Hey, do you remember …? Yes, I do… Eh, I’m afraid not… Well, I’m not sure. No, I don’t. Give me some hints.
How can I remember my cell phone number? How can I remember my early memories in childhood? How can the actors/actresses remember their lines? How can singers remember their lyrics? How can I recall the knowledge I gained in exams?
Explicit use of memory Information is not processed by conscious Implicit use of memory Conscious helps to recall ▪ What’s abnormal? ▪ What’s missing?
Declarative memory Fact, events Procedural memory How to do such-and-such (learning) How can you remember a new phone number? ▪ Make it meaningful or create an image in brain?
Episodic memories Personal experience ▪ Your best birthday party; your first kiss Semantic memories Concepts, meanings, fomulas
Iconic memory What you see Echoic memory What you hear
When you want to call a friend, sometimes you need to look it up in your telephone book. You memorize the number till you dial successfully. But if you fails, probably you need to look it up again. Work memory Genernal magic digit number: (7+2) or (7-2) Make it meaningful to you and memorize more!
8, 1, 7, 3, 4, 9, 1, 7, 8, 5 J. M. R. S. O.F. L. P. T. Z. B.
Rehearsal ▪ Purposely repeating information to maintain it in short- term memory Chunking Organize and process your information 19850415313115 1985|0415|313|115 Make it meaningful for your memory
People can recall the scene when earthquake happened several decades later. Traumatic victims always feel physical and psychological pain after sexual abuse. We keep those past beautiful memories even though we already broke up.
Sensation Smell, visual sight, taste, touch Serial Position effect Primacy effect ▪ Remember the beginning better Recency effect ▪ Remember the last part better Making your flashcard effectively!!!
Retrieval cues Where did I meet her before? ▪ On campus? During Christmas? With mutual friends? I forgot the name of the king! ▪ Who was the name of the previous king?
Interference Forward acting ▪ The old information blocked the new things Backward acting ▪ The new stuff makes you difficult to recall the old ones You might not get used to your new phone number at the very beginning, but you usually can’t recall your old one after you can naturally use your new number.
My dog Puppy little dog dog Basic level Animal extinct animal Schemas Knowledge package, the bunny in the kitchen
If you witnessed an car accident, you might recall better when you stayed on the street. If you were the criminal, you might have stronger response for your own criminal scenes.
If you went to police office to give statement, some situation might occur: Make it simple Add more details Fit in personal background knowledge “I swear all I tell will be all of the truth”, really?
After a car accident, I can not remember what happened when I crashed. After the earthquake, I can not recall the emotions or feelings at that point. After being rescued from suicide, I can not remember who I was. All aim to protect yourself and block the negative influence on you
I forgot… Boiling water Locking the door Words I want to say Names of my dear friends Faces of my families … Please treasure the moments when you still have abilities to remember.