Presentation on theme: "Comma Rules *22f. Items in a Series *22g. Separating Adjectives *22h. Independent Clauses *22i. Nonessential Clauses/Phrases *22j. Introductory Elements."— Presentation transcript:
Comma Rules *22f. Items in a Series *22g. Separating Adjectives *22h. Independent Clauses *22i. Nonessential Clauses/Phrases *22j. Introductory Elements *22k. Interrupters *22l. Conventional Uses *22m. Unnecessary CommasItems in a SeriesSeparating AdjectivesIndependent ClausesNonessential Clauses/PhrasesIntroductory ElementsInterruptersConventional UsesUnnecessary Commas
22f. Items in a Series Use commas to separate items in a series. EX: I like cheese, pepperoni, and sausage on my pizza. Words customarily used in pairs are set off as one item in a series. EX: Sometimes I like to eat macaroni and cheese, biscuits and gravy, or milk and cookies.
22g. Separating Adjectives Use commas to separate 2+ adjectives preceding a noun. EX: For lunch we had smooth, creamy broccoli soup. EX: Sally has a shiny, red bike. NOTE: If a word modifies (describes) 1 of the adjectives preceding the noun, the word is an adverb, not an adjective, and therefore should not be followed by a comma. EX: Which of these neckties looks best with this light green shirt? [Light modifies the adj. green, not the noun shirt.]
22h. Independent Clauses Use a comma before a FANBOYS when the conjunction joins independent clauses (a compound sentence). EX: Charlie brought charcoal and lighter fluid, but he forgot matches. EX: Mary took her dog for a walk, but she skipped going down Third Street to avoid the creepy cemetery.
22i. Nonessential Clauses & Phrases Use commas to set off nonessential subordinate clauses and nonessential participial phrases. *A nonessential (or nonrestrictive) subordinate clause or participial phrase contains information that is not necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence. EX: Emilia Ortiz, who lives across the street from me, won a scholarship to Stanford University. [nonessential clause] EX: Kelly, waiting outside the stage door, got the band leader’s autograph. *These clauses & phrases can be left out without changing the main idea of the sentence.
22i. Nonessential Clauses & Phrases An essential (or restrictive) subordinate clause or participial phrase is not set off by commas because it contains information that is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. EX: The sophomores who made the Honor Roll were listed in the school newspaper. EX: Library books that are lost or damaged must be replaced. EX: Two poems written by Lorna Dee Cervantes are included in our literature book.
22j. Introductory Elements Use a comma after certain introductory elements. 1. Use a comma to set off a mild exclamation such as well, oh, or why at the beginning of a sentence. Other introductory words such as yes and no are also set off by commas. EX: Sure, I’ll go with you. EX: Oh, look at that car! EX: No, I haven’t taken the exam yet.
22j. Introductory Elements 2. Use a comma after an introductory participle or participial phrase. EX: Shivering, the couple hurried into the warm lobby of the movie theater. EX: Calling for a timeout, the referee blew his whistle and signaled. EX: Exhausted after a three-mile swim, Diana emerged from the water.
22j. Introductory Elements 3. Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase if the phrase is long or if 2+ phrases appear together. EX: During the long bus ride home, we sang songs and told stories to amuse ourselves. EX: By the light of the harvest moon in September, we went on an old-fashioned hayride.
22j. Introductory Elements 4. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. *An introductory adverb clause may appear at the beginning of a sentence or before any independent clause in the sentence. EX: When you’ve gone to this school for a while, you’ll know your way around, too. EX: The first game of the season is Friday; after we claim our first victory, we’ll celebrate at Darcy’s Deli.
22k. Interrupters Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence. 1. Use commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases. *An appositive is a noun/pronoun placed beside another noun/pronoun to identify or describe it. An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers. EX: A senator from Kansas, Nancy Landon Kassebaum, was the principal speaker. EX: Do you know him, the boy wearing the blue shirt?
22k. Interrupters A nonessential (or nonrestrictive) appositive or appositive phrase adds information that is unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence. In other words, the meaning of the sentence is clear and complete with or without the appositive or appositive phrase. EX: Have you read At Home in India, a book by Cynthia Bowles? EX: On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong, one of the three astronauts on the Apollo 11 mission, became the first person to walk on the moon.
22k. Interrupters An essential (or restrictive) appositive or appositive phrase is not set off by commas because it adds information that makes the noun/pronoun it identifies or explains more specific. In other words, if you were to omit an essential appositive or appositive phrase, you would leave out key information or would change the intended meaning of the sentence. EX: My friend James helped me. EX: Speaking of movies, have you seen the animated film The Prince of Egypt?
22k. Interrupters Use commas to set off words used in direct address. EX: David, please close the door. EX: Did you call me, Mother? EX: Yes, Mr. Ramos, I turned in my paper.
22k. Interrupters Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. *A parenthetical expression is a side remark that adds information or shows a relationship between ideas. EX: In fact, Emily Dickinson is my favorite poet. EX: You are, I hope, planning to arrive on time. After all At any rate Consequently For example For instance Generally speaking However I believe In fact In the first place Meanwhile Moreover Nevertheless Of course On the contrary On the other hand That is Therefore
22l. Conventional Use Use commas in certain conventional situations. 1. Use commas to separate items in dates and addresses. EX: On Saturday, June 21, 1999, Robert moved to Miami Beach, Florida, with his parents. EX: His new address is 814 Georgia Avenue, Miami Beach, Fl
22l. Conventional Use 2. Use a comma after the salutation of a personal letter and after the closing of any letter. EX: Dear Marcus, EX: Sincerely yours, NOTE: Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter. EX: To whom it may concern:
22l. Conventional Use 3. Use a comma to set off an abbreviation, such as Jr., Sr., or M.D., that follows a person’s name. EX: Elena Moreno, M.D. EX: Russell E. Davis, Jr., has been elected mayor.
22m. Unnecessary Commas Do not use unnecessary commas. *Too many commas can be as confusing as too few. Do not use a comma unless a rule requires one or unless the meaning would be unclear without it.