2 What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verbal. An infinitive begins with the word “to” and is followed by a verb.An infinitive can do many things that nouns can do in a sentence.An infinitive can also work as an adjective or adverb.
3 What do Infinitives Look Like? The underlined words are infinitives. Note that they begin with “to” and are followed by a verb.-I want to go also.-My goal is to win.-To answer is difficult.-The plan is to hide.
4 Infinitive PhrasesAn infinitive phrase begins with “to” and is followed by a verb. These words are then followed by additional words. Altogether these words form an infinitive phrase.
5 What Do Infinitive Phrases Look Like? The underlined words are infinitive phrases.-The goal is to win the game.-I wish to answer the question correctly.-To relax at the beach is my dream!-The person to speak with concerning that problem is the principal.
6 The Jobs of an Infinitive Infinitives have many jobs in a sentence.As a noun, infinitives may work as:SubjectsPredicate NounsDirect ObjectsAppositivesObjects of the PrepositionInfinitives may also work as:-Adjectives-Adverbs
7 Infinitives Used as Subjects To find the subject of a sentence, find the actual verb in the sentence and ask “Who?” or “What?” before it.Ex. To tell jokes well is quite a talent.The verb is “is.” When you ask, “What is a talent?” you get the answer “To tell jokes well.” Therefore, “To tell jokes well” is the subject of the sentence.**Now the subject does NOT have to be just one word!
8 Infinitives Used as Predicate Nouns To find a predicate noun, you must have a linking verb or verb of condition. A predicate noun comes after a linking verb or verb of condition and renames the subject.Ex. My goal is to get my A.R. points.“Is” is a linking verb. The subject of the sentence is “goal.” Coming after the linking verb is “to get my A.R. points” which renames the goal; therefore, “to get my A.R. points” is the predicate noun.*Note that the predicate noun is now NOT just one word.
9 Infinitives Used as Direct Objects To find a direct object, first you must have an action verb. Ask “Who?” or “What?” after the action. If one of those questions is answered, you have found a direct object.Ex. I like to swim in my pool.The action verb is “like.” When asking “like what?” the answer is “to swim in my pool;” therefore, “to swim in my pool” is a direct object.*Notice that the direct object is NOT just one word.
10 Infinitives Used as Objects of the Preposition To find an object of the preposition, first find a preposition. Then ask “Who?” or “What?” after the preposition.Ex. I forgot everything except to buy milk.“Except” is a preposition. When the question “Except what?” is asked, the answer is “to buy milk.” That means that “to buy milk” is the object of the preposition.**Please notice that the object of the preposition is no longer a single word.
11 Infinitives Used as Appositives An appositive comes after a noun and renames or explains it. Appositives are often set off by commas.Ex. My plans to buy a computer became a reality.“Plans” is a noun. It is immediately renamed by “to buy a computer;” therefore, “to buy a computer” is an appositive.
12 Infinitives Used As Adjectives An adjective describes a noun. An infinitive working as an adjective will then also describe a noun.Ex. The puzzle to build has a thousand pieces!“Puzzle” is a noun. When you ask “Which puzzle?” the answer is ‘to build.” That means that “to build” is describing the noun “puzzle” which makes it an adjective.*Note that the adjective here is NOT just one word.
13 Infinitives Used as Adverbs An adverb describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Although adverbs are usually single word modifiers, infinitives used as adverbs will always be more than one word.Ex. It is hard to see during a heavy rainstorm.“Hard” is an adjective that describes the subject “it.” “To see” tells how it was hard; therefore, “to see” describes the adjective which makes it an adverb.
14 Infinitives Look Different! Before this new verbal was learned, weren’t subjects always one word? Weren’t direct objects always one word?NOW that has changed! Infinitives will always be more than one word; therefore, when they work as subjects, direct objects, etc., those functions will always be more than one word!
15 How to Diagram Infinitives An infinitive is diagrammed on a pedestal. If the infinitive is a noun function (subject, direct object, predicate noun, object of the preposition, and appositive) the pedestal sits in the place of the noun function.An infinitive diagrammed as an adjective or adverb hangs on a tailless hockey stick underneath what it describes. The pedestal sits on the tailless hockey stick.
16 The PedestalThe pedestal looks like this:infinitive
17 Diagramming Subjects To tell jokes To tell jokes To tell jokes To tell jokes well is quite a talent.To tell jokesquiteawellistalentTo tell jokeswellis talentquiteaTo tell jokeswellis talentquiteaTo tell jokeswellis talentquiteaTo tell jokeswellis talentquiteaTo tell jokeswellis talentquiteaTo tell jokeswellis talentquitea
18 Diagramming Predicate Nouns My goal is to get my A.R. points.goalMyismyA. R.to get points
19 Diagramming Direct Objects I like to swim in my pool.to swiminpoolIlikemy
20 Diagramming Objects of the Preposition I forgot everything except to buy milk.Iforgoteverythingto buy milkexcept
21 Diagramming Appositives My plans to buy a computer became a reality. (Remember, appositives are diagrammed in parenthesis.)to buy computeraplans()becamerealityaMy
22 Diagramming Adjectives The puzzle to build has a thousand pieces! (Remember that adjectives are diagrammed underneath what they describe.)puzzlehaspiecesaTheto buildthousand
23 Diagramming Adverbs to see It is hard to see during the rainstorm. It