are the steps of the scientific research method?

Problem Research Hypothesis Experiment Observe Conclusion

Which component is missing from Carmen’s experiment?
Carmen conducted an experiment to determine if listening to different types of music would affect a person’s pulse. Her hypothesis was that pulse rate would change with different types of music. Each person listened to seven different selections of music for 30 seconds each. Each person’s pulse was taken before the music and then after each 30 second interval of music. The pulses were taken again after the music selections were completed. Based on her experiment, Carmen concluded that a person’s pulse rate changed when the person listened to different types of music. Which component is missing from Carmen’s experiment? A. a question C. a control group B. a hypothesis D. a conclusion

What is a Variable?

Any factor that can change in an experiment

What is a Dependent Variable?

The factor that is measured or affected in an experiment

On a graph, which axis represents the dependent variable?

A The number of participants in the study
A medical researcher hypothesizes that a newly developed medication can reduce high blood pressure. Which of these would most likely be the dependent variable in a study involving this medication? A The number of participants in the study B The ages of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications C The blood pressure of the participants in the study D The number of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications

John enjoys growing plants and wants to see if light affects the growth of plants. John obtains two identical pots and fills each with the same type of soil. Two identical petunia plants are planted, one in each pot. John determines to place one pot in the window and the other pot in a closet. The plants will be observed under these conditions for three weeks during which both will be watered and cared for exactly the same. What is the dependent variable?

What is an Independent Variable?

The factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment

On a graph, which axis represents the independent variable?

John enjoys growing plants and wants to see if light affects the growth of plants. John obtains two identical pots and fills each with the same type of soil. Two identical petunia plants are planted, one in each pot. John determines to place one pot in the window and the other pot in a closet. The plants will be observed under these conditions for three weeks during which both will be watered and cared for exactly the same. What are the independent variables?

What is a hypothesis?

An educated guess that predicts the outcome of an investigation
Not all hypotheses are valid and relevant to the experiment.

Aristotle thought that a moving object would stop because its natural state was to be at rest. Newton thought that friction is a force that opposes all motion and eventually stops moving objects. Suppose you were coasting on a level surface on a bicycle and there was NO friction. Which statement is a valid prediction of what would happen to the speed, according to Aristotle and Newton? a. Aristotle: slow and stop; Newton: slow and stop. b. Aristotle: maintain speed; Newton: slow and stop. c. Aristotle: maintain speed; Newton: maintain speed. d. Aristotle: slow and stop; Newton: maintain speed.

John enjoys growing plants and wants to see if light affects the growth of plants. John obtains two identical pots and fills each with the same type of soil. Two identical petunia plants are planted, one in each pot. John determines to place one pot in the window and the other pot in a closet. The plants will be observed under these conditions for 3 weeks during which both will be watered and cared for exactly the same. What would be a good hypothesis for John’s experiment?

The hypothesis “Much of the iron found in the topsoil of the island was carried from Africa by huge dust clouds” refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone. Which study would most likely be used to Investigate this hypothesis? A Tracking dust clouds with satellite photos B Determining the effects of iron on limestone C Calculating erosion rates in African limestone mines D Analyzing the content of comet dust clouds

What is an experimental factor?

The one factor being tested in the experiment.

John enjoys growing plants and wants to see
if light affects the growth of plants. John obtains two identical pots and fills each with the same type of soil. Two identical petunia plants are planted, one in each pot. John determines to place one pot in the window and the other pot in a closet. The plants will be observed under these conditions for three weeks during which both will be watered and cared for exactly the same. What is the experimental factor? Soil type d. Plant type b. Pot types e. Amount of water c. Amount of light

What is a control?

A standard to which other experiments are compared. An experiment in which all the variables remain constant.

A scientist makes this guess:
Homing pigeons use the sun to find their way home. 25 pigeons are released on a cloudy day and 25 pigeons are released on a sunny day. Both sets of pigeons are released from the same location. What is the control group?

John enjoys growing plants and wants to see if light affects the growth of petunia plants. John obtains two identical pots and fills each with the same type of soil. Two identical petunia plants are planted, one in each pot. John determines to place one pot in the window and the other pot in a closet. The plants will be observed under these conditions for three weeks during which both will be watered and cared for exactly the same. Which plant is the control?

What is a conclusion?

Inference – a conclusion
A judgment reached after an experiment Inference – a conclusion

What inference can be made from the graph?
Only 10.7 percent of all landfills have a permit to burn tires. b. About one-third of all scrap tires are either exported or recycled. c. Most scrap tires are illegally dumped to avoid tire disposal fees. d. The supply of scrap tires is greater than the reuse of scrap tires.

Which of the following conclusions is
Trade winds blow from east to west Across the Pacific Ocean. The winds move Surface waters westward across the ocean. This causes deeper, colder water to rise to The surface along the coast. This upwelling Of deep ocean waters brings with it nutrients that Would otherwise lie near the bottom of the ocean. Which of the following conclusions is supported by the information above? F Trade winds help maintain some food chains. G Trade winds produce useful minerals in some oceans. H Trade winds can reverse parts of the water cycle. J Trade winds may be able to reduce greenhouse gases.

A Most horses like the medication.
Horses kept in stables sometimes chew on wood this condition is called cribbing. Cribbing can lead to damage to the mouth and digestive system. The graph shows the results of a study of a medication that prevents horses from chewing on wood. From the graph, what inference can be made about the effectiveness of the product? A Most horses like the medication. B The medication is most effective between Day 4 & 5. C Most horses will show improvement within 7 days. D The effects of the medication are long lasting.

What is CER?

CER (Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning) – a method used during experimentation to arrive at a solution for a problem through reasoning supported by evidence. Claim (C) - A statement about the solution to the problem Evidence (E) - Scientific data that supports the claim Reasoning (R) - Justification (which means you have to back it up) that shows why data counts as evidence supporting the claim.