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Sentence Structure & Punctuation. Clauses Independent ClausesDependent Clauses A complete sentence Contains a subject and verb, and presents a complete.

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Presentation on theme: "Sentence Structure & Punctuation. Clauses Independent ClausesDependent Clauses A complete sentence Contains a subject and verb, and presents a complete."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sentence Structure & Punctuation

2 Clauses Independent ClausesDependent Clauses A complete sentence Contains a subject and verb, and presents a complete thought Can stand alone “I walked down the street.” “I just bought a brand new bike.” Phrase that is not a complete sentence Has a subject and verb but it cannot stand on it’s own Depends on another phrase to make it complete ▫Clue words: After, although, as, because, before, since, though, unless, whatever, whenever, while “When Jim studied in Caribou for his chemistry test…”

3 Making Sentences: Linking Clauses Use conjunctions (as, if, but, because, for, nor, etc.) Use punctuation ( ;, : --) Use a “independent marker word” ▫Also ▫Consequentially ▫ However ▫Nevertheless ▫Therefore

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5 Sentence Fragment Incomplete thoughts (dependent clause) are presented as sentences ▫“Because I forgot the exam was today.” ▫“Because I am a good student.” INSTEAD: ▫“Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn’t study.” ▫“Because I am a good student, I finished my project early.”

6 Comma Splice Using a comma to separate two complete sentences (independent clauses) ▫“I like this class, it is very interesting” To fix: ▫Make two separate sentences  “I like this class. It is very interesting.” ▫Change comma (,) to a semicolon ( ;)  “I like this class; it is very interesting.” ▫Add a conjunction  “I like this class because it is very interesting.”

7 Run-On Sentence Occurs when two independent clauses are placed together without punctuation The sentences “goes on and on and on” without a pause (punctuation) Examples: ▫My teacher is intelligent I’ve learned a lot today. ▫Classical music is soothing I listen to it in the evenings. ▫I thought she said that you were coming with us why aren’t you coming with us?

8 Correcting Run-Ons Split into two separate sentences ▫My teacher is intelligent. I’ve learned a lot today. ▫Classical music is soothing. I listen to it in the evenings. ▫I thought she said that you were coming with us. Why aren’t you coming with us? Connect the two independent clauses with a semicolon ( ; ) ▫My teacher is intelligent; I’ve learned a lot today. ▫Classical music is soothing; I listen to it in the evenings.

9 Correcting Run-Ons Connect with a comma and a FANBOYS conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) ▫My teacher is very intelligent, and I’ve learned a lot today. ▫Classical music is very soothing, so I listen to it at night. Make 1 clause dependent by adding a dependent word, such as: since, when, after, as, while, because ▫My teacher is very intelligent because I’ve learned a lot today. ▫I listen to classical music at night since it is very soothing.

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11 Commas “Don’t take commas for granted. They’re like yield signs that help separate your ideas and prevent pileups. If you ignore one, you could be in for a bumpy ride.” ▫Patricia O’Connor “Let’s eat Grandma!” “Let’s eat, Grandma!”

12 Comma Rules To separate 3 or more items in a series ▫“On Saturday, I did my laundry, washed my car, and cleaned my room.” ▫TRICK: in a series, do you need “and” between each?  Did my laundry and washed my car and cleaned  YES? Use commas! Before FANBOYS, when the connect 2 clauses ▫“We wrote our journals in class, but our teacher forgot to collect them”

13 Comma Rules After an introductory expression, before a comment or question that is at end of sentence ▫“Finally, he was able to get through to his bankers.” ▫“He said he needed to ruminate, whatever that means.” Around the name of a person spoken to ▫“Did you know, Mr. Davis, that you left your computer at the library?”

14 Comma Rules Around expressions that interrupt the flow of the sentence ▫Phrases: however, therefore, of course, by the way, I believe, I think ▫“I know, of course, that this assignment is late.” ▫“Today’s test, I think, is only a practice test.” Around additional information not needed in a sentence ▫Interesting information, but the sentence can be understood without it (aka appositives) ▫“Katy, who organized the party, will buy the decorations.” ▫“I am, as I’m sure you can tell, very nervous about this.”

15 Addresses and Dates: Commas? Addresses: put a comma after every item ▫“She lived in Dallas, Texas (TX), when I met her.” ▫“He lives at 223 Center Street, Dayton, Ohio.” Dates ▫No comma between month and day  “My birthday is February 16.” ▫Otherwise use a comma  “My aunt was born on Monday, October 25, 1980, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.” ▫If just month and day, no comma  “She graduated from college in May 1985.”

16 Other Punctuation Marks Semicolon ( ; ) “flashing red” ▫Used to connect two independent clause, or to sort out a longer list, separate ideas ▫“Andy’s toupe flew off his head; it sailed into the distance.” Colon ( : ) “step on the brake” ▫After the introduction of a long list, quote, or item ▫“There is only one thing left to do now: confess while you still have time.” ▫“I plan to visit these sites in London: Trafalgar Square, Big Ben, and Buckingham Palace.” Dash ( — ) ▫Indicate an abrupt change of thought or emphasize something ▫“Super comma” that separates something from sentence ▫“All four of them—Bob, Jeffrey, Jason, and Brett—did well in college.” ▫“I found out today—or was it yesterday?—that we’re moving.”

17 Parentheses ( ) ▫Interruption in thought or speech; adding details ▫“Jimmy thinks he has won the lottery. (He is mistaken however.)” Ellipsis ( … ) ▫Happens with an omission in the sentence, or a pause in thought ▫“Juan thought and thought … and then thought some more.” Hyphen ( - ) ▫Separates individual words or parts of words ▫“Mother-in-law;” “two-thirds” ▫“I have a red-haired brother.” Quotation Marks ( “ “) ▫Sets off material that is quoted or spoken language; or titles ▫Periods and commas go inside quotation marks regardless of logic ▫"I don't care," she said, "what you think about it."

18 Modifier: describes, clarifies, or gives more detail about a subject

19 Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers A word or phrase that is “in the wrong place at the wrong time” Describes the wrong thing Examples ▫“Strolling along the trail, Mount Rushmore came into view” ▫“Born at the age of forty-three, the baby was a great comfort to Mrs. Wooster.” ▫“After a ten-minute nap, the plane landed.”

20 How do we fix them? Keep the modifier as close to the word it describes as possible! ▫“The baby, born when Mrs. Wooster was forty- three, was a great comfort to her.” Name the appropriate or logical doer of the sentence ▫Make it the subject! ▫Be clear about the doer of the sentence

21 Let’s Try… “After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing” ▫After reading the original study, I found the article unconvincing. “After a ten-minute nap, the plane landed.” The plane landed after I took a ten-minute nap. “Strolling along the trail, Mount Rushmore came into view.” ▫Mount Rushmore came into view as I was strolling along the trail. “Having arrived late to practice, a written excuse was needed.” ▫Having arrived late to practice, the captain needed a written excuse.

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23 Parallel Structure Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance ▫Talking, reading, writing ▫To eat, to sleep, to repeat Makes writing more effective—clearer and cleaner ▫“I like to hike, to ski, and to sail” ▫“Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country”

24 Parallel or not? Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bike. Doing my homework and doing my chores will take up most of my weekend. The teacher said he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study, completed his assignments too quickly, and lacked motivation. They came, they saw, they conquered.


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