Presentation on theme: "Unit Two: Diabetes Serious effects a disease within one system can have on homeostasis in the body as a whole."— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit Two: DiabetesSerious effects a disease within one system can have on homeostasis in the body as a whole
2 Back to Anna…The ME noted she was wearing a Medical Alert bracelet labeling her as a diabeticPay attention to all aspects of her medical historyThink about how diabetes impacts overall health and wellnessCould this disease have contributed to her death?
6 2.1 Essential Questions What is diabetes? How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes?How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin?What is the relationship between insulin and glucose?How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose into body cells?What is homeostasis?What does feedback refer to in the human body?How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose?
10 Activity 2.1.1 Diagnosing Diabetes Patient HistoriesCase histories, physical exams, blood tests, urine test…etc.The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG)Preferred: easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than othersGlucose Tolerance Testing (GTT) (vs. FPGTT)Gestational diabetesMonitors the amount of sugar in blood plasma, over a set time periodInsulin Level TestingUsed to determine whether a patient has Type 1 or Type 2 diabetesGlycated hemoglobin (A1C) testBlood sugar levels are monitored over a two to three month period and may assist in a diagnosis of diabetes and subsequent control
11 Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) Blood always contains trace amounts of glucose (sugar)Found in food, used by the body as fuelNormally the amount of sugar in urine is too low to be detectedWhen to a test is needed to rule out diabetesRoutine tests reveal significant levels of sugar in the urinePatient complains of excessive thirst or urinationGlucose Tolerance Testing (GTT)Monitors the amount of sugar in blood plasmaOver a set time period andGives doctors information as to how the body utilizes sugar
12 Insulin test (IT)Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes BOTH cause high blood sugar levels (i.e. high glucose levels)But for different reasonsInsulinHormone produced by the body to help cells take in the glucose found in the bloodWithout it our cells cannot take in glucose from our bloodType 1 diabetics do not produce insulinType 2 diabetics produce insulin, but the body does not permit this hormone to effectively do its jobTo determine whether a patient has Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, you need to test the level of insulin in the patient’s blood
13 Activity 2.1.1 Includes the following Notes Conclusion Questions Table and figure of GTT resultsTable and figure of IT resultsParagraph diagnosing each patient with/without diabetes and type I or type IINotesTables and figures in excelSave on USBPrint, and copy paste into notebookBe sure to name axes, fix increments on x-axis and adjust scale to get rid of empty space.
14 Vítejte! Jsme moc rádi, že jste přišli The LSA proudly welcomes students from the Hejcin Student Exchange Program
20 Blood Test Results for Diabetes Anna Garcia is a Type 1 diabeticA prolonged rise in blood glucose levels indicates that Anna is a diabetic.A lack of insulin in the blood at each time period indicates that she is a Type 1 diabetic.She is not producing insulin and thus her glucose levels are remaining elevated over the time period.Patient A is not diabetic, but should be considered pre-diabeticA brief rise in glucose levels stays within the range of normal (perhaps elevated for a bit too long)However, risk factors described show that the patient is at risk for Type 2 diabetes.Patient B is a Type 2 diabeticA prolonged rise in blood glucose levels indicates that Patient B is a diabetic.Insulin testing reveals a normal level of insulin in the blood in response to increased levels of glucose.Therefore, the patient produces insulin, but it is not being effectively used by the body, indicating Type 2 diabetes.
22 2.1.2 The Insulin Glucose Connection Insulin is required for your cells to take up glucoseSteps of Insulin Mediated Glucose UptakeInsulin binds to a receptor site embedded in the cell membraneBinding triggers a signal transduction cascade (i.e., series of biochemical events) to a Glucose Transport Protein (GLUT) inside the cellGLUT moves into the cell membrane via exocytosisGLUT begins moving in glucose via passive, facilitated transport
27 2.1.2 The Insulin Glucose Connection In this project you will investigate how insulin and glucose are involved in cell communicationImagine that you are a healthcare professional who has the task of explaining the connection between insulin and glucose to a group of adults who are either at risk for diabetes or have just been diagnosedIn this project you will create a 3-D working model demonstrating how insulin works to move glucose into cellsYou will use your model to explain this process to your target audience
28 2.1.2 Design requirements for the model The model must be 3-D with moveable partsGlucose transport proteinsCell membraneThe model should be labeled clearlyGlucoseBloodThe model must accurately show the role of insulin as it relates to glucose in the bodyCellInsulinInsulin receptorsSignal transduction pathwayMake sure that the model accurately depicts the role of the following terms insulin-mediated glucose uptakeExocytosis
30 2.1.3 Feedback LoopsFeedback- a signal within a system that is used to control that systemFeedback loop- When feedback occurs and a response resultsFound in many living and non-living systemsEnhance (+) changes orInhibit (-)changesKeep a system operating effectively
31 2.1.3 Feedback Loops Move above and below Target set point Negative Feedback LoopsPositive Feedback LoopsMove above and belowTarget set pointTowards stabilizationE.g. temperatureMove away fromTarget set pointAmplifyE.g. fruit ripening (ethylene)
32 Negative Feedback: Body Temperature 37⁰C Too HotSweat- Evaporatative coolingVasodialate- (red face) Blood carried to surface, convectionTemperature Drops too farTurn off cooling mechanismsToo ColdGoose bumps- Hair stands on end, skin pulls tight to conserve heatVasoconstrict- Pull blood inward, less convectionShivering- Muscle constrictionTemperature goes too highTurn off heating mechanisms
33 Negative Feedback Loop: Blood Glucose Level Uses insulin & glucagon hormonesPancreas- Regulates BGLAlpha cells sense glucose, and beta cells produce hormonesHigh BGLHigh insulin (hormone) secretion from pancreasTriggers cells to use more glucoseTriggers liver to store glucose as glycogenBGL decreaseLow BGLPancreas STOPS producing insulinProduces glucagon (hormone)Frees glucose from glycogen in liverBGL increase
34 Glucose- Free in blood, what cells use for energy Glycogen- stored glucose in the liverGlucagon- hormone stimulates freeing of glucoseInsulin- hormone stimulates glucose uptake
37 What if there is an error in the loop? Type I DiabeticsBeta cells don’t workNo insulin is secretedGlucose levels increase without a check and balanceType II DiabeticsToo much glucose throughout lifeCells stop recognizing insulin
38 Activity 2.1.3 Feedback Loops Watch Biology Essentials #18 with Mr. Anderson (15m)Complete Activity ( 2 concept maps worth 25pts/ea)Include at least 3 images in eachConnecting lines should always have textMake sure both are well organized, logical, readable and complete
39 Career Journal due Friday or Monday Notebook check Friday RemindersCareer Journal due Friday or MondayNotebook check FridayPortfolio check FridayBring in food samples Friday!Science Day at KWC Saturday!Register at 9:30AMProgram lasts from 10-2PM
40 Bring in Food Samples Friday!!! Ritz crackersSome brand of low fat crackersWhole MilkSkim milkPotato chipsApple juiceYogurtGelatinCerealPeanuts (ground) – NOTE: Pay attention to allergiesLemon Lime soda (7UP)
41 Review 2.1 Essential Questions & Key Terms What is diabetes?How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes?How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin?What is the relationship between insulin and glucose?How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose into body cells?What is homeostasis?What does feedback refer to in the human body?How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose?GlucagonGlucose Tolerance TestHomeostasisHormoneInsulinNegative FeedbackPositive FeedbackType 1 DiabetesType 2 Diabetes
42 Unit 2.2 Preview: We Will…Define various terms commonly used on food labelsAnalyze food labels to determine the nutritional content of the respective food itemsAnalyze Anna’s diet and assess how well she was meeting (or exceeding) her nutritional requirementsComplete a series of molecular puzzles to build macromolecules and explore the biochemistry of foodExplore the energy content of various foods by completing calorimetry experimentsSee how the body works to harness the power of what we eat
43 2.2 Essential Questions & Key Terms What are the main nutrients found in food?How can carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins be detected in foods?What types of foods supply sugar, starch, proteins and lipids?How can food labels be used to evaluate dietary choices?What role do basic nutrients play in the function of the human body?What are basic recommendations for a diabetic diet?What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids?What is dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to harnessing energy from food?How is the amount of energy in a food determined?Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP)Amino AcidCalorieCarbohydrateChemical BondChemical IndicatorChemical ReactionCompoundCovalent bondDehydration SynthesisDisaccharideElementGlucoseHomeostasisHydrolysisIonic bondLipidMacromoleculeMoleculeMonomerMonosaccharideNutrientPolymerPolysaccharideProtein
48 2.2.1 Food Testing Toxicology report Anna was a diabetic Anna had high amounts of glucose in her bloodSuggests that Anna ate a large meal near the time of her deathAnna was a diabeticShe had to watch her diet carefullyAnalysis of her stomach contents may reveal information about Anna’s last mealProvide additional evidenceYou will perform chemical tests to determine what foods contain carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
49 2.2.1 Food Testing Each student bring one food in: Ritz crackersSome brand of low fat crackersWhole MilkSkim milkPotato chipsApple juiceYogurtGelatinCerealPeanuts (ground) – NOTE: Pay attention to allergiesLemon Lime soda (7UP)The Food Testing Virtual Lab available at htm
50 2.2.1You will explore the basic content of food and begin to investigate how food choices play a role in diabetes management.Activity PacketAnna’s Food DiaryAdditional Autopsy ResultsYou will test foods that Anna consumed in the days before her death for the presence of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.Part 1: Positive (AND NEGATIVE) ControlsPart II: Test 3 items + Anna’s stomach contents
51 2.2.1: Part 1 Standard Test Control Results (-) (+) #1: Glucose #2: Starch#3: Protein#4: Lipids
53 2.2.1 Notes Be sure I check your control table after Part 1. Be sure I check your experimental procedure & prepared data table (Part II, #4).Everything must be cleaned and put back before you guys leave.Clean test tubes with the test tube brush.Be careful, they’re glass, they will break.
54 2.2.1 Part IIYou are tasked to test Anna’s stomach contents to determine the makeup of her last meal. You will design a procedure for testing this mixture as well as determining the chemical makeup of three standard food items.TestResponse to IndicatorMolecular Make UpBenedict’s SoL (glucose)Lugol’s Iodine (starch)Biuret SoL (protein)Paper Towel (lipid)Item 1Item 2Item 3Stomach Contents
55 2.2.2 Nutritional LabelsYou have probably looked at the nutritional label beforeInformation about the composition of foodOverall nutritional valueHelps people, especially diabetics, make smart choicesIn Activity you identified four basic components of common food items.In this activity you will define various terms commonly used on food labels and then analyze food labels to determine the nutritional content of the respective food items.Later in the unit, you will test each food item to determine how much energy the item can provide.
56 FDA How to Understand and Use The Nutrition Facts Label
57 Read the label…Serving SizeThis section is the basis for determining number of calories, amount of each nutrient, and %DVs of a food.Use it to compare a serving size to how much you actually eat.Serving sizes are given in familiar units, such as cups or pieces, followed by the metric amount, e.g., number of grams.
58 Amount of CaloriesIf you want to manage your weight (lose, gain, or maintain)The amount of calories is listed on the left side.The right side shows how many calories in one serving come from fat.The key is to balance how many calories you eat with how many calories your body uses. Tip: Remember that a product that's fat-free isn't necessarily calorie- free
59 Limit these NutrientsEating too much total fat (including saturated fat and trans fat), cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, such as heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure.The goal is to stay below 100%DV for each of these nutrients per day.
60 Get Enough of these Nutrients Americans often don't get enough dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron in their diets. Eating enough of these nutrients may improve your health and help reduce the risk of some diseases and conditions.
61 Percent (%) Daily Value Tells you whether the nutrients (total fat, sodium, dietary fiber, etc.) in one serving of food contribute a little or a lot to your total daily diet.The %DVs are based on a 2,000-calorie diet.Each listed nutrient is based on 100% of the recommended amounts for that nutrient.
62 Footnote with Daily Values 18% for total fatOne serving furnishes =18% of the total amount of fat that you could eat in a day and stay within public health recommendations5%DV or less is low20%DV or more is highFootnote with Daily Values%DVsThe footnote provides information about the DVs for important nutrients, including fats, sodium and fiber. The DVs are listed for people who eat 2,000 or 2,500 calories each day.The amounts for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium are maximum amounts. That means you should try to stay below the amounts listed.
63 DVs vs. Dietary Reference Intakes Recommendations for determining daily nutritional requirements focus on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)Nutritional needs taking other factors into accountAge, size, and activityThey are not used on food labelsInformation on food labels remains general
64 Anna Garcia Nutrient Analysis United States Department of Agriculture SuperTracker - Food Tracker available at https://www.choosemypl ate.gov/SuperTracker/fo odtracker.aspxUse Anna’s Nutrition File to create a profile on the SuperTrackerCompiles nutritional information and compares what is consumed to daily recommendations.
65 This Week… Tuesday- No class Wednesday Thursday Friday Blood Glucose Feedback Loop QuizBiochemistry WorkshopThursday2.2.3 Molecular PuzzlesFriday2.23 Due Friday2.2.2 Due FridayTurn in: Nutritional Terms Chart, Food Labels Chart & Super Tracker print outConclusion questions in notebook with other notes as directed in 220.127.116.11.1 Day in the Life for Homework
66 Additional Directions Use your DRI (calculated through the USDA web- calculator) instead of the standard 2,000/dayYou will not get YOUR values for unsaturated, saturated, trans fats, sugar or cholesterolMake estimates for these based on your DRIFirst column values can be in gramsFood item values should be in percentIf you have a range of allotted values, use the median for to calculate the %DRI for each food item
67 Necessary- Is there a problem HERE? Is the project...Necessary- Is there a problem HERE?Effective- Will your project affect the problemPractical- For 25 (talented) freshman to accomplish?Timely- Can we do it THIS year?Considerate- No hurt feelings in audience!Funded- How will you fund your idea?Inclusive- Roles for everyone to play?Fun! Is this something we WANT to do?
68 Back to Anna…Were Anna’s food choices meeting her basic nutritional needs as well as her needs and limitations as a diabetic?Lets’ discuss!
70 The Bulk of Living Matter: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
71 Trace Elements Essential to life Occur in minute amounts Trace ElementsEssential to lifeOccur in minute amountsCommon additives to food and waterDietary deficienciesPhysiological conditionsEx) iodized salt
72 Elements Combine to Form Compounds Chemical elements combined in fixed ratiosSodiumChlorineSodium ChlorideFigure 2.3
73 AtomsThe smallest particle of matter that still retains the properties of an elementComposed of 3 Subatomic ParticlesProtons: positive chargeNeutrons: Neutral ChargeElectrons: Negative Charge
74 Subatomic Particles Positive charge In a central nucleus ProtonsPositive chargeIn a central nucleusDetermine Atomic Number= to electrons when neutralneutronsNeutral chargeElectronsNegative chargeArranged in electron shellsSurrounding nucleusDetermine ability to bond= to protons when neutral
75 Outermost electron shell (can hold 8 electrons) Atomic StructureHydrogen (H)Atomic number = 1ElectronCarbon (C)Atomic number = 6Nitrogen (N)Atomic number = 7Oxygen (O)Atomic number = 8Outermost electron shell (can hold 8 electrons)First electron shell (can hold 2 electrons)Periodic Table
76 Atoms whose shells are not full Form chemical bonds in an attempt to fill their outer shellsWith a full outer shell, it has no reason to react with another atomTend to interact with other atoms andElectrons are Transferred (Gain or Lose)Electrons are SharedThese interactions form chemical bondsIonic bonds- e transfer or shift between molecules, results is an ion and attractions (bonds) between ions of opposite chargeCovalent bonds- e sharing, join atoms into molecules (unequally shared= polarity)Hydrogen bonds- are weak bonds (attractions) important in the chemistry of life (H and O)
79 Isotopes The number of neutrons in an atom may vary Variant forms of an element are called isotopesSome isotopes are radioactive
80 Chemical EquationsChemical equations are “chemical sentences” showing what is happening in a reaction.Example:X Y XY(reactants) (reacts to form) (product)What does the equation below mean?2H2 + O H2O
83 Puzzle RulesOxygen and hydrogen atoms can bond with anything they fit with. Remember that each snap represents a covalent bond.A molecule is stable (complete) only if it has no available pegs or slots (Note: proteins are an exception).Macromolecules are assembled by connecting puzzle pieces of the SAME color and oxygen and hydrogen atoms.The lettering on the puzzle pieces must be visible and all in the same general direction when assembling the puzzle pieces.
84 Activity 2.2.3 Completed Part 1 already, start at Part 2: Puzzles If it says “in the space below” put it in your notesConclusion QuestionsResponses in Notes
85 Name of Macromolecule: Food Examples from Anna’s Diet Composed of:Building Block(s):Function:Examples:Food Examples from Anna’s DietCarbohydratesProteinsLipidsNucleic AcidsX
89 For Friday: Complete 2.2.3 Bring in food items: Marshmallows Bread ChipsCheetosSugary Cereal
90 This Week… Tuesday- No class Wednesday Thursday Friday Blood Glucose Feedback Loop QuizBiochemistry WorkshopThursday2.2.3 Molecular PuzzlesFriday2.23 Due Friday2.2.2 Due FridayTurn in: Nutritional Terms Chart, Food Labels Chart & Super Tracker print outConclusion questions in notebook with other notes as directed in 18.104.22.168.1 Day in the Life for Homework
91 Activity 2.2.4 How much energy is in food? What is a calorie, and how is it related to food?Heat= energyAs the food burns…energy is being releasedFirst Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.How is the amount of energy in a food determined?
92 Using Energy from FoodEveryday actions are powered by the energy obtained from foodYour body disassembles what you eat, bit-by-bit, and captures the energy stored in the molecules that make up the foodRequires multiple body systems working together.The digestive systemMechanicallyChemicallyAbsorbed through the small intestineTravel via the circulatory system to all the regions of the bodyCells in the tissues of the body capture the energy as the food moleculesBroken into ever smaller molecules with the help of oxygenObtained from the respiratory system.
94 OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis) NADHFADH2GLYCOLYSISGlucosePyruvateCITRIC ACID CYCLEOXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis)Substrate-level phosphorylationOxidative phosphorylationMitochondrionandHigh-energy electrons carried by NADHATPCO2Cytoplasm
95 ATP ADP Adenosine diphosphate Adenosine Triphosphate Phosphate groups The energy in an ATP molecule is in the bonds between its phosphate groupsPhosphate groupsATPEnergyPHydrolysisAdenineRiboseH2OAdenosine diphosphateAdenosine Triphosphate+ADPFigure 5.4A
96 Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP: Oxidative phosphorylation, using electron transport and chemiosmosisElectron shuttle across membraneMitochondrionCytoplasm2NADH2NADH(or 2 FADH2)2NADH6NADH2FADH2GLYCOLYSISOXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis)CITRIC ACID CYCLE2 Acetyl CoA2GlucosePyruvate+ 2 ATP+ 2 ATP+ about 34 ATPby substrate-levelphosphorylationby substrate-level phosphorylationby oxidative phosphorylationAbout 38 ATPMaximum per glucose:
97 Activity 2.2.4 How much energy is in food? Labels list the number of calories in a serving of a foodThe number of calories is an indication of the amount of energy that a serving of food provides to the bodyThis process for measuring the amount of energy in food is called calorimetry
98 Calorie Confusion!!! There are two definitions of the word calorie They differ by a factor of 1000CHEMISTRY CALORIE (calorie) is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of ONE g of water 1° C and is = to joules.FOOD CALORIE (kilocalorie) is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of ONE kilogram of water 1° C and is = to 4186 joules.1 food calorie= 1,000 chemistry calories1 food calorie*1,000= 1 chemistry calorie26 food calories= 2,600 chemistry calories1 chemistry calorie/1,000= 1 food calorie345 chemistry calories= food calories
99 Activity 2.2.4 How much energy is in food? MeasurementsSample 1Sample 2Food usedMass of empty can (g)Mass of can plus water (g)Minimum temperature of water (°C)Maximum temperature of water (°C)Initial mass of food (g)Final mass of food (g)
100 Activity 2.2.4 How much energy is in food? Follow ALL directions carefully!Burn 2 food itemsWe will work on this today and WednesdayThursdayConclusion questionsCJ on Biochemist OR Food ScientistStart 2.3.2: Diabetic Emergency
101 Activity 2.2.4 Math Review Sample 1 Sample 2 Mass of H2O 82.30 91.90 Sample 1Sample 2Mass of H2O82.3091.90Change in H2O Temp0.082.30Change in Food Mass0.101.30E Gained by water (chem calories)E food (chem cal/g)E food (food cal/g)Food Energy (joules/g)Food Energy (kilojoules/g)Energy gained by water (chemistry calories) = (mass of water) x (change in temperature) x (specific heat of water)The specific heat of water is 1 calorie ÷ (1 g x 1°C)= 1.E Gained (chem cal) S1= 6.584E Gained (chem cal) S2=
102 Activity 2.2.4 Math Review Sample 1 Sample 2 Mass of H2O 82.30 91.90 Sample 1Sample 2Mass of H2O82.3091.90Change in H2O Temp0.082.30Change in Food Mass0.101.30E Gained by water (chem calories)6.584211.37E food (chem cal/g)E food (food cal/g)Food Energy (joules/g)Food Energy (kilojoules/g)Energy content of the food sample (chemistry calories) = Energy gained by water ÷ change in mass of foodE Food (chem cal/g) S1= 65.84E Food (chem cal/g) S2=
103 Activity 2.2.4 Math Review Sample 1 Sample 2 Mass of H2O 82.30 91.90 Sample 1Sample 2Mass of H2O82.3091.90Change in H2O Temp0.082.30Change in Food Mass0.101.30E Gained by water (chem calories)6.584211.37E food (chem cal/g)65.84162.59E food (food cal/g)Food Energy (joules/g)Food Energy (kilojoules/g)Calculate the energy content of the food sample in food calories.1 food calorie= 1000 chem calories (1 km= 1000m)Chem calorie/1000= food calorie (m/1000=km)E Food S1 (food cal/g)=0.07E Food S2 (food cal/g)=0.16
104 Activity 2.2.4 Math Review Sample 1 Sample 2 Mass of H2O 82.30 91.90 Sample 1Sample 2Mass of H2O82.3091.90Change in H2O Temp0.082.30Change in Food Mass0.101.30E Gained by water (chem calories)6.584211.37E food (chem cal/g)65.84162.59E food (food cal/g)0.070.16Food Energy (joules/g)Food Energy (kj/g)Calculate the food energy (joules/g). One chemistry calorie is equal to joules.E food (chem cal/g) * 4.186= joules/gFood Energy (joules/g) S1=Food Energy (joules/g) S2=
105 Activity 2.2.4 Math Review Sample 1 Sample 2 Mass of H2O 82.30 91.90 Sample 1Sample 2Mass of H2O82.3091.90Change in H2O Temp0.082.30Change in Food Mass0.101.30E Gained by water (chem calories)6.584211.37E food (chem cal/g)65.84162.59E food (food cal/g)0.070.16Food Energy (joules/g)275.61680.61Food Energy (kj/g)0.280.68Divide by 1000 to get kJ/gFood Energy (kg/g) S1= 0.28Food Energy (kg/g) S2= 0.68
106 Due TursdayCareer Journal on Food Scientist or Biochemist
107 Review 2.2 Essential Questions & Key Terms What are the main nutrients found in food?How can carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins be detected in foods?What types of foods supply sugar, starch, proteins and lipids?How can food labels be used to evaluate dietary choices?What role do basic nutrients play in the function of the human body?What are basic recommendations for a diabetic diet?What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids?What is dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to harnessing energy from food?How is the amount of energy in a food determined?Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP)Amino AcidCalorieCarbohydrateChemical BondChemical IndicatorChemical ReactionCompoundCovalent bondDehydration SynthesisDisaccharideElementGlucoseHomeostasisHydrolysisIonic bondLipidMacromoleculeMoleculeMonomerMonosaccharideNutrientPolymerPolysaccharideProtein
108 2.3 Essential Questions & Key Terms What are several ways the life of someone with diabetes is impacted by the disorder?How do the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia relate to diabetes?What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar?How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ?What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?What is the importance of checking blood sugar levels for a diabetic?How can an insulin pump help a diabetic?What are potential short and long term complications of diabetes?What innovations are available to help diabetics manage and treat their disease?Hemoglobin A1CHyperglycemiaHypertonicHypoglycemiaHypotonicIsotonicOsmosisSoluteSolutionSolvent
109 2.3.1 A Day in the Life of a Diabetic You will help patients like Anna, confronted with a new diagnosis of diabetes, by designing a “What to Expect” guide. It MUST include:Basic biology of the diseaseInsight into a Typical DayDaily routinesRestrictionsLifestyle choices and modificationsCoping and Acceptance
110 2.3.1 A Day in the Life of a Diabetic Any format: Brochure, newsletter, video, website, blog…etc.Read for inspiration: (all 3 are online)Marco’s Story (Type 1)DJ’s Story (Type 2)Erica’s Story (Type 1)
111 2.3.1 A Day in the Life of a Diabetic Swap completed “What to Expect” guides with a group that researched the other type of diabetes. Read the information presented.Take out the diabetes Venn diagram you started in Activity Add additional information about Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes that you have learned through this activity to the diagram.
113 2.3.2 Diabetic Emergency You may have touched on these in your guide What causes a diabetic emergency?Since her diagnosis, Anna adjusted to checking and regulating her blood sugar with insulinBut on more than one occasion, she lost control of this balanceHer body experienced a diabetic emergencyRead about each of these incidents and connect her symptoms to what was happening with her blood sugar, and consequently, her cells
114 2.3.2 Diabetic EmergenciesScenario #1 (Anna, age 16) On a hot day in August, Anna pushed herself too hard in a soccer game that went into overtime. She felt dizzy, but she wanted to press on for her team. She ate a good meal before the game and took what she felt was the appropriate amount of insulin, but by the end of the game, she was trembling and clammy. Even though she felt weak and her vision was blurry, she stayed on the field with her teammates to celebrate the win. Before she made it back to the bench, she passed out in the arms of a teammate. An ambulance was called and Anna was rushed to the ER. She had a brief seizure in the ambulance. Scenario #2 (Anna, age 25) Anna went on vacation with her friends to an all-inclusive resort. Even though she checked her blood sugar frequently, there were times she forgot to bring her supplies with her down to the beach. She allowed herself to splurge on desserts that were not sugar-free. She even had a few glasses of wine. She noticed that she had to go to the bathroom quite often, but she just assumed that was due to the alcohol. She also drank tons of water throughout the day, but attributed her thirst to the heat and humidity. On the 3rd day of the trip Anna felt like she was getting the flu. By the evening, she was confused and disoriented and was beginning to speak incoherently. Anna took more insulin, but her friends took her to the doctor just to be sure she was OK. Luckily, Anna was given IV fluids and sent home after a few hours. Scenario #3 (Anna, age 29) At a wedding, Anna knew she would be consuming more food than she normally ate. She took extra insulin before she got there so she did not have to worry about injections during the reception. She figured the ceremony would be short and she could enjoy snacks at the cocktail hour that followed. Unfortunately, the ceremony went longer than expected and she began to feel a bit dizzy. She immediately drank a juice box that was in her purse and she soon felt back to normal. She stopped to check her blood sugar before the reception just to be sure.
115 2.3.2 Diabetic EmergenciesIn this activity you will use a model of a cell to simulate how the body reacts to varying blood glucose concentrationsFirst we need some background on cellular regulation: diffusion, active transport and osmosisRemember:Plasma membrane is selectively permeablePhospholipid bilayerPhospholipids1 phosphate group and 2 fatty acidshydrophilic headhydrophobic tails
116 CytoplasmOutside of cellTEM 200,000 Figure 5.10
117 Hydrophilic heads Water Hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic heads Figure 5.11B
118 Transport Across Membrane PassiveDiffusion- Passive TransportFacilitated Diffusion- Passive Transport with HELPOsmosis- Passive with WATERActive Transport- Requires ATP= Energy!FacilitatedExocytosisEndocytosis
119 Diffusion Particles spread out evenly in an available space Moving from high concentration to low concentrationConcentration GradientTravel down concentration gradient until equilibrium is obtainedMultiple substances diffuse independentlyPassive transport- substances diffuse through membranes without work by the cellO2 and CO2 move in and out of our red blood cells in our lungSmall, nonpolar molecules diffuse easilyWhat about large molecules, ions or polar molecules?
121 Facilitated Diffusion Many kinds of molecules do not diffuse freely across membranesCharge, size, polarityRequire facilitationStill passive transport- no energy requiredFacilitated by transport proteins in 2 waysTransport protein provides a pore for solute to passTransport protein binds to solute, changes shape and releases it on the other sideSolute examplesSugars, amino acids, ions and water
123 Osmosis DIFFERENT! NOT about the movement of solute!!! The diffusion of water across a membraneWater travels from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentrationWater is used to “balance out” different solute concentrations to equilibrium“waters down” the side with “too much” solute
124 Lower concentration of solute Higher concentration of solute Equal concentration of soluteH2OSolute moleculeSelectively permeable membraneWater moleculeSolute molecule withcluster of water moleculesNet flow of water
125 Osmosis and Water Balance Osmoregulation- the control of water balanceIsotonic- solution = in solute concentration to the cellHypotonic - solution with solute concentration lower than the cellHypertonic- solution with solute concentration greater than the cellOsmosis causes cells to:shrink in hypertonic solutionsswell in hypotonic solutions
128 Active Transport Cell work is not ALWAYS about balance Ex) The cell needs more K+ and less Na+ than its’ external environment (Na+/K+ PUMP) to generate nerve signalsCells expend energy for active transportTransport proteins can move solutes against a concentration gradientTo the side with the most soluterequires ATPEx) The cell needs more K+ and less Na+ than its’ external environment (Na+/K+ PUMP) to generate nerve signals
129 P Protein changes shape Phosphate detaches ATP ADP Solute Transport proteinSolute binding1Phosphorylation2Transport3Protein reversion4
130 Exocytosis and endocytosis Transport large molecules particles through a membraneExocytosis- A vesicle may fuse with the membrane and expel its contentsEndocytosis- Membranes may fold inward enclosing material from the outside
133 Transport Across Membrane Diffusion- Passive TransportParticles spread out evenly in an available space, moving from high concentrated to regions where they are less concentratedFacilitated DiffusionStill passive (no energy required) move solutes against a concentration gradientRequires the help of transport proteinsOsmosisDiffusion of water from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentrationActive TransportTransport proteins move solutes against a concentration gradient, requires energyExocytosis and EndocytosisMove large molecules across the membrane
138 Activity 2.3.3 Complications of Diabetes We know rapid shifts in blood sugar can have severe consequencesToo much glucose in your bloodMany long term consequences, especially if the disease is not well-controlledYou will visualize this impact on a graphic organizer and use information about complications to further analyze details of Anna’s autopsy report
139 Problem 2.3.4 The Future of Diabetes Management and Treatment What are the biggest concerns facing diabetics?Come up with innovation to help diabetics!You will pitch/present your idea and design to a panel of experts (the members of your class).You will only have 5 minutes to explain your idea.Medicines That Backfire presentation on websiteMake sure to defend how this innovation would improve the life of a diabetic.
141 Review 2.3 Essential Questions & Key Terms What are several ways the life of someone with diabetes is impacted by the disorder?How do the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia relate to diabetes?What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar?How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ?What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?What is the importance of checking blood sugar levels for a diabetic?How can an insulin pump help a diabetic?What are potential short and long term complications of diabetes?What innovations are available to help diabetics manage and treat their disease?Hemoglobin A1cHyperglycemiaHypertonicHypoglycemiaHypotonicIsotonicOsmosisSoluteSolutionSolvent
142 End of Unit 2Test Prep and Portfolio Development