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A Study of the Immune System An Innovative Solution for allergies.

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1 A Study of the Immune System An Innovative Solution for allergies

2  About 50 million people are affected by allergies in the US  Main costs are due to  Medications  ER visits  But many people are not diagnosed or do not follow the treatment regimen

3  From 1980 to 2010 the percentage of the western population with allergies went up from 10% to 30%  Food allergies are increasing among children  New allergies being discovered  Latex allergy

4  Current cost of allergies about $32 billion  Since many people are not diagnosed, the costs are underestimated  More and more people are becoming allergic

5  Acute flair ups require ER visits  Average cost $1,038  Continuous cost of chronic problems  Antihistamines  Topical-steroids  Epi-pens  Over $200 /month

6  Stay on constant vigilance  On medication at all times  Ingredients in foods  Indoor or outdoor activities  Carry epi-pens and know how to administer them  Opportunity cost  About 3.8million lost school and work days because of allergies annually Do they have pets?

7  People with allergies often have other chronic diseases  Average person with allergies has 2.3 co- morbid conditions  The most common co-morbid condition is hypertension

8  Envirobots has come up with an innovative solution.  We will modulate your immune system to react differently to harmless allergens  Obvious benefit for allergy patients  Other immune system diseases can benefit in the future  Auto immune, cancer, AIDS, organ transplant recipients

9  Increase in cleanliness  By constantly washing up, we are underexposed to dust, pollen, and other common allergens.  Our body now incorrectly classifies those substances as antigens  Limited exposure to animals  Animals possess endotoxins- a bacteria that helps prevent allergies and diseases  Technological developments expose us to more chemicals

10  Environmental Pollution  When pollen is coated with chemicals from burnt fossil fuels, the allergic reaction intensifies  Healthy lifestyle is sacrificed for convenience  People are not going outside anymore  Computers and videogames keep people inside  Less exposure to allergens makes people more allergic Games like Farmville are replacing actual hobbies like gardening.

11 Allergy typeData in the US Allergic rhinitis 35.9 million (about 11% of the population [75] ) [75] Asthma 10 million suffer from allergic asthma (about 3% of the population). The prevalence of asthma increased 75% from 1980-1994. Atopic eczema About 9% of the population. Between 1960 and 1990 prevalence has increased from 3% to 10% in children. [78] [78] Anaphylaxis About 40 deaths per year due to insect venom. About 400 deaths due to penicillin anaphylaxis. About 220 cases of anaphylaxis and 3 deaths per year are due to latex allergy. An estimated 150 people die annually from anaphylaxis due to food allergy. Insect venom Around 15% of adults have mild, localized allergic reactions. Systemic reactions occur in 3% of adults and less than 1% of children. Drug allergies Anaphylactic reactions to penicillin cause 400 deaths per year. Food allergies About 6% of US children under age 3 and 3.5-4% of the overall US population. Peanut and/or tree nut allergy affects about three million Americans, or 1.1% of the population.


13  The Immune system was discovered in the Plague of Athens in 430 BC  Protects us against anything that attacks the body  White blood cells guards against  External pathogens like viruses and bacteria  Internal tumors

14 1st Physical barriers 2nd Innate immune system 3rd Adaptive immune system

15 Prevent pathogen entrance  The skin acts like a ceran wrap  Other openings in the body are protected  E.g. nose Pathogens that do get in get excreted/destroyed  Body secretions  Saliva, mucus, urine, faeces, tears  Chemicals like stomach acid destroy bacteria  Gut flora prevent colonization of pathogens Entry point on bottom Nose hairs filter out particles

16 PartsFunction PhagocytesEngulfs antigens BasophilsContain histamine Natural KillersKills antigens Dendritic CellsBridge to adaptive system Complement System/cytokines Proteins that attract phagocytes release histamine  Histamine is secreted by Mast cells  Vasodilation increases blood supply  Phagocytes attracted by complement  Complement helps phagocytes engulf and also release histamine Macrophage Instantaneous, inflammatory response to antigens

17 Parts Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC or HLA) Helper T cellsKiller T cells B CellsAntibodies  Histamine is secreted by Mast cells  Vasodilation increases blood supply  Phagocytes attracted by complement  Complement helps phagocytes engulf and also release histamine B Cell with antibodies Tailored responses to specific antigens

18 The person’s body now “remembers” the pathogen, so he knows what to due in future Adaptive Immune System response: a pathogen- specific attack is started Innate immune System Response: A generic response is initiated The foreign substance gets past physical barriers The pathogen attacks !


20  The adaptive immune system uses the MHC molecules to find antigens  The MHC molecules are able to display proteins on their surface  T-cells use these protein displays to identify the antigens  Aka Human Leukocyte Antigen

21  Have receptors called antibodies on surface where antigens attach  Initial response  Antigen attaches to a receptor stimulating B cells to divide  Some B cells change into memory cells, to remember the specific antigen  Others change into plasma cells that produce antibodies for the next attack  Secondary Response  If the B cells comes into contact with the allergen again they quickly multiply Antibody

22  Learn to distinguish self from non self cells  Three types  Killer T cells attach to foreign or abnormal cells (having encountered them before) and kill these cells through a method of puncturing the cell and injecting enzymes to kill them  Helper T cells recognize the antigen and summon the B cells and killer T cellers  Suppressor T cells produce chemicals to stop the immune response

23 Initially, a T cell can’t recognize an antigen in the body because it is too big to fit into the T-cell receptor. MHC molecules link with the smaller antigen fragments, and present them to the T-cell receptors The smaller fragments understandable by the T-cell, which begin the defense Enzymes within the dendritic cell break the antigen into little fragments. A dendritic cell, which can process antigens, digests it.


25  The Immune system can make mistakes  False detections of external pathogens result in allergies  False detection of internal tissues can cause auto-immune diseases

26 Sometimes the immune system makes a mistake and thinks a harmless product is antigen B cells and antibodies are activated Killer T cells are activated The body has just initiated an Inflammatory Response IgE binds to the mast cells The mast cells de- granulate and release the histamine in them The MHC helps display the antigen to the T cells who recognize it as non self The peptide signal is displayed


28  Consists of a set of nano-bots introduced into the blood stream  The nanobots stop the allergic reactions  A control arm band  Allows the antigens to be configured for the nanobot  Allows for a manual over-ride in case of emergency

29  Stops the attack even before it starts  The nanobots recognize the peptide combination presented by the MHC and break it down before the antigen is presented to the T cells  Destroys peptide signal to helper T cells  The Arm band has different signals for different peptides programmed into it EnviroBOSS destroying the antigen presentation

30  The arm band is like a control center  program peptide combinations using a easy to use user interface  Communicates with nanobots using high frequency microwaves which are reliable and don’t hurt your body  Manual override  Panic button releases epinephrine in case of emergency Antenna for communicating with nanobot Epinephrine

31  Multiple nanobots are injected into the bloodstream  The nanobot is programmed to recognize the amino acid/peptide combinations, which represent the user’s allergies.  The robot motor is made from grafted heart muscles and powered by the patient’s blood sugar  When a programmed protein combination is recognized by the nanobot it destroys the protein preventing the immune system reactions Radio antenna Signal Destroyer Sugar intake View from the bottom

32 (Alternate treatments)

33 ANTIHISTAMINESENVIRO BOSS  Histamines are still present, so brain stays alert and awake  Body doesn’t adapt to nanobots  Emergency should not even arise but the epinephrine panic button is easy to use in emergencies  Drowsiness in older antihistamines  Body adapts to antihistamines and you need a new one every few months  No good in emergencies

34 IMMUNOTHERAPYENVIRO BOSS  Immediate effect after treatment  Works with all allergies  Emergencies should not even arise but the epinephrine panic button is easy to use in emergencies  Takes a long time to take effect  Does not work in food allergies  No good in an emergency

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