2Figures of Speech Figures of speech are words or phrases that depart from straight-forward,literal language. Figures of speechare often used and crafted foremphasis, freshness, expression, orclarity.
3FigurativeAdjective- of the nature of or involving a figure of speech, especially a metaphor; metaphorical and not literal, as in figurative language .My Definition:- a comparison to something- not real
4Literaladjectivetrue to fact; not exaggerated; actual or factual: a literal description of conditions.in accordance with, involving, or being the primary or strict meaning of the word or words; not figurative or metaphorical: the literal meaning of a word.MY definition: FOR REAL!
5Figurative or Literal ____ 1. Eric thinks doing schoolwork is one big video game.____ 2. Lauren has made up her mind to volunteerevery Tuesday after school.____ 3. Thinking about summer camp makes mefeel like a bundle of sunshine.____ 4. As I delivered my speech, my voice soundedas if I’d swallowed rocks and sand.____ 5. Emma may seem clumsy, but onstage shedances like a gazelle.____ 6. Jacob expresses many feelings through hisphotography.____ 7. My favorite tennis shoes have grown tiredand weary.FLFFFLF
6LFFFFFLJonah forgot about the field trip, so some of the kids called to see if he was all right.F
8Uses of Figures of Speech Figures of speech can …create images in a reader’s mind.establish moods.express feelings and ideas in interesting andsurprising ways.As I slept beneath the stars, a white blanket of fog covered me in its misty folds.
9What do these sayings mean? Discuss/write down with your partner. 1) They were as busy as bees.2) My love is deeper than the ocean.3) The room looks like a pig sty.4) The announcement was music to my ears.5) It’s a jungle out there.6) Pretty as a picture7) Sly as a fox8) Smooth as silk9) Slow as molasses10) Burns like fire12) Mad as a hornet13) Dark as midnight14) Thorn in my side
10* Choose 6 and draw a picture for each. Why might figures of speech be confusing for people whose first language is not English?
11Kinds of Figures of Speech FIVE types of figurative language we will use in fiction are…similesmetaphorsidiomshyperbolespersonification
12Understanding Figures of Speech When you read a figure of speech, use what you know about one thing to help you understand more about the other.In the water, Mark was a dolphin.Corbis Images/HRWDolphins are good swimmers.Mark was a good swimmer.
14What Are Similes?Similes are comparisons between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles.The city lights twinkle like stars in the night sky.CORBIS Images/HRWCORBIS Images/HRW
15Phoebe ran like a cheetah. What Are Similes?Phoebe ran like a cheetah.Corbis Images/HRWCorbis Images/HRW
16The city lights are stars that twinkle in the darkness. What Are Metaphors?Metaphors are imaginative comparisons between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing. A metaphor does not use like or as.The city lights are stars thattwinkle in the darkness.CORBIS Images/HRW
18MetaphorThe flood waters rose, and the river became a ravenous monster. Raging on for hours, it consumed everything in its sight.What kind of sentence is the first one?compoundWhat kind of sentence is the second one?simpleThe second sentence begins with a ________________.Gerund
19Metaphor His ideas were a flock of birds in flight. A direct metaphor directly compares two things using a verb such as is.His ideas were a flock of birds in flight.An indirect metaphor implies or suggests the comparison.His ideas spread their wings and soared freely.
20Metaphor This computer is a dinosaur. Quick CheckIdentify each metaphor as either direct or indirect.This computer is a dinosaur.She stared at me with venomous eyes and hissed out her reply.The old motorcycle barked and yipped before it started up with a howl.Today my mind is the wind blowing across rolling hills.
21Quick Check Direct This computer is a dinosaur. Indirect She stared at me with venomous eyes and hissed out her reply.IndirectThe old motorcycle barked and yipped before it started up with a howl.DirectToday my mind is the wind blowing across rolling hills.
22What Have You Learned EXIT SLIP? On a small piece of paper, number to five.- Write your answers and put them in the slot.Simile Metaphor1. Her cheerful laugh was a rainbow in a stormy sky.2. Birds streamed across the sky like black ribbons.3. The baby’s skin was as soft as rose petals.4. A librarian’s mind is a treasure chest.5. His smile was brighter than sunshine.MetaphorSimileSimileMetaphorSimile
23PersonificationA figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea.EXAMPLE:“The wind yells through the trees."The wind cannot yell. Only a living thingcan yell.
24PersonificationThe sun was shining on the sea, Shining with all his might:He did his very best to make The billows smooth and bright.—from “The Walrus and the Carpenter” by Lewis CarrollThe sun has come to life and is acting as if he/she is a person.
25Hunger sat shivering on the road. PersonificationHunger sat shivering on the road.2) Flowers dancedabout the lawn.
26Understanding Personification Write down the word that gives a quality of a person.1. The sun stretches itswarmth across the land.2. The chair danced as thebaby bounced to and fro.3. The darkness wrappedits arms around me.
27Using Personification Look at the words below.With your partner, discuss how to give each word a quality of a human and write a sentence for each.frog ___________________________table __________________________grass __________________________night __________________________
28EXIT SLIP Review of Simile, Metaphor, and Personification Quick CheckIdentify each figure of speech.SimileMetaphorPersonificationSpring caresses the earth and sky with her warm, delicate hands.PersonificationOur friendship is as comfortable as a pair of flannel pajamas.SimileThe old factory had become a heaving, grunting beast.Personification
29Hyperbole I’m older than the hills. They ran like greased lightning. An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect.It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point.Examples:She said, “Marvelous” on several millionoccasions.You’ve grown like a bean sprout.I’m older than the hills.They ran like greased lightning.Her brain is the size of a pea.
30Hyperbole Hyperbole is exaggeration. It puts a picture into the reader’s mind.Example: You could have knocked me over with a feather.Hyperbole is used for emphasis (makes that part more important) or humorous effect. With hyperbole, an author makes a point by overstating it.
31HYPERBOLE=His feet are as big as boats.I almost died laughing.
32DescriptionsHyperbole makes qualities of people or things stand out by exaggerating them.Examples: The skin on her face was as thin and drawn as tightly as the skin of an onion.She’s the funniest girl I’ve ever met.Create five of your own examples.
33Exaggeration!Hyperbole can also be used to describe a person’s emotions (feelings).In the following selection, a boy is pulling a man up from a deep hole.“It was not a mere man he was holding, but a giant; or a block of granite. The pull was unendurable. The pain unendurable.”—James Ramsey Ullman, "A Boy and a Man"What makes this hyperbole? Write down your answer.
34Show me the exaggeration! There did not seem to be brains enough in the entire nursery, so to speak, to bait a fishhook with.—Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's CourtPeople moved slowly then. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County.—Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird
35Quickest Review EVER! Hyperbole: -is exaggeration -is used for emphasis-is used for humorous effect-is used in descriptions-of people-of emotions
36IdiomsAn idiom (or idiomatic expression) refers to a construction or expression in one language that cannot be matched or directly translated word-for-word in another language.Example:“She has a bee in her bonnet," meaning "she is obsessed," cannot be literally translated into another language word for word.
38What is an idiom?words, phrases, or expressions that are not interpreted logically or literallyunusual expressions that are either grammatically incorrect or have a meaning that cannot be comprehended through contextual cluesMichelle Gaines
39It’s raining cats and dogs means: Cats and dogs are falling from the sky.It’s raining very hard.It’s not raining much at all.The weather is horrible.a.b.c.d.HINT: I can’t go outside becauseit’s raining cats and dogs and Iwould get soaked!Michelle Gaines
44Skeletons in Your Closet Skeletons in your closet means:Your closet is full of skeletons.You are hiding something in your closet.You have secrets or something that you don’t want anyone to know.You are not afraid of anything.a.b.c.d.Hint: Why shouldn’t you be able to answerall of my questions? Don’t tell me you have skeletonsin your closet!Michelle Gaines
49Shake a Leg!! Shake a leg means: A dance move used in the Shag. a. Shake your leg to get a bug off of it.Hurry up!You are doing the Hokey Pokey.a.b.c.d.Hint: We’re going to be latefor the plane if you don’tshake a leg!Michelle Gaines
54Common Idioms and Their Meanings: To break the iceTo be the first to say or do something hoping that others will join youTo have a chip on your shoulderDescribes a person who is angry and defensive or who is always ready to argue or fightHold your horsesBe patient; wait a minuteOver the hillOld or too old to do somethingOn cloud nineVery happy or excitedPulling your legTeasing youMichelle Gaines
55Additional References About Idioms: has fun idiom games.has an a to z list of idioms with categories and quizzes.is a site about a software program you can buy about idioms.is another idioms review site .has practice quizzes.tells where specific idioms originated.All pictures found at: (If not from Clip Art)Sounds from:(Audio Browser)Other material used:Raining Cats and Dogs by Myra Shulman AuslinMichelle Gaines
57Simile, metaphor, idiom, hyperbole, or personification ____ 1. Eric thinks doing schoolwork is one big video game.____ 2. Lauren has made up her mind to volunteer every Tuesday after school.____ 3. Thinking about summer camp makes me feel like a bundle of sunshine.____ 4. As I delivered my speech, my voice sounded as if I’d swallowed rocks and sand.____ 5. Emma may seem clumsy, but onstage she dances like a gazelle.____ 6. Jacob expresses many feelings through his photography.____ 7. My favorite tennis shoes have grown tired and weary.____ 8. Before the soccer match, both teams attended a sportsmanship program.____9. I have a ton of paperwork to do before I can enjoy the sun this summer.____ 10. Sometimes I have to be my little brother’s brain._____11. Some students are getting swept out of the library._____12. Her brain is the size of a pea._____13. That joke went right over my head._____ 14. The students caught him with his pants down on Monday. I forgot about the field trip._____15. It was a group project, but everyone rode Andrew's coattails
58Practice = HOMEWORKFigures of speech are widely used. Look through a newspaper or magazine, including the advertisements, and gather at least six figures of speech. Look for examples of similes, metaphors, and personification.