Presentation on theme: "A Study of the Immune System An Innovative Solution for allergies."— Presentation transcript:
A Study of the Immune System An Innovative Solution for allergies
About 50 million people are affected by allergies in the US Main costs are due to Medications ER visits But many people are not diagnosed or do not follow the treatment regimen
From 1980 to 2010 the percentage of the western population with allergies went up from 10% to 30% Food allergies are increasing among children New allergies being discovered Latex allergy
Current cost of allergies about $32 billion Since many people are not diagnosed, the costs are underestimated More and more people are becoming allergic
Acute flair ups require ER visits Average cost $1,038 Continuous cost of chronic problems Antihistamines Topical-steroids Epi-pens Over $200 /month
Stay on constant vigilance On medication at all times Ingredients in foods Indoor or outdoor activities Carry epi-pens and know how to administer them Opportunity cost About 3.8million lost school and work days because of allergies annually Do they have pets?
People with allergies often have other chronic diseases Average person with allergies has 2.3 co- morbid conditions The most common co-morbid condition is hypertension
Envirobots has come up with an innovative solution. We will modulate your immune system to react differently to harmless allergens Obvious benefit for allergy patients Other immune system diseases can benefit in the future Auto immune, cancer, AIDS, organ transplant recipients
Increase in cleanliness By constantly washing up, we are underexposed to dust, pollen, and other common allergens. Our body now incorrectly classifies those substances as antigens Limited exposure to animals Animals possess endotoxins- a bacteria that helps prevent allergies and diseases Technological developments expose us to more chemicals
Environmental Pollution When pollen is coated with chemicals from burnt fossil fuels, the allergic reaction intensifies Healthy lifestyle is sacrificed for convenience People are not going outside anymore Computers and videogames keep people inside Less exposure to allergens makes people more allergic Games like Farmville are replacing actual hobbies like gardening.
Allergy typeData in the US Allergic rhinitis 35.9 million (about 11% of the population  )  Asthma 10 million suffer from allergic asthma (about 3% of the population). The prevalence of asthma increased 75% from 1980-1994. Atopic eczema About 9% of the population. Between 1960 and 1990 prevalence has increased from 3% to 10% in children.   Anaphylaxis About 40 deaths per year due to insect venom. About 400 deaths due to penicillin anaphylaxis. About 220 cases of anaphylaxis and 3 deaths per year are due to latex allergy. An estimated 150 people die annually from anaphylaxis due to food allergy. Insect venom Around 15% of adults have mild, localized allergic reactions. Systemic reactions occur in 3% of adults and less than 1% of children. Drug allergies Anaphylactic reactions to penicillin cause 400 deaths per year. Food allergies About 6% of US children under age 3 and 3.5-4% of the overall US population. Peanut and/or tree nut allergy affects about three million Americans, or 1.1% of the population.
The Immune system was discovered in the Plague of Athens in 430 BC Protects us against anything that attacks the body White blood cells guards against External pathogens like viruses and bacteria Internal tumors
1st Physical barriers 2nd Innate immune system 3rd Adaptive immune system
Prevent pathogen entrance The skin acts like a ceran wrap Other openings in the body are protected E.g. nose Pathogens that do get in get excreted/destroyed Body secretions Saliva, mucus, urine, faeces, tears Chemicals like stomach acid destroy bacteria Gut flora prevent colonization of pathogens Entry point on bottom Nose hairs filter out particles
PartsFunction PhagocytesEngulfs antigens BasophilsContain histamine Natural KillersKills antigens Dendritic CellsBridge to adaptive system Complement System/cytokines Proteins that attract phagocytes release histamine Histamine is secreted by Mast cells Vasodilation increases blood supply Phagocytes attracted by complement Complement helps phagocytes engulf and also release histamine Macrophage Instantaneous, inflammatory response to antigens
Parts Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC or HLA) Helper T cellsKiller T cells B CellsAntibodies Histamine is secreted by Mast cells Vasodilation increases blood supply Phagocytes attracted by complement Complement helps phagocytes engulf and also release histamine B Cell with antibodies Tailored responses to specific antigens
The person’s body now “remembers” the pathogen, so he knows what to due in future Adaptive Immune System response: a pathogen- specific attack is started Innate immune System Response: A generic response is initiated The foreign substance gets past physical barriers The pathogen attacks !
The adaptive immune system uses the MHC molecules to find antigens The MHC molecules are able to display proteins on their surface T-cells use these protein displays to identify the antigens Aka Human Leukocyte Antigen
Have receptors called antibodies on surface where antigens attach Initial response Antigen attaches to a receptor stimulating B cells to divide Some B cells change into memory cells, to remember the specific antigen Others change into plasma cells that produce antibodies for the next attack Secondary Response If the B cells comes into contact with the allergen again they quickly multiply Antibody
Learn to distinguish self from non self cells Three types Killer T cells attach to foreign or abnormal cells (having encountered them before) and kill these cells through a method of puncturing the cell and injecting enzymes to kill them Helper T cells recognize the antigen and summon the B cells and killer T cellers Suppressor T cells produce chemicals to stop the immune response
Initially, a T cell can’t recognize an antigen in the body because it is too big to fit into the T-cell receptor. MHC molecules link with the smaller antigen fragments, and present them to the T-cell receptors The smaller fragments understandable by the T-cell, which begin the defense Enzymes within the dendritic cell break the antigen into little fragments. A dendritic cell, which can process antigens, digests it.
The Immune system can make mistakes False detections of external pathogens result in allergies False detection of internal tissues can cause auto-immune diseases
Sometimes the immune system makes a mistake and thinks a harmless product is antigen B cells and antibodies are activated Killer T cells are activated The body has just initiated an Inflammatory Response IgE binds to the mast cells The mast cells de- granulate and release the histamine in them The MHC helps display the antigen to the T cells who recognize it as non self The peptide signal is displayed
Consists of a set of nano-bots introduced into the blood stream The nanobots stop the allergic reactions A control arm band Allows the antigens to be configured for the nanobot Allows for a manual over-ride in case of emergency
Stops the attack even before it starts The nanobots recognize the peptide combination presented by the MHC and break it down before the antigen is presented to the T cells Destroys peptide signal to helper T cells The Arm band has different signals for different peptides programmed into it EnviroBOSS destroying the antigen presentation
The arm band is like a control center program peptide combinations using a easy to use user interface Communicates with nanobots using high frequency microwaves which are reliable and don’t hurt your body Manual override Panic button releases epinephrine in case of emergency Antenna for communicating with nanobot Epinephrine
Multiple nanobots are injected into the bloodstream The nanobot is programmed to recognize the amino acid/peptide combinations, which represent the user’s allergies. The robot motor is made from grafted heart muscles and powered by the patient’s blood sugar When a programmed protein combination is recognized by the nanobot it destroys the protein preventing the immune system reactions Radio antenna Signal Destroyer Sugar intake View from the bottom
ANTIHISTAMINESENVIRO BOSS Histamines are still present, so brain stays alert and awake Body doesn’t adapt to nanobots Emergency should not even arise but the epinephrine panic button is easy to use in emergencies Drowsiness in older antihistamines Body adapts to antihistamines and you need a new one every few months No good in emergencies
IMMUNOTHERAPYENVIRO BOSS Immediate effect after treatment Works with all allergies Emergencies should not even arise but the epinephrine panic button is easy to use in emergencies Takes a long time to take effect Does not work in food allergies No good in an emergency