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Dual Process and Cognitive Bias in Clinical Decision Making Joan M. Von Feldt, MD, MSEd Professor of Medicine

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Presentation on theme: "Dual Process and Cognitive Bias in Clinical Decision Making Joan M. Von Feldt, MD, MSEd Professor of Medicine"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dual Process and Cognitive Bias in Clinical Decision Making Joan M. Von Feldt, MD, MSEd Professor of Medicine vonfeldt@mail.med.upenn.edu

2 Thinking Fast and Slow Daniel Kahneman

3 Heuristics and Biases Thin Slicing Recognition Primed Deliberation without attention Modular responsivity Gestalt effect Inductive reasoning Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Robust Decision Making Normative reasoning Exhaustion Strategy Bounded rationality Bayesian reasoning Approaches to Decision Making IntuitiveAnalytical Croskerry. Adv in Health Sci Ed 2009; 14:27-35

4 System I (Intuitive) System II (Analytical) Cognitive StyleHeuristicSystematic Cognitive AwarenessLowHigh AutomaticityHighLow RateFastSlow EffortLowHigh Emotional ComponentHighLow Scientific RigorLowHigh ErrorsMoreLess Properties of the 2 types of decision-making

5 Examples: System 1 & 2 Thinking Your route to work An out of town guest staying with you who will meet you at your work Your route to work after being away for 20 years or major road work

6 Croskerry P. Clinical cognition and diagnostic error: applications of a dual process model of reasoning. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2009 Sep;14 Suppl 1:27-35. Model for diagnostic reasoning based on pattern recognition and dual-process theory

7 Heuristics Pattern Recognition Illness Scripts Gestalt Instance Scripts i.e “Blink”; “Thinking Fast”

8 Heuristics Can be good: »provide cognitive “short cuts” in the face of complex situations »Help us to be efficient Can be bad: »They tend to be thinking traps – so beware! »Can adversely influence our diagnostic decisions Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80.

9 Institute of Medicine Report Published in 1999 Addressed the problem of preventable medical errors Charged the healthcare industry to evaluate and change their systems to prevent patient harm

10 Systems Errors: Complicated

11 Cognitive Errors: Just As Complicated…But In A Different Way

12 Cognitive Error Categories Faulty Knowledge Faulty Data Gathering Faulty Information Processing Faulty Verification

13 Origins of diagnostic error in 100 patients Leape LL, et al. N Engl J Med 1991; 324(6): 377-84. Graber ML. Franklin N. Gordon R. Diagnostic error in internal medicine. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2005; 165(13): 1493-9. 19% related to Systems Error 28% related to Cognitive Error 46% related to both Systems and Cognitive Errors Forgot to f/u on the blood cultures… Poor communication among consultants….. Didn’t expand your differential diagnosis…..

14 Anchoring Bias Also called “premature closure” the failure to continue considering reasonable alternatives after a primary diagnosis is reached, is the most common diagnostic error ie When the diagnosis is made, the thinking stops Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80.

15 Confirmation Bias Confirmation bias Tendency to look for confirming evidence to support a diagnosis rather than look for discomfirming evidence to refute it (despite the latter often being more persuasive and definitive) Absolutely! Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80.

16 Availability Availability bias Judge things as being more likely if they readily come to mind Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80.

17 Unpacking Principle The failure to elicit all relevant information in establishing a differential diagnosis that may result in significant possibilities being missed Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80.

18 Framing Effect The framing of the patient scenario, including the source and where the patient is seen, influences the way the patient is thought about Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80

19 Diagnosis Momentum Also known as “chart- lore”- once diagnostic labels are attached to patients, they become stickier and stickier Croskerry, P. Acad Med 2003; 78:775-80.

20 Visceral Bias Counter-transference negative feelings towards a patient may result in diagnoses being missed Common Types »Non-compliant patients »Homeless patients »Patients with chronic pain »Obese patients

21 Cognitive Bias Can Lead to Errors in Diagnosis

22 How Do We Deconstruct Our “Brick Walls”?

23 5 Basic Questions to Help Avoid Cognitive Errors What are traps I might fall into What else can it be? Is there anything that doesn’t fit? Is there’s more than one thing going on? Is this a case where I need to “slow down”?

24 Summary Heuristics are important for efficiency of care Heuristics can also be used for expediency of care that may compromise optimum care Cognitive bias is an important factor that can adversely influence diagnostics Thorough problem lists and broad differentials can mitigate some cognitive bias MD 305 rule: Minimum of 3 diagnoses, 2 organ systems

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