Presentation on theme: "Before we get to this standard, we must understand that in Ethics, there are two types of Ethical Standards: §Consequential Ethical Standards §Nonconsequential."— Presentation transcript:
Before we get to this standard, we must understand that in Ethics, there are two types of Ethical Standards: §Consequential Ethical Standards §Nonconsequential Ethical Standards
What is the difference between these two types of standards?
Consequential Standards §The moral worth of the action (its goodness or badness) is determined solely by the end or consequent promoted. §In other words, the end justifies the means
This type of standard is usually worded in one of two ways: §An action is morally good if it promotes _________________ §Everyone should always act so as to promote ______________________
Note: In this type of standard, there is nothing about the action itself that makes it good or bad; rather the goodness or badness of the action is determined only by the end or consequent promoted.
What are some examples of this type of standard? §Universal Ethical Egoism §Utilitarianism §Theological Eudaemonism §Rational Eudaemonism §Ethical Pluralism
Nonconsequential Standards: §These standards state that the moral worth of the action is not determined by the end or consequent promoted §The end never justifies the means §Rather, there is something about the action itself, intrinsic to it, that makes it either good or bad
How are these standards worded? Always as so as to ______________________________.
What are some nonconsequential standards: §Act §Rule (Divine Command Theory; Kant’s Imperatives
So what standard are we going to start with? Utilitarianism
What type of ethical standard is it? §It is a consequential ethical standard
What is a consequential ethical standard? I forgot. It is a standard that holds that the moral worth of the action is determined by the end or consequent promoted; hence its name ‘consequential.’
What is it? §It is a consequential standard that states that an action is morally good if it promotes the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number affected by the action, even it it brings harm to a minority.
There are two types of utilitarianism: §Rule §Act
Rule Utilitarianism §Main proponent is John Stuart Mill §It differs from act utilitarianism in three ways: in the definition of ‘pleasure,’ in who is affected, and in the method used to determine how the greatest amount of pleasure is determined.
Act Utilitarianism §The main proponent of this type is Jeremy Bentham §Again, it differs from Rule Utilitarianism in the definition of ‘pleasure,’ in who is affected, and in the method used to determine the greatest amount of pleasure
What is meant by the word ‘pleasure? §Act §All types of pleasures, both strictly human and those that are not strictly human §That is, sensual and strictly human pleasures §Rule §Only strictly human pleasures
What are the pleasures that are not strictly human? §Pleasure we get from eating, drinking, sleeping, reproducing, having shelter, etc.
What are the strictly human pleasures? §Intellectual §Emotional §Aesthetic §Spiritual §Altruistic §Social
So, according to Mill: We should always act so as to bring about the greatest amount of strictly human pleasure and the least amount of pain to the greatest number of humans affected.
And according to Bentham: We should always act so as to bring about the greatest amount of all types of pleasures and the least amount of pain to the greatest number of all sentient beings affected.
How does the ‘method’ differ?
In Act Utilitarianism you use a calculation process: §Certainty §Proximity §Intensity §Duration §Pureness §Chances that it will lead to other pleasures §How many people are affected?
Method used in Rule Utilitarianism: §Follow the laws!!!!!!!
Problems with Act Utilitarianism? §Requires you to predict future consequences/outcomes of your decisions/actions, so a future prediction is what is determining the moral worth of your action §Requires you to put a number on emotions/pleasures §Requires you to predict how someone else will feel about your action/decision
Problems With Rule Utilitarianism §There are unjust laws §Laws for the most part tell us what not to do, not what to do §Not all of our moral dilemmas will have applicable laws to help guide us