HISTORY Mid 1700’s – Became a British colony Positive: Abolished slavery Improved schools Built a large railway network
Negative India once had a thriving textile industry based on an abundance of Indian cotton GB exports Indian cotton to British factories GB manufactures cotton a factories in Britain costing Indian jobs GB sells finished products back to India HISTORY
An Indian law student who studied in GB. While in GB he learned of democracy and individual rights that British citizens had but Indians did not. Mahatma – Nickname given to Gandhi. It means Great Soul. GANDHI
Non-violent resistance – to oppose and enemy using any means other than violence Boycott – to refuse to purchase or use GANDHI
Sympathy – Gandhi and his followers gained world-wide support in their efforts to win independence. This put pressure on GB to act. GB was concerned about religious differences between Muslims and Hindus. August 14, 1947 – India gained independence. Due to religious fighting, India was to be divided GANDHI
Partition – To divide into parts This created to the country of Pakistan and the largest human migration in history 12.5 million people moved between India and Pakistan to avoid being governed by the opposing religion The result was tragic and resulted in the deaths of up to 1 million people HISTORY
PARTITION India and Pakistan have had many threats and conflicts ever since Both are believed to possess nuclear weapons Gandhi opposed the partition plan saying “Hindus and Muslims must learn to live together in peace because apart we will live in violence.”
GANDHI QUOTES “Personally, I hold that a man who deliberately and intelligently takes a pledge and then breaks it forfeits his manhood.” “An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.” “I am prepared to die for a cause in which I believe, but there is no cause for which I am prepared to kill.” “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” “The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is an attribute of the strong.”
Main Religion in Hinduism but Islam and Christianity are common too. RELIGION
BELIEFS 1. polytheism – the belief in many Gods 2. Every living thing has a spirit or a soul 3. Animals are treated with great respect 4. The cow is especially sacred 5. Brahma is the creator God 6. Unity with Brahma is the goal of all living things, but only when it is pure enough. 7. The Ganges River is sacred. Bathing in it or drinking from it helps to purify the soul.
8. Hinduism teaches the unity of all life. 9. reincarnation – The belief that humans and animals are re-born. The soul passes from body to body until it is pure enough to be unified with Brahma 10. If you die in the city of Varanasi, You will skip the reunification cycle and be unified with Brahma. Varanasi lies on the banks of the Ganges River and is the Holiest city in the Hindu world. BELIEFS
CASTE SYSTEM Caste system – A social hierarchy where people are born into a distinct rank in society 1. Brahmans – Priests, teachers, judges 2. Kshatriyas – warriors 3. Vaisays – farmers, merchants 4. Sudras – crafts workers, laborers
Outcastes or Untouchables – They are the lowest class. They do dirty work that no one else will do. Mostly they are poor/beggars CASTE SYSTEM
LIFE Joint family system – Extended family living together. Very common among the poor (not just in India) Cottage industry – Making goods using your own tools and your home as a shop.
IMPROVEMENTS 1. Most villages now have electricity. TV, Radio 2. Literacy rate is around 50% 3. Overall economy is much stronger, including agriculture 4. Consumer goods industries – helplines, telemarketing, have added jobs 5. Literacy rate: 1950 – 15%, today – 50% 6. Life expectancy – 1950 – 32, today – 60
CITIES 1. Many Indian cities are changing their names to drop the British influence and reflect more on Indian heritage 2. Cities are very crowded with high population density 3. Mumbai (Bombey) – population – 20.4 million. Density – 53,500/mi2 4. Chennai (Madras) – population – 6.5 million. Density – 69,900/mi2 5. Kolkata (Calcutta) – population – 4.5 million. Density – 62,800/mi2 6. New Delhi – capital city. Population – 17 million. Density – 29, 250/mi2 7. Varanasi – Holiest city in Hinduism. Population – 3.6 million. Density – 5,200/mi2