Presentation on theme: "The Parts of a Sentence 512-520. Sentence or Fragment? A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT."— Presentation transcript:
The Parts of a Sentence
Sentence or Fragment? A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT. A thought is complete when it MAKES SENSE on its own.
Examples of Sentences The weary TEACHER had left her keys locked in her room. For how many years was MR. HARDY the principal here? What extraordinary courage the early PLATYPUS HUNTERS must have had! Wait! [The subject of this last one is understood to be YOU.]
Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a word or group of words that MAY BE capitalized and punctuated as a sentence… but does not contain BOTH a subject AND a verb OR does not express a complete thought.
Sentence Fragment Examples Fragment:Athletes representing 8 schools. Sentence:Athletes representing 8 schools competed in the event. Fragment or Sentence? Between the towering mountain ridge and the wide ocean only a few miles away.
Exercise 1 (514) 01. I would like … 02. The town is… 03. They have been… 04. He is… 05. C 06. C 07. The movie was better… 08. C 09. …children were… 10. C
The Subject and Predicate Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates. The subject tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about. The predicate tells SOMETHING ABOUT the subject. Note: 1) the sub. or pred. may be ONE WORD or more, and 2) the sub. may appear before, after or BETWEEN PARTS of the pred.
Subject/Predicate Examples Everyone || watched The 13 th Warrior. S.P. Throughout the day, || Joe || robbed six banks. P.S.P.
Simple/Complex Subject Simple Subject = main word (or word group) that tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about. The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank. Complete Subject = the simple subject + any words (or word groups) used to modify the simple subject. The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.
More simple/complex subject examples Simple: Many scenes in the movie were violent. Complex: Many scenes in the movie were violent. Simple: The Burger King in Hanover burned down. Complex: The Burger King in Hanover burned down. Note: Burger King is a simple subject – 2 words, but one thing.
Simple/Complex Predicate Simple Predicate (VERB) = main word (or word group) that tells something about the subject. The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank. Complete Predicate = verb and all the words used to modify the verb and COMPLETE its meaning. The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.
More simple/complex predicate examples Simple: Have you tried platypus meat? Complex: Have you tried platypus meat? Simple: They chased me after the robbery. Complex: They chased me after the robbery.
Compound Subject Compound Subject = 2+ subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME VERB. Hanover and Horton are two small towns. New York, Detroit, St. Louis, or Los Angeles will win the World Series. Note: these are not separate sentences.
Compound Verb Compound Verb = 2+ verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME SUBJECT. We robbed a bank and stashed the money in our backyard. They stole my identity, took my car and skipped the country. Note: these are not separate sentences.
Difference between compound sub/verb and compound sentence. Compound Sentence = 2+ independent clauses (these ARE separate sentences) CMPD VRB: Joe and I like baseball but hate hockey. CMPD SNT: Joe and I like baseball, but we hate hockey. Note: cmpd snts need a COMMA and a CONJUNCTION to join them.
How to find the subject of a sentence Easiest way: find the verb, then ask WHO? or WHAT? in front of it. The cat in the hat came back. What came? The cat. In their eyes shone happiness. What shone? Happiness shone.
Subjects in commands/requests The subject of a command or request is always understood to be YOU, although it may not appear in the sentence. [You] Read your book and turn your homework in on time. Get up off my grill!
Subjects are never in prepositional phrases Never. A group of students from the high school were in the parade. A group [of students] [from the high school] were in the parade. Out of the stillness came the loud sound of laughter. [Out of the stillness] came the loud sound [of laughter].
Subjects in questions The subject in a question usually FOLLOWS the verb or part of the verb. Did you cut my car in half again? When were you inside the Bermuda Triangle?
Here/There/Where – never subjects They are adverbs. (They tell or ask where.) Here is the poison you ordered. What is here? The poison is here. There they are! What are there? They are there. Where’s my money, Brian!? What’s where? My money is where?
Exercise 2 (519) 01. men, women, children LIVED 02. position GAVE 03. anyone DID REFUSE 04. group WAS 05. people FLED 06. they COULD TRAIN 07. lessons WERE TAUGHT 08. ninja SNEAKED, STRUCK 09. warriors GAINED, WERE FEARED 10. [you] HAND
The Parts of a Sentence Pt. 2 (Complements)
Complements Quite often we need more than just a subject and a verb for a COMPLETE THOUGHT. They sent. They sent us a fruitcake. The students seem. The students seem well educated.
The Direct Object Direct Object (DO) = Noun or Pronoun that receives the action of an action verb. To find the DO, ask “WHOM?” or “WHAT?” after a transitive verb. I forgot my homework. “I forgot what?” I forgot my homework. The dog bit Joe and me, and we got rabies. “The dog bit whom?” The dog bit Joe and me. “We got what?” We got rabies.
The Indirect Object The Indirect Object (IO) appears BEFORE the DO and receives the DO. To whom / to what (for whom / for what) Mr. Bulgrien showed our class the movie. He showed what? The movie (DO) He showed it to whom? Our class (IO) Show me the money! Show what? The money (DO) Show it to whom? Me (IO) Tell Joe and me the truth. IO: ____________
Indirect Object – important note Don’t confuse an indirect object (IO) with an object of a preposition (OP) If it says “to ___” or “for ___” then it’s an OP. Give me all of your money. IO Give all of your money to me. OP
The Objective Complement Objective Complement (OC) = word or word group that IDENTIFIES or modifies the DO. The seniors elected Irving president. They elected whom? Irving (DO) See how “president” identifies the DO? “President” is an OC.
More Objective Complements Only a few verbs can have OCs. Just “consider” and “make” and other verbs that can be REPLACED by “consider” and “make.” They call him their boss. They [consider] him their boss. They consider whom? Him (DO) = identified: their boss (OC) Paint my room red. [Make] my room red. Make what? My room (DO) = modified: red (OC) room.
Exercise 3 (524) 01. appeal DO 02. tons DO 03. homes DO 04. meal DO; special OC 05. candles DO 06. hobbyists IO; pastime DO 07. you IO; steps DO 08. candles IO; scent DO 09. wax DO; colors OC 10. mine DO; blue & white OC
The Subject Complement Subject Complement (SC) = word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. It is linked to the subject by a LINKING VERB. Two types of SCs: Predicate Nominative (PN) Predicate Adjective (PA)
Predicate Nominative (PN) A predicate nominative is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the SUBJECT or refers to it. They can be NOUNS, pronouns or a group of words that function as a NOUN. PNs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb. remember the linking verbs: am, is, ARE, was, WERE, BE, being, been and any verbs that make sense when replaced by the ABOVE verbs.
PN examples Subjects in bold || PNs underlined You are students. “students” is linked to subject, identifies it Of all the dancers, Marcelo was the most experienced one. Pronoun “one” linked to/identifies subject Some day Joe will be a criminal. The two candidates for class treasurer are Iriving and I.
Predicate Adjective (PA) A predicate Adjective is an adjective in the predicate that modifies the SUBJECT or refers to it. PAs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb. Not sure if it’s a PA? Try putting it right in front of the subject. Does it modify it?
PA examples Subjects in bold || PAs underlined The ocean is calm. calm ocean – so it’s an ADJ. Does that year-old milk taste sour? All of the platypus wranglers look confident. Most freshmen are noisy, creepy and annoying.
One more note about PN/PA For emphasis, sometimes we place these before the subject and verb. PN: What an outstanding teacher Mr. Flint was! PA: I was shocked at how talented she is!
Exercise 4 (526) 01. IS species (PN) 02. FEEL concerned (PA) 03. WAS discoverer (PN) 04. IS author (PN) 05. SOUNDED beautiful (PA) 06. GREW restless (PA) 07. WAS active (PA) 08. IS icy (PA) 09. DOES TASTE spicy (PA) 10. IS work (PN)
Review A (526) 01. Both … cooking 02. have … preparation 03. me 04. developed 05. favorites 06. traces 07. is, was born 08. thick, spicy 09. lobsters 10. morsels
The Pts of Sentences Pt. 3(Classification of Sentences)
We classify sentences according to purpose There are four types of sentences: Declarative Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory
Declarative Makes a STATEMENT Ends in a PERIOD “I’m planning to cut his car in half again.” “My dog would make a good platypus hunter.”
Interrogative Asks a QUESTION Ends with a QUESTION mark “Pardon me, but do you have any Grey Poupon?” “What is your favorite color?”
Imperative Makes a request or gives a COMMAND Most imperative sentences end with a PERIOD, but strong commands end with an EXCLAMATION POINT The subject of an imperative sentence is always “YOU.” “Hand me my platypus rifle.” “Shut your noise hole!”
Exclamatory Shows excitement or expresses STRONG FEELING Ends with an EXCLAMATION POINT “Oh, snap! You got burned!” “Wow! What a hottie!”