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The Parts of a Sentence 512-520. Sentence or Fragment?  A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT.

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Presentation on theme: "The Parts of a Sentence 512-520. Sentence or Fragment?  A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Parts of a Sentence

2 Sentence or Fragment?  A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT.  A thought is complete when it MAKES SENSE on its own.

3 Examples of Sentences  The weary TEACHER had left her keys locked in her room.  For how many years was MR. HARDY the principal here?  What extraordinary courage the early PLATYPUS HUNTERS must have had!  Wait!  [The subject of this last one is understood to be YOU.]

4 Sentence Fragments  A sentence fragment is a word or group of words that MAY BE capitalized and punctuated as a sentence…  but does not contain BOTH a subject AND a verb OR does not express a complete thought.

5 Sentence Fragment Examples  Fragment:Athletes representing 8 schools.  Sentence:Athletes representing 8 schools competed in the event.  Fragment or Sentence? Between the towering mountain ridge and the wide ocean only a few miles away.

6 Exercise 1 (514)  01. I would like …  02. The town is…  03. They have been…  04. He is…  05. C  06. C  07. The movie was better…  08. C  09. …children were…  10. C

7 The Subject and Predicate  Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates.  The subject tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about.  The predicate tells SOMETHING ABOUT the subject.  Note: 1) the sub. or pred. may be ONE WORD or more, and 2) the sub. may appear before, after or BETWEEN PARTS of the pred.

8 Subject/Predicate Examples  Everyone || watched The 13 th Warrior.  S.P.  Throughout the day, || Joe || robbed six banks.  P.S.P.

9 Simple/Complex Subject  Simple Subject = main word (or word group) that tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about.  The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.  Complete Subject = the simple subject + any words (or word groups) used to modify the simple subject.  The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.

10 More simple/complex subject examples  Simple: Many scenes in the movie were violent.  Complex: Many scenes in the movie were violent.  Simple: The Burger King in Hanover burned down.  Complex: The Burger King in Hanover burned down.  Note: Burger King is a simple subject – 2 words, but one thing.

11 Simple/Complex Predicate  Simple Predicate (VERB) = main word (or word group) that tells something about the subject.  The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.  Complete Predicate = verb and all the words used to modify the verb and COMPLETE its meaning.  The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.

12 More simple/complex predicate examples  Simple: Have you tried platypus meat?  Complex: Have you tried platypus meat?  Simple: They chased me after the robbery.  Complex: They chased me after the robbery.

13 Compound Subject  Compound Subject = 2+ subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME VERB.  Hanover and Horton are two small towns.  New York, Detroit, St. Louis, or Los Angeles will win the World Series.  Note: these are not separate sentences.

14 Compound Verb  Compound Verb = 2+ verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME SUBJECT.  We robbed a bank and stashed the money in our backyard.  They stole my identity, took my car and skipped the country.  Note: these are not separate sentences.

15 Difference between compound sub/verb and compound sentence.  Compound Sentence = 2+ independent clauses (these ARE separate sentences)  CMPD VRB: Joe and I like baseball but hate hockey.  CMPD SNT: Joe and I like baseball, but we hate hockey.  Note: cmpd snts need a COMMA and a CONJUNCTION to join them.

16 How to find the subject of a sentence  Easiest way: find the verb, then ask WHO? or WHAT? in front of it.  The cat in the hat came back.  What came? The cat.  In their eyes shone happiness.  What shone? Happiness shone.

17 Subjects in commands/requests  The subject of a command or request is always understood to be YOU, although it may not appear in the sentence.  [You] Read your book and turn your homework in on time.  Get up off my grill!

18 Subjects are never in prepositional phrases  Never.  A group of students from the high school were in the parade.  A group [of students] [from the high school] were in the parade.  Out of the stillness came the loud sound of laughter.  [Out of the stillness] came the loud sound [of laughter].

19 Subjects in questions  The subject in a question usually FOLLOWS the verb or part of the verb.  Did you cut my car in half again?  When were you inside the Bermuda Triangle?

20 Here/There/Where – never subjects  They are adverbs. (They tell or ask where.)  Here is the poison you ordered.  What is here? The poison is here.  There they are!  What are there? They are there.  Where’s my money, Brian!?  What’s where? My money is where?

21 Exercise 2 (519)  01. men, women, children LIVED  02. position GAVE  03. anyone DID REFUSE  04. group WAS  05. people FLED  06. they COULD TRAIN  07. lessons WERE TAUGHT  08. ninja SNEAKED, STRUCK  09. warriors GAINED, WERE FEARED  10. [you] HAND

22 The Parts of a Sentence Pt. 2 (Complements)

23 Complements  Quite often we need more than just a subject and a verb for a COMPLETE THOUGHT.  They sent.  They sent us a fruitcake.  The students seem.  The students seem well educated.

24 The Direct Object  Direct Object (DO) = Noun or Pronoun that receives the action of an action verb.  To find the DO, ask “WHOM?” or “WHAT?” after a transitive verb.  I forgot my homework.  “I forgot what?” I forgot my homework.  The dog bit Joe and me, and we got rabies.  “The dog bit whom?” The dog bit Joe and me.  “We got what?” We got rabies.

25 The Indirect Object  The Indirect Object (IO) appears BEFORE the DO and receives the DO.  To whom / to what (for whom / for what)  Mr. Bulgrien showed our class the movie.  He showed what? The movie (DO)  He showed it to whom? Our class (IO)  Show me the money!  Show what? The money (DO)  Show it to whom? Me (IO)  Tell Joe and me the truth. IO: ____________

26 Indirect Object – important note  Don’t confuse an indirect object (IO) with an object of a preposition (OP)  If it says “to ___” or “for ___” then it’s an OP.  Give me all of your money.  IO  Give all of your money to me.  OP

27 The Objective Complement  Objective Complement (OC) = word or word group that IDENTIFIES or modifies the DO.  The seniors elected Irving president.  They elected whom? Irving (DO)  See how “president” identifies the DO? “President” is an OC.

28 More Objective Complements  Only a few verbs can have OCs. Just “consider” and “make” and other verbs that can be REPLACED by “consider” and “make.”  They call him their boss.  They [consider] him their boss.  They consider whom? Him (DO) = identified: their boss (OC)  Paint my room red.  [Make] my room red.  Make what? My room (DO) = modified: red (OC) room.

29 Exercise 3 (524)  01. appeal DO  02. tons DO  03. homes DO  04. meal DO; special OC  05. candles DO  06. hobbyists IO; pastime DO  07. you IO; steps DO  08. candles IO; scent DO  09. wax DO; colors OC  10. mine DO; blue & white OC

30 The Subject Complement  Subject Complement (SC) = word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. It is linked to the subject by a LINKING VERB.  Two types of SCs:  Predicate Nominative (PN)  Predicate Adjective (PA)

31 Predicate Nominative (PN)  A predicate nominative is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the SUBJECT or refers to it. They can be NOUNS, pronouns or a group of words that function as a NOUN.  PNs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb.  remember the linking verbs:  am, is, ARE, was, WERE, BE, being, been  and any verbs that make sense when replaced by the ABOVE verbs.

32 PN examples  Subjects in bold || PNs underlined  You are students.  “students” is linked to subject, identifies it  Of all the dancers, Marcelo was the most experienced one.  Pronoun “one” linked to/identifies subject  Some day Joe will be a criminal.  The two candidates for class treasurer are Iriving and I.

33 Predicate Adjective (PA)  A predicate Adjective is an adjective in the predicate that modifies the SUBJECT or refers to it.  PAs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb.  Not sure if it’s a PA? Try putting it right in front of the subject. Does it modify it?

34 PA examples  Subjects in bold || PAs underlined  The ocean is calm.  calm ocean – so it’s an ADJ.  Does that year-old milk taste sour?  All of the platypus wranglers look confident.  Most freshmen are noisy, creepy and annoying.

35 One more note about PN/PA  For emphasis, sometimes we place these before the subject and verb.  PN: What an outstanding teacher Mr. Flint was!  PA: I was shocked at how talented she is!

36 Exercise 4 (526)  01. IS species (PN)  02. FEEL concerned (PA)  03. WAS discoverer (PN)  04. IS author (PN)  05. SOUNDED beautiful (PA)  06. GREW restless (PA)  07. WAS active (PA)  08. IS icy (PA)  09. DOES TASTE spicy (PA)  10. IS work (PN)

37 Review A (526)  01. Both … cooking  02. have … preparation  03. me  04. developed  05. favorites  06. traces  07. is, was born  08. thick, spicy  09. lobsters  10. morsels

38 The Pts of Sentences Pt. 3(Classification of Sentences)

39 We classify sentences according to purpose  There are four types of sentences:  Declarative  Interrogative  Imperative  Exclamatory

40 Declarative  Makes a STATEMENT  Ends in a PERIOD  “I’m planning to cut his car in half again.”  “My dog would make a good platypus hunter.”

41 Interrogative  Asks a QUESTION  Ends with a QUESTION mark  “Pardon me, but do you have any Grey Poupon?”  “What is your favorite color?”

42 Imperative  Makes a request or gives a COMMAND  Most imperative sentences end with a PERIOD, but strong commands end with an EXCLAMATION POINT  The subject of an imperative sentence is always “YOU.”  “Hand me my platypus rifle.”  “Shut your noise hole!”

43 Exclamatory  Shows excitement or expresses STRONG FEELING  Ends with an EXCLAMATION POINT  “Oh, snap! You got burned!”  “Wow! What a hottie!”


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