2Sentence or Fragment?A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT.A thought is complete when it MAKES SENSE on its own.
3Examples of SentencesThe weary TEACHER had left her keys locked in her room.For how many years was MR. HARDY the principal here?What extraordinary courage the early PLATYPUS HUNTERS must have had!Wait![The subject of this last one is understood to be YOU.]
4Sentence FragmentsA sentence fragment is a word or group of words that MAY BE capitalized and punctuated as a sentence…but does not contain BOTH a subject AND a verb OR does not express a complete thought.
5Sentence Fragment Examples Fragment: Athletes representing 8 schools.Sentence: Athletes representing 8 schools competed in the event.Fragment or Sentence? Between the towering mountain ridge and the wide ocean only a few miles away.
6Exercise 1 (514) 01. I would like … 02. The town is… 03. They have been…04. He is…05. C06. C07. The movie was better…08. C09. …children were…10. C
7The Subject and Predicate Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates.The subject tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about.The predicate tells SOMETHING ABOUT the subject.Note: 1) the sub. or pred. may be ONE WORD or more, and 2) the sub. may appear before, after or BETWEEN PARTS of the pred.
8Subject/Predicate Examples Everyone || watched The 13th Warrior.S. P.Throughout the day, || Joe || robbed six banks.P. S. P.
9Simple/Complex Subject Simple Subject = main word (or word group) that tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about.The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.Complete Subject = the simple subject + any words (or word groups) used to modify the simple subject.
10More simple/complex subject examples Simple: Many scenes in the movie were violent.Complex: Many scenes in the movie were violent.Simple: The Burger King in Hanover burned down.Complex: The Burger King in Hanover burned down.Note: Burger King is a simple subject – 2 words, but one thing.
11Simple/Complex Predicate Simple Predicate (VERB) = main word (or word group) that tells something about the subject.The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.Complete Predicate = verb and all the words used to modify the verb and COMPLETE its meaning.
12More simple/complex predicate examples Simple: Have you tried platypus meat?Complex: Have you tried platypus meat?Simple: They chased me after the robbery.Complex: They chased me after the robbery.
13Compound SubjectCompound Subject = 2+ subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME VERB.Hanover and Horton are two small towns.New York, Detroit, St. Louis, or Los Angeles will win the World Series.Note: these are not separate sentences.
14Compound VerbCompound Verb = 2+ verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME SUBJECT.We robbed a bank and stashed the money in our backyard.They stole my identity, took my car and skipped the country.Note: these are not separate sentences.
15Difference between compound sub/verb and compound sentence. Compound Sentence = 2+ independent clauses (these ARE separate sentences)CMPD VRB: Joe and I like baseball but hate hockey.CMPD SNT: Joe and I like baseball, but we hate hockey.Note: cmpd snts need a COMMA and a CONJUNCTION to join them.
16How to find the subject of a sentence Easiest way: find the verb, then ask WHO? or WHAT? in front of it.The cat in the hat came back.What came? The cat.In their eyes shone happiness.What shone? Happiness shone.
17Subjects in commands/requests The subject of a command or request is always understood to be YOU, although it may not appear in the sentence.[You] Read your book and turn your homework in on time.Get up off my grill!
18Subjects are never in prepositional phrases A group of students from the high school were in the parade.A group [of students] [from the high school] were in the parade.Out of the stillness came the loud sound of laughter.[Out of the stillness] came the loud sound [of laughter].
19Subjects in questionsThe subject in a question usually FOLLOWS the verb or part of the verb.Did you cut my car in half again?When were you inside the Bermuda Triangle?
20Here/There/Where – never subjects They are adverbs. (They tell or ask where.)Here is the poison you ordered.What is here? The poison is here.There they are!What are there? They are there.Where’s my money, Brian!?What’s where? My money is where?
21Exercise 2 (519) 01. men, women, children LIVED 02. position GAVE 03. anyone DID REFUSE04. group WAS05. people FLED06. they COULD TRAIN07. lessons WERE TAUGHT08. ninja SNEAKED, STRUCK09. warriors GAINED, WERE FEARED10. [you] HAND
23ComplementsQuite often we need more than just a subject and a verb for a COMPLETE THOUGHT.They sent.They sent us a fruitcake.The students seem.The students seem well educated.
24The Direct ObjectDirect Object (DO) = Noun or Pronoun that receives the action of an action verb.To find the DO, ask “WHOM?” or “WHAT?” after a transitive verb.I forgot my homework.“I forgot what?” I forgot my homework.The dog bit Joe and me, and we got rabies.“The dog bit whom?” The dog bit Joe and me.“We got what?” We got rabies.
25The Indirect ObjectThe Indirect Object (IO) appears BEFORE the DO and receives the DO.To whom / to what (for whom / for what)Mr. Bulgrien showed our class the movie.He showed what? The movie (DO)He showed it to whom? Our class (IO)Show me the money!Show what? The money (DO)Show it to whom? Me (IO)Tell Joe and me the truth. IO: ____________
26Indirect Object – important note Don’t confuse an indirect object (IO) with an object of a preposition (OP)If it says “to ___” or “for ___” then it’s an OP.Give me all of your money.IOGive all of your money to me.OP
27The Objective Complement Objective Complement (OC) = word or word group that IDENTIFIES or modifies the DO.The seniors elected Irving president.They elected whom? Irving (DO)See how “president” identifies the DO? “President” is an OC.
28More Objective Complements Only a few verbs can have OCs. Just “consider” and “make” and other verbs that can be REPLACED by “consider” and “make.”They call him their boss.They [consider] him their boss.They consider whom? Him (DO) = identified: their boss (OC)Paint my room red.[Make] my room red.Make what? My room (DO) = modified: red (OC) room.
29Exercise 3 (524) 01. appeal DO 02. tons DO 03. homes DO 04. meal DO; special OC05. candles DO06. hobbyists IO; pastime DO07. you IO; steps DO08. candles IO; scent DO09. wax DO; colors OC10. mine DO; blue & white OC
30The Subject Complement Subject Complement (SC) = word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. It is linked to the subject by a LINKING VERB.Two types of SCs:Predicate Nominative (PN)Predicate Adjective (PA)
31Predicate Nominative (PN) A predicate nominative is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the SUBJECT or refers to it. They can be NOUNS, pronouns or a group of words that function as a NOUN.PNs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb.remember the linking verbs:am, is, ARE, was, WERE, BE, being, beenand any verbs that make sense when replaced by the ABOVE verbs.
32PN examples Subjects in bold || PNs underlined You are students. “students” is linked to subject, identifies itOf all the dancers, Marcelo was the most experienced one.Pronoun “one” linked to/identifies subjectSome day Joe will be a criminal.The two candidates for class treasurer are Iriving and I.
33Predicate Adjective (PA) A predicate Adjective is an adjective in the predicate that modifies the SUBJECT or refers to it.PAs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb.Not sure if it’s a PA? Try putting it right in front of the subject. Does it modify it?
34PA examples Subjects in bold || PAs underlined The ocean is calm. calm ocean – so it’s an ADJ.Does that year-old milk taste sour?All of the platypus wranglers look confident.Most freshmen are noisy, creepy and annoying.
35One more note about PN/PA For emphasis, sometimes we place these before the subject and verb.PN: What an outstanding teacher Mr. Flint was!PA: I was shocked at how talented she is!
36Exercise 4 (526) 01. IS species (PN) 02. FEEL concerned (PA) 03. WAS discoverer (PN)04. IS author (PN)05. SOUNDED beautiful (PA)06. GREW restless (PA)07. WAS active (PA)08. IS icy (PA)09. DOES TASTE spicy (PA)10. IS work (PN)
37Review A (526) 01. Both … cooking 02. have … preparation 03. me 04. developed05. favorites06. traces07. is, was born08. thick, spicy09. lobsters10. morsels
38The Pts of Sentences Pt. 3(Classification of Sentences)
39We classify sentences according to purpose There are four types of sentences:DeclarativeInterrogativeImperativeExclamatory
40Declarative Makes a STATEMENT Ends in a PERIOD “I’m planning to cut his car in half again.”“My dog would make a good platypus hunter.”
41Interrogative Asks a QUESTION Ends with a QUESTION mark “Pardon me, but do you have any Grey Poupon?”“What is your favorite color?”
42Imperative Makes a request or gives a COMMAND Most imperative sentences end with a PERIOD, but strong commands end with an EXCLAMATION POINTThe subject of an imperative sentence is always “YOU.”“Hand me my platypus rifle.”“Shut your noise hole!”
43Exclamatory Shows excitement or expresses STRONG FEELING Ends with an EXCLAMATION POINT“Oh, snap! You got burned!”“Wow! What a hottie!”