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Nixon – Reagan The Conservative Trend. Richard Milhous Nixon Moved up political ladder quickly Seemed done after 1960 presidential loss & then 1962 gubernatorial.

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Presentation on theme: "Nixon – Reagan The Conservative Trend. Richard Milhous Nixon Moved up political ladder quickly Seemed done after 1960 presidential loss & then 1962 gubernatorial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nixon – Reagan The Conservative Trend

2 Richard Milhous Nixon Moved up political ladder quickly Seemed done after 1960 presidential loss & then 1962 gubernatorial loss Linked with American values & backlash against radicalism Critics viewed him as sneaky & judgmental

3 Limiting Federal Gov’t & Concentrating Power Believed federal gov’t under Grt Soc had too much responsibility New Federalism Revenue sharing Attempted to block Congressional initiatives against own policies by refusing to spend ("impounding") the funds allocated by Congress to these programs Also pushed "executive privilege" to limits Concentrated fed power w/ White House

4 The Economy National productivity way down Avg family median income stagnated (working wives only reason didn’t decline) Sense of limits found in foreign policy infiltrates economic homefront Deficit spending of 1960s coupled with increased oil prices COL tripled from ‘68 to ‘80

5 Appn’t conservative to head of Fed Reserve Contracted $ supply Longest & steepest inflationary cycle in history 1971 instituted 90 day wage & price freeze Took US off gold standard & devalued dollar “Stagflation” Increased fed spending Bizarre contradictions – tight $ to curb inflation & massive gov’t spending to deal w/recession

6 Domestic Initiatives Trying to give the “silent majority” what they want Less federal interference Wanted Congress to legislate against forced busing Prohibited Dept of Health, Ed & Welfare from cutting off fed funds from non complying school districts linked to Southern Strategy for ‘72 election Undoing of New Frnt & Grt Soc

7 Social Policies Increased $ for Food Stamps, Medicaid & AFDC (Aid to Families w/Dependent Children) & added SSI Automatic COLA for Social Security Philadelphia Plan Title IX - women EPA – Earth Day OSHA CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission)

8 The Court Nixon openly critical of Warren Court during campaign – “permissive” Took advantage of several vacancies Didn’t act the way Nixon Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971) New York Times v. United States (1971) Furman v. Georgia (1972) Roe v. Wade (1973) Bakke v Board of Regents of California (1978)

9 China China & SU clashing over interpretations of doctrine US played one against the other Feb. 1972 trip to China- commitment to “one China”

10 Soviet Union May 1972 – Nixon to Moscow Détente with both communist powers Anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty w/SU Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Should have signaled slowing of arms race but… both nations move to develop MIRVs

11 Still Hard-Core Anti-Communist Salvadore Allende –Marxist Chilean pres (1970) – Nixon unhappy w/election – trade embargo & CIA working for overthrow Allende dies in army attack (1973) US warm to successor Augusto Pinochet

12 Middle East Using relationship w/Shah of Iran to control Sov. expansion in region Yom Kippur War (Oct ‘73) – Syrian/Egyptian invasion of Israel Israel strikes back hard before US brokers cease-fire US will “pay” for Israeli relationship

13 Afdsd In response to the support – OPEC puts oil embargo on US & several Euro nations Interrelated economies cause recession Long lines, lower thermostats & speed limits “energy crisis”

14 The Election of 1972 Mostly about foreign policy George Wallace making another bid for Dem nomination – real concern for Nixon if forced into 3 rd party again – shot & paralyzed so withdrew Dems nominate Sen George McGovern – liberal stance on for. & dom. policies HUGE win for Nixon  The Election results.  The Electoral College: Nixon:520 McGovern:17  Popular Vote: Nixon:60.7% McGovern:37.5% But the Democrats increased their Senate majority and retained control of the House

15 Vietnamization Henry Kissinger – special assistant for nat’l security – key policy advisor Withdrawing 540,000 American troops over an extended time With US $, weapons & training, S.Vietnamese would take over fighting the war Nixon Doctrine Wasn’t enough for true doves Nixon/Agnew attacked “nattering nabobs of negativism” & “bums” – relied on “silent majority”

16 My Lai Massacre March 1968 – makes American news Nov. 1969 Search & destroy mission of S.Vietnamese village Ordered to kill everyone in village 300 older men, women & children killed (unarmed) Lt. Wm Calley only one convicted “Culture of Concealment”

17 Cambodia Cambodia had been being used to smuggle supplies, troops & weapons Initial “secret” bombings & then troop invasion to route NVA New pro-west gov’t in pwr Lon Nol Set off new round of student protests

18 Kent State May 1970 – 4 students killed – Nat’l Guard called in control protests 9 others injured Jackson State College – Mississippi- 2 students killed Massive student strike caused closure of colleges and high schools

19 Senate repeals Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Cut backs in draft calls 26 th Amendment passed (1971) But flames fanned by Pentagon Papers Daniel Ellsberg By 1971 - 65% of Americans wanted out but didn’t want to see S.Vietnam “fall” FBI & CIA increasing “surveillance” of radical protesters & groups Wanting progress to help ‘72 election Kissinger in Paris (Oct) w/Le Duc Tho – “peace is at hand” – but negotiations break down

20 “Christmas Bombing” Pressure put on Thieu to accept offer Jan. 27, 1973 – “ends” the war – POW give back high on list War Powers Act – Amer. troops sent by Pres. & not Congress only when "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces" notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to action & forbids forces from remaining for more than 60 days without an authorization of the use of military force or Congress declaring war Nixon vetoes but is overridden

21 American forces leave April ‘75 last officials leave embassy NVA takes hold of South – Ho Chi Minh City established Cambodia comes under control of Khmer Rouge US – 55,000 dead 300,000+ injured, $150 billion directly & more indirectly Image home & abroad changed Nat’l “self esteem” altered

22 Watergate Climate of “imperial presidency” had been developing for several decades “a president must not be one of the crowd…People don’t want him to be down there saying, ‘Look, I’m the same as you.” Empowerment & paranoia involved in keeping it lead to enemies lists, need for “plumbers” to stop leaks, dirty tricks & executive privilege Closed ranks around White House

23 June 1972 – Watergate break-in Offices of DNC headquarters Lead by James McCord – Former CIA & security coordinator for CRP Almost a dead story w/ no real implications on election Washington Post reporters Woodward & Bernstein keep the story alive

24 The Cover-Up Shredding of documents in HR Haldeman’s office (chief of staff) Admin asks FBI/CIA to stop investigating the break in CRP gives almost $450,000 to burglars

25 The Trial McCord sends Judge John Sirica letter saying he lied under oath & implicates members of administration in the break-in April 30, 1973 Nixon fires White House counsel John Dean & encourages resignations of Haldeman & John Ehrlichman (Chief Domestic Advisor) as they are implicated in cover-up Nixon goes on tv to reassure no cover-up & that new attny gen will appoint a special prosecutor to investigate – Archibald Cox Senate forms committee to investigate – chaired by Sam Ervin – televised testimony of the “president’s men”

26 “What did the president know & when did he know it?” Dean testifies pres deeply involved in cover-up White House still denying – who’s telling the truth? Alexander Butterfield (pres aid) offers up fact of taping conversations – “help write his memoirs”

27 Cox wants tapes turned over Nixon refuses & wants attny gen to fire Cox Saturday Night Massacre Richardson refuses to fire Cox & resigns Deputy attny general refuses order – fired Solicitor General Robert Bork fires him Replacement- Leon Jaworski continues to fight for tapes Agnew resigns after revealed he’d taken bribes while Maryland governor & vp House minority leader Gerald Ford become vp

28 Under pressure, Nixon announces will release edited transcripts Not good enough July 1974 SC rules tapes must be surrendered House Judiciary Committee moving on impeachment – obstruction of justice, abuse of pwr, contempt of Congress Tapes missing 18 ½ minutes but implicated in cover-up

29 Aug 8, 1974 – Nixon resigns before full house vote on articles Still admitted no guilt Ford sworn in as 38 th president 25 members of administration convicted Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act (1974): prohibited the impoundment of federal money. Federal Election Campaign Act (1976): provided for partial funding of presidential campaigns. The Freedom of Information Act was also strengthened; the improved FOIA revealed numerous abuses of power by the government, particularly by the FBI and the CIA

30 Gerald Ford

31 “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln” “Our long national nightmare is over.” Month later pardons Nixon Unemployment & inflation on rise OPEC raises prices 400% (1973) Voluntary cut backs – Whip Inflation Now Assumed tight $ policy Worst recession in 40 years More than 50 vetoes Actually a good sign

32 Ford’s Foreign Policy Followed détente – met with Leonid Brezhnev Arms control talks – groundwork for SALT II Helsinki Accords “Peace” agreement btwn Israel & Egypt Had tried to increase aid to S. Viet but Congress refused Mayaguez – 39 crew members – 41 soldiers

33 Election of 1976 Ford challenged by Ronald Reagan in primary but wins out Dems nominate James Earl “Jimmy” Carter – “outside the beltway”

34 Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 Nuclear engineer – US naval academy Peanut farmer Georgia governor Born-again Baptist background plays significant role in decisions Large Democratic majorities in both houses Encouraging beginning in shadow of years of conflict btwn branches A “leaf man” – forest for the trees

35 Domestic Agenda Created Department of Energy Reorganized – Health, Education and Welfare into Dept. of Education and Dept. of Health and Human Services Appnted 3 women to cabinet Appnted more Hispanic & African Americans to federal jobs & judgeships than ever before Pardoned “draft dodgers” Most conservative Dem president since Cleveland Presided over de-regulation of airlines, trucking, railroads, & banks. Social programs spending declined

36 60’s liberalism gone in post-Watergate reforms Left w/mass of social & entitlement programs Movement to require balanced federal budget, resistance to busing & affirmative action -rising anti-abortion (right-to-life) movement- feeling gov’t was getting too big/intrusive & had to be curbed Federal gov’t scapegoat for problems conservatives saw in nation(in actuality the fed. work force as a %of the population had fallen-- state and local governments had gotten bigger).

37 Appointed Paul Volcker -head of the Federal Reserve- advocated restrictive monetary policy, Double digit inflation Prime rate reached 20% by 1980 Huge impact of oil– imbalance of foreign trade – really had to engage in beginnings of global interdependent economy

38 Energy Oil consumption & importation increased Presented comprehensive energy plan to Congress - became bogged down & public apathetic The Iranian oil crisis of 1979 again caused gas lines (1974) Prospect for alternative sources bleak Coal reserves appeared unlimited (health, safety, &environmental concerns) Three Mile Island accident Solar energy & synthetic fuels

39 A National Malaise Loss of confidence – nation in general & in president/administration Was Carter the victim or the cause? Lacked vision & desire to educate and persuade the American people In this sense, he was like the last engineer president, Herbert Hoover July 1979 – after 10 days @ Camp David delivered “malaise” speech on tv American people too concerned with “material goods” “worship self-indulgence & consumption” – in a “moral & spiritual crisis”

40 Foreign Policy Not having international connections – drew on Trilateral Commission for Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and NSC advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski Conflict over attitude toward USSR Vance favoring détente extension Brzezinski more confrontational

41 Human rights guiding theme in foreign policy appn’ted Andrew Young as UN ambassador Former MLK co-worker Significant commitment to 3 rd world (Rhodesia/Zimbabwe & South Africa) Fired after taking PLO meeting Orchestrated give back of Panama Canal We bought it, we paid for it, we built it and we intend to keep it! – Ronald Reagan Control transferred Dec 21, 1999 Resumed full diplomatic relations w/China

42 Middle East Camp David Accords (1978) President Anwar Sadat & Prime Minister Menachem Begin Arguably greatest foreign policy accomplishment Israel agreed to give back territory won in 1967 Egypt agreed to respect Israel’s borders

43 Iran US supported Shah’s regime overthrown Jan 1979 Shah exiled in US for med treatment Islamic fundamentalist regime takes control Tehran embassy overrun & hostages taken - 444 days

44 Initial economic sanctions ineffective World wide public pressure also not getting hostages released Commando rescue mission ordered Mission failed – helicopters collided & 8 killed

45 Soviet Union US-SU relations remained the highest priority Principle goal :completion on the SALT II Waffling between Vance and Brzezinski Carter’s public support for Soviet dissidents & his role in recognizing China irritated the Soviets - delayed agreement until June 1979 Treaty proposed equal limits on both US & Soviet strategic nuclear forces, critics complained treaty confirmed Soviet superiority Instead of a "missile gap" they talked of a "window of vulnerability"

46 Claims not justified but raised enough support to prevent Senate from ratifying treaty. Worsening relations in late 1979 Soviet decision to deploy mobile SS-20 missiles in eastern Europe and the NATO counter- response of deploying Pershing and cruise missiles in western Europe Soviet invasion of Afghanistan(Dec 1979)

47 Carter’s Reactions Grain & high-tech machinery embargo on SU Asked Congress for increase in defense budget Carter Doctrine (1979) US would boycott 1980 Moscow Olympics Approved development of MX missile, a first- strike weapon & signed Presidential Directive No. 59 -emphasized flexibility in nuclear target selection and called for the capacity to wage limited and protracted nuclear war.

48 Election of 1980 “ABC” movement in Democratic Party (Anybody But Carter) Seen as befuddled & having mismanaged nation’s affairs Challenged for nom by Edward Kennedy Reagan clear Repub pick (George HW Bush as VP) Reagan attacks on basis of gov’t too big, inflation too high Carter paints Reagan as trigger happy cold warrior – too unstable for nuclear age John Anderson – liberal Repub ran as Indep

49 Results were a rejection of Carter, but not really endorsement of Reagan (low turnout itself a reflection of national malaise) The Electoral College: Reagan:489 Carter:40 Anderson:0 Popular Vote: Reagan:50.8% Carter:41.0% Anderson: 6.6% The Electoral College results showed Reagan's support spread fairly evenly Republicans did capture control of the Senate

50 Ronald Reagan New breed of Republican Former actor –supporter of FDR Head of Screen Actors Guild fought communists in union Spokesman for GE – support for priv. enterprise – persuasive & powerful Gov. of Calif. – more involved in party politics Was able to deliver “message” and sell it regardless of critics or situation Won support of Relig. Right Hostages released inaug. day – frozen Iranian accounts freed in exchange for men

51 Leadership – Reagan style All gov’t should be small but… Military’s primary goal to stop communism & should be large President not involved in day-to-day decision making – staff does that Heavy dependence on close advisors Kept “light” schedule w/lots of downtime Used media to keep message: patriotism=supporting his plans Image as strong, resilient (turned 70 in 1981)

52 March 30, 1981 “Honey, I forgot to duck” “I hope you’re all Republicans” 4 are injured – James Brady most seriously

53 Reaganomics Had promised to fix econ Supply-side economics Economic Recovery Tax Act: 25% cut over 3yrs Fed budget must be cut since less tax $s but w/expanding econ more $ will come in to help reduce deficit Cut lots of federally funded programs – welfare programs Huge Congressional support

54 Deregulation – got gov’t “out of the way”: Enviro protection – Sagebrush Rebellion – would save $ (EPA relaxed regs) Justice Dept. eased up on civil rights laws Dept. of Transport. slowed enforcement of car emission & safety standards Fewer programs for poor & needy would build responsibility & self initiative – would benefit from “trickle down effect” of tax cuts Plan never fully in place – Cong won’t cut Soc Sec & Medicare enough & Reagan unwilling to cut defense spending Won’t raise taxes so deficit skyrockets (will hit $100 billion in 1982)

55 1982 econ worsens – unemployment up to 11% Recovery begins 1983 and improves quickly Reagan plan was working? Allows for deficit to grow even more More a result of years of tight money policy International “energy glut” controlled oil prices Lots of gov’t spending Stock market booms for years

56 Foreign Policy Reemphasis on fighting communism Already declining relationship with SU only deteriorates (“evil” empire) SU’s crackdown on Solidarity- only made things worse Arms control/restriction still an issue SDI – enormous emphasis & expense for answer to missile gap problems SU & US critics argued Star Wars would only make it worse & needed to be 1 st reduction

57 Reagan Doctrine Expanding anti-communist stand No Soviet involvement/ support necessary to be a target Third-world activism reignited Grenada – Operation Urgent Fury El Salvador – helped gov’t resist insurgents Angola, Ethiopia, Nicaragua – support rebels against their communist gov’ts Lebanon – get involved in effort to oust PLO guerrillas – marines remain as peacekeepers until bombing attack on barracks kill 241 Increase in terrorist activities (hijackings, hostages, bombings) worldwide

58 Election of 1984 The Electoral College: Reagan:525 Mondale:13 Popular Vote: Reagan:58.8% Mondale:40.6% Walter Mondale & Geraldine Ferraro Reagan & Bush -confident in accomplishments of economy & international standing “It’s morning in America”

59 Iran-Contra Affair White House personnel trying to broker release of hostages held by Iranian-tied group in Lebanon Offer to sell Iran arms -through Israel- in exchange for hostages Didn’t go thru congressional oversight committee as should have NSC using profits from arms sales to get $ & weapons to Contras in Nicaragua (Boland Amend said no more aid) Tower commission to investigate what went on & who authorized what

60 Revelation that NSC staff- Admiral John Pointdexter & Colonel Oliver North - saw themselves empowered to create secret gov’t w/in gov’t-free to pursue hidden agenda beyond bounds of laws or legislative restraint Pointdexter, North, and CIA Director William Casey hoped to use the arms sales profits to help Contras & finance CIA-like operations outside the bounds of the Agency and congressional oversight

61 Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev’s new radical plans for SU Glasnost – “openness” Perestroika – “restructuring” Dial back Cold War expenses to make these plans work Multiple summit meetings & national visits Ultimately reductions in nuclear missiles More than a thaw – signals end of Cold War

62 Economic Legacy Borrowing to finance deficits raised interest rates making American exports uncompetitive & leading to expanding trade deficits, particularly w/Japan US transformed from largest net creditor nation to largest net debtor nation. Deindustrialization & growing service sector led to decrease in high-paying jobs & accelerated trend toward two-tiered society - the affluent & the poor Homelessness increasingly serious problem - many individuals & growing number of families

63 Inner city, increasingly sinking into poverty, more economically & socially isolated from rest of country 1987 Wall Street crash, worst crash since Great Crash of 1929 – Black Monday Sudden realization that fundamentals underlying Reagan prosperity --massive government deficits & overseas borrowing-- were unsound 1987 -rejection of major appntmnt to Supreme Court-- conservative legal ideologue Robert Bork

64 Election of 1988 Democratic race for nomination crowded: Gary Hart, early front-runner, self-destructed early in race in sex scandal Michael Dukakis(sheer endurance & superior financing/organization) Repub run George Bush-early flack over VPchoice - Dan Quayle Goes after Dukakis’s Mass. governor record hard: vetoed bill requiring students to say pledge of allegiance, opposed death penalty & mandatory school prayer, most importantly authorized furloughs for prisoners who went on to commit violent crimes (Willie Horton household name & rallying cry) Dukakis did not help himself by not responding to Bush's attacks or initiating some of his own until it was too late Campaign was more than any before it exercise in media manipulation - devoid of pressing issues (the deficit, the environment, the economy, employment, and homelessness) and tailored into "sound bites”

65 The Electoral College: Bush: 426 Dukakis: 111 Popular Vote: Bush:53.4% Dukakis: 45.6%

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