2 Clauses Phrase that is not a complete sentence A complete sentence Independent ClausesDependent ClausesPhrase that is not a complete sentenceHas a subject and verb but it cannot stand on it’s ownDepends on another phrase to make it completeClue words: After, although, as, because, before, since, though, unless, whatever, whenever, while“When Jim studied in Caribou for his chemistry test…”A complete sentenceContains a subject and verb, and presents a complete thoughtCan stand alone“I walked down the street.”“I just bought a brand new bike.”
3 Making Sentences: Linking Clauses Use conjunctions (as, if, but, because, for, nor , etc.)Use punctuation ( ; , : --)Use a “independent marker word”AlsoConsequentiallyHoweverNeverthelessTherefore
5 Sentence FragmentIncomplete thoughts (dependent clause) are presented as sentences“Because I forgot the exam was today.”“Because I am a good student.”INSTEAD:“Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn’t study.”“Because I am a good student, I finished my project early.”
6 Comma SpliceUsing a comma to separate two complete sentences (independent clauses)“I like this class, it is very interesting”To fix:Make two separate sentences“I like this class. It is very interesting.”Change comma ( ,) to a semicolon ( ;)“I like this class; it is very interesting.”Add a conjunction“I like this class because it is very interesting.”
7 Run-On SentenceOccurs when two independent clauses are placed together without punctuationThe sentences “goes on and on and on” without a pause (punctuation)Examples:My teacher is intelligent I’ve learned a lot today.Classical music is soothing I listen to it in the evenings.I thought she said that you were coming with us why aren’t you coming with us?
8 Correcting Run-Ons Split into two separate sentences My teacher is intelligent. I’ve learned a lot today.Classical music is soothing. I listen to it in the evenings.I thought she said that you were coming with us. Why aren’t you coming with us?Connect the two independent clauses with a semicolon ( ; )My teacher is intelligent; I’ve learned a lot today.Classical music is soothing; I listen to it in the evenings.
9 Correcting Run-OnsConnect with a comma and a FANBOYS conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)My teacher is very intelligent, and I’ve learned a lot today.Classical music is very soothing, so I listen to it at night.Make 1 clause dependent by adding a dependent word, such as: since, when, after, as, while, becauseMy teacher is very intelligent because I’ve learned a lot today.I listen to classical music at night since it is very soothing.
11 Commas“Don’t take commas for granted. They’re like yield signs that help separate your ideas and prevent pileups. If you ignore one, you could be in for a bumpy ride.”Patricia O’Connor“Let’s eat Grandma!”“Let’s eat, Grandma!”
12 Comma Rules To separate 3 or more items in a series “On Saturday, I did my laundry, washed my car, and cleaned my room.”TRICK: in a series, do you need “and” between each?Did my laundry and washed my car and cleanedYES? Use commas!Before FANBOYS, when the connect 2 clauses“We wrote our journals in class, but our teacher forgot to collect them”
13 Comma RulesAfter an introductory expression, before a comment or question that is at end of sentence“Finally, he was able to get through to his bankers.”“He said he needed to ruminate, whatever that means.”Around the name of a person spoken to“Did you know, Mr. Davis, that you left your computer at the library?”
14 Comma Rules Around expressions that interrupt the flow of the sentence Phrases: however, therefore, of course, by the way, I believe, I think“I know, of course, that this assignment is late.”“Today’s test, I think, is only a practice test.”Around additional information not needed in a sentenceInteresting information, but the sentence can be understood without it (aka appositives)“Katy, who organized the party, will buy the decorations.”“I am, as I’m sure you can tell, very nervous about this.”
15 Addresses and Dates: Commas? Addresses: put a comma after every item“She lived in Dallas, Texas (TX), when I met her.”“He lives at 223 Center Street, Dayton, Ohio.”DatesNo comma between month and day“My birthday is February 16.”Otherwise use a comma“My aunt was born on Monday, October 25, 1980, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.”If just month and day, no comma“She graduated from college in May 1985.”
16 Other Punctuation Marks Semicolon ( ; ) “flashing red”Used to connect two independent clause, or to sort out a longer list, separate ideas“Andy’s toupe flew off his head; it sailed into the distance.”Colon ( : ) “step on the brake”After the introduction of a long list, quote, or item“There is only one thing left to do now: confess while you still have time.”“I plan to visit these sites in London: Trafalgar Square, Big Ben, and Buckingham Palace.”Dash ( — )Indicate an abrupt change of thought or emphasize something“Super comma” that separates something from sentence“All four of them—Bob, Jeffrey, Jason, and Brett—did well in college.”“I found out today—or was it yesterday?—that we’re moving.”
17 Parentheses ( ) Ellipsis ( … ) Hyphen ( - ) Quotation Marks ( “ “) Interruption in thought or speech; adding details“Jimmy thinks he has won the lottery. (He is mistaken however.)”Ellipsis ( … )Happens with an omission in the sentence, or a pause in thought“Juan thought and thought … and then thought some more.”Hyphen ( - )Separates individual words or parts of words“Mother-in-law;” “two-thirds”“I have a red-haired brother.”Quotation Marks ( “ “)Sets off material that is quoted or spoken language; or titlesPeriods and commas go inside quotation marks regardless of logic"I don't care," she said, "what you think about it."
18 Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers Modifier: describes, clarifies, or gives more detail about a subject
19 Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers A word or phrase that is “in the wrong place at the wrong time”Describes the wrong thingExamples“Strolling along the trail, Mount Rushmore came into view”“Born at the age of forty-three, the baby was a great comfort to Mrs. Wooster.”“After a ten-minute nap, the plane landed.”
20 How do we fix them?Keep the modifier as close to the word it describes as possible!“The baby, born when Mrs. Wooster was forty- three, was a great comfort to her.”Name the appropriate or logical doer of the sentenceMake it the subject!Be clear about the doer of the sentence
21 Let’s Try…“After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing”After reading the original study, I found the article unconvincing.“After a ten-minute nap, the plane landed.”The plane landed after I took a ten-minute nap.“Strolling along the trail, Mount Rushmore came into view.”Mount Rushmore came into view as I was strolling along the trail.“Having arrived late to practice, a written excuse was needed.”Having arrived late to practice, the captain needed a written excuse.
23 Parallel StructureUsing the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importanceTalking, reading, writingTo eat, to sleep, to repeatMakes writing more effective—clearer and cleaner“I like to hike, to ski, and to sail”“Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country”
24 Parallel or not? Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bike. Doing my homework and doing my chores will take up most of my weekend.The teacher said he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study, completed his assignments too quickly, and lacked motivation.They came, they saw, they conquered.