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Using Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Indefinite pronouns Compound antecedents Solving special agreement problems Collective.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Indefinite pronouns Compound antecedents Solving special agreement problems Collective."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Indefinite pronouns Compound antecedents Solving special agreement problems Collective nouns Plural forms Titles Relative pronouns Expressions of amount Review A Review B

2 When a pronoun and its antecedent do not agree, listeners and readers become lost. Pronoun What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? You may have heard that it is rude to point, but that’s exactly what pronouns do. Nicole was glad that she had brought her camera. Antecedent A pronoun “points” to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent. Nicole was glad that she had brought her camera. Antecedent

3 What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Number A pronoun should agree in both number and gender with its antecedent. lion A word that refers to one thing is singular. Singular noseshe A word that refers to more than one is plural. Plural lionsnosesthey

4 Singular pronoun Use singular pronouns to refer to singular antecedents. Break one egg and fry it. Singular antecedent Break one egg and fry it. Singular Personal Pronouns Imemy, mine you your, yours he, she, ithim, her, ithis, hers, its What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Number

5 Plural pronoun What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Number Use plural pronouns to refer to plural antecedents. Cut two slices and toast them. Plural antecedent Cut two slices and toast them. Plural Personal Pronouns weusour, ours you your, yours theythemtheir, theirs

6 What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Gender Some singular pronouns indicate gender. Masculine he him his himself Masculine pronouns refer to males. Feminine pronouns refer to females. Neuter pronouns refer to places, things, ideas, and animals. Feminine she her her, hers herself Neuter it its itself

7 What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Person Person indicates whether a pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking I promised myself that I would clean my room. first person the one(s) spoken to Do you have your library card with you? second person the one(s) spoken about They built their new house themselves. third person

8 What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? 1.The neighbors forgot to close the gate to __________ backyard. 2.Mrs. Farrow always posts the schedule on the door of __________ classroom. 3.Ignoring the food we offered, the cat began to clean __________ paws. Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. Then, identify the antecedent.

9 1.The neighbors forgot to close the gate to __________ backyard. Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. Then, identify the antecedent. What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Antecedent their The plural pronoun their agrees with the plural antecedent neighbors.

10 2.Mrs. Farrow always posts the schedule on the door of __________ classroom. What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Antecedent her Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. Then, identify the antecedent. The singular feminine pronoun her agrees with the singular feminine antecedent Mrs. Farrow.

11 The singular neuter pronoun its agrees with the singular neuter antecedent cat. 3.Ignoring the food we offered, the cat began to clean __________ paws. What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Antecedent its Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. Then, identify the antecedent.

12 What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? [End of Section] The following sentences contain errors in pronoun- antecedent agreement. Identify each error, and give the form of the pronoun that agrees with its antecedent. 1. Two girls won a prize for her project. 2.Although we drove through the mountains, we could not see it because of the fog. 3.If he calls this afternoon, tell he that I’ll call back. 4.My cousin’s house has two fireplaces in them. 5.The children forgot to put on its jackets. On Your Own

13 What is pronoun-antecedent agreement? Answers The following sentences contain errors in pronoun- antecedent agreement. Identify each error, and give the form of the pronoun that agrees with its antecedent. 1. Two girls won a prize for their project. 2.Although we drove through the mountains, we could not see them because of the fog. 3.If he calls this afternoon, tell him that I’ll call back. 4.My cousin’s house has two fireplaces in it. 5.The children forgot to put on their jackets.

14 Indefinite pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to a person or thing whose exact identity is unknown. Some indefinite pronouns are singular. Some are plural. Some may be either singular or plural depending on how they are used.

15 Indefinite pronouns The following indefinite pronouns are singular: Singular Indefinite Pronouns anybodyeitherneitherone anyoneeverybodynobodysomebody anythingeveryoneno onesomeone eacheverythingnothingsomething Each of the birds had completed its nest.Everybody on the boys’ team has his racket.One of the women waved to her children.

16 Indefinite pronouns do not indicate gender. Often a word in a phrase following the indefinite pronoun will tell you the gender. Indefinite pronouns Each of the women runs her own business. When you do not know the gender of the antecedent, use both the masculine and feminine pronouns connected by or. No one remembered to bring his or her permission slip.

17 Indefinite pronouns Everybody should have his or her book open to page 47. If the a sentence with an indefinite is awkward using his or her, try rewriting it to avoid using that structure. All students should have their books open to page 47.

18 Indefinite pronouns The following indefinite pronouns are plural: Plural Indefinite Pronouns bothfewmanyseveral If many are cracked, discard them. Few of the passengers waited by themselves. Both of the babies closed their eyes.

19 Plural Singular Indefinite pronouns The following indefinite pronouns may be singular or plural, depending on how they are used: Singular or Plural Indefinite Pronouns allmorenone anymostsome I deleted some of the document. Is there a way to recover it? I deleted some of the documents. Is there a way to recover them?

20 Compound antecedents A compound antecedent is two or more antecedents joined by and or or. Wind Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and. Antecedent 1 andrainunleashed their fury on the land. Antecedent 2 Nina, Antecedent 1 andSandra,taught themselves. Antecedent 2 Maya Antecedent 3

21 Compound antecedents Craig Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor. Singular orKeithwill bring his camera. Singular Kate Singular norAnnsaid that she would help. Singular Neither

22 Sentences with antecedents of different number may be unclear or awkward. Compound antecedents Neither the donkey nor the horses are in their stalls. Unclear Neither the donkey nor the horses are in its or their stalls. Awkward

23 Revise sentences to avoid unclear and awkward constructions like these. Compound antecedents Neither the donkey nor the horses are in their stalls. Unclear Neither the donkey nor the horses are in its or their stalls. Awkward Revised The donkey and the horses are not in their stalls. Neither the donkey nor the horses are in the stalls.

24 Indefinite pronouns and compound antecedents 1.Several of the reporters asked __________ questions at the same time. 2.Anybody should be free to give __________ opinion. 3.Neither Ned nor Dennis made a mistake when presenting __________ arguments during the debate. Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents.

25 1.Several of the reporters asked __________ questions at the same time. Indefinite pronouns and compound antecedents their Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. The plural pronoun their agrees with the antecedent Several, an indefinite pronoun.

26 2.Anybody should be free to give __________ opinion. Indefinite pronouns and compound antecedents his or her Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. In this sentence, the gender of the singular antecedent Anybody is not known, so both the masculine and feminine pronouns should be used.

27 3.Neither Ned nor Dennis made a mistake when presenting __________ arguments during the debate. Indefinite pronouns and compound antecedents his Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. The singular antecedents are joined by neither/nor. The singular pronoun his agrees with the compound subject.

28 Indefinite pronouns and compound antecedents [End of Section] Most of the following sentences contain pronouns that do not agree with their antecedents. If a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent, provide the correct pronoun. If a sentence is already correct, write C. 1. One of the boys brought their basketball. 2.Hilda and Lupe presented her reports. 3.Either the puppy or the kitten lost their collar. 4.Everyone should wash their own dishes after lunch. 5. All the students worked hard to improve themselves. On Your Own

29 Indefinite pronouns and compound antecedents Answers Most of the following sentences contain pronouns that do not agree with their antecedents. If a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent, provide the correct pronoun. If a sentence is already correct, write C. 1. One of the boys brought his basketball. 2.Hilda and Lupe presented their reports. 3.Either the puppy or the kitten lost its collar. 4.Everyone should wash his or her own dishes after lunch. 5.All the students worked hard to improve themselves. C

30 Solving special agreement problems Collective nouns A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on how the noun is used.collective noun The tour group surprised its guide by presenting her with a lovely thank-you gift. The guide surprised the tour group by presenting them with souvenirs. Use a singular pronoun when the noun refers to the group as a unit. Use a plural pronoun when the noun refers to parts of the group or to individual members.

31 Solving special agreement problems Collective nouns The singular form of a collective noun refers to a group. Common Collective Nouns armyclubfamilysquadron assemblycongregationgroupstaff audiencefleetherdteam bandflocknumbertroop

32 I am taking physics now, and I find it challenging. Solving special agreement problems Plural forms Some nouns that are plural in form take singular pronouns. There’s no more molasses in the jar. Did you use it? Plural Forms That Take Singular Verbs civicsgymnasticsmolasses economicslinguisticsmumps electronicsmathematicsnews geneticsmeaslesphysics

33 Solving special agreement problems Plural forms Acoustics is the branch of science that deals with sound. Such nouns are generally singular when they refer to a science, system, or skill. Such nouns are plural when they refer to qualities or individual items. Many nouns ending in –ics, such as athletics, acoustics, and ethics, may be singular or plural. The acoustics of the new theater are excellent.

34 After you use my scissors, please put them back where you found them. Solving special agreement problems Plural forms When the Olympics were on television, did you watch them? Some nouns that refer to single items take plural verbs. binocularspantsshears eyeglassespliersslacks Olympicsscissorstrousers

35 Solving special agreement problems Titles Once I started watching Finders, I never missed an episode of it. Titles of a creative work—books, songs, movies, or paintings Even when plural in form, these types of nouns take singular pronouns. I don’t know the population of Grand Rapids, but it is the second-largest city in Michigan. Names of countries, cities, or organizations The Veterans of Foreign Wars held its parade last Saturday.

36 Solving special agreement problems Titles When the name of an organization refers to individual members, it takes a plural pronoun. The Veterans of Foreign Wars wore their uniforms when they marched in the parade.

37 Solving special agreement problems Relative pronouns The gender and number of the relative pronoun that, which, or who is determined by the word to which the relative pronoun refers—its antecedent. Enrique, who lives with his aunt and uncle, was born in Puerto Rico. 1.The relative pronoun who refers to Enrique. 2.Enrique is a singular, masculine noun. 3.The relative pronoun who takes a singular, masculine pronoun, his.

38 Solving special agreement problems Expressions of amount An expression of amount (a measurement, percentage, or fraction) may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used. Use a singular pronoun when the amount is thought of as a unit. Use a plural pronoun when the amount is thought of as separate items. The part costs fifty dollars, and I don’t have it. He had dropped two dollars, so I picked them up for him.

39 Solving special agreement problems Expressions of amount A fraction or a percentage is singular when it refers to a singular word. One quarter of the pizza is left. Do you want to take it home? plural when it refers to a plural word. One quarter of the slices are left. Do you want to take them home?

40 Solving special agreement problems 1.I can’t find my binoculars; I must have left ______ somewhere. 2.Ray decided to study economics after he took a class about _____. 3.We have practiced “The Stars and Stripes Forever” until everyone in the band is comfortable playing ______. Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents.

41 1.I can’t find my binoculars; I must have left ______ somewhere. Solving special agreement problems them Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. Binoculars is a noun that takes a plural pronoun even though it refers to a single item. The plural pronoun them agrees with the plural antecedent binoculars.

42 2.Ray decided to study economics after he took a class about _____. Solving special agreement problems Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. it The noun economics is singular because it refers to a science, system, or skill. The singular pronoun it agrees with the singular antecedent economics.

43 3.We have practiced “The Stars and Stripes Forever” until everyone in the band is comfortable playing ______. Solving special agreement problems Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. it Titles of creative works are singular. The singular pronoun it agrees with the singular antecedent “The Stars and Stripes Forever.”

44 [End of Section] On Your Own Solving special agreement problems Most of the following sentences contain pronouns that do not agree with their antecedents. If a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent, provide the correct pronoun. If a sentence is already correct, write C. 1.Did the Cub Scouts wear its hats during the ceremony? 2.The room, which had no decorations on their walls, looked very bare. 3.The team needs to make a decision about their mascot. 4.Measure two thirds of a cup of flour, and add it one spoonful at a time. 5.Locate the Netherlands on the map, and write the name of their capital city.

45 Solving special agreement problems Answers Most of the following sentences contain pronouns that do not agree with their antecedents. If a pronoun does not agree with its antecedent, provide the correct pronoun. If a sentence is already correct, write C. 1. Did the Cub Scouts wear their hats during the ceremony? 2. The room, which had no decorations on its walls, looked very bare. 3.The team needs to make a decision about its mascot. 4.Measure two thirds of a cup of flour, and add it one spoonful at a time. C 5.Locate the Netherlands on the map, and write the name of its capital city.

46 Review A Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents. 1.I enjoyed the movie, but ________ was too long. 2.Some of the members did not cast ________ votes yet. 3.Everyone in the class brought _________ notebook. 4.The woman, who was walking ________ dogs in the park, asked to use my cell phone. 5.Either Brian or Charles will read _______ report first.

47 3.Everyone in the class brought _________ notebook. 4.The woman, who was walking ________ dogs in the park, asked to use my cell phone. 1.I enjoyed the movie, but ________ was too long. 2.Some of the members did not cast ________ votes yet. Review A it their his or her her his Possible Answers Complete each sentence by providing pronouns that agree with their antecedents.

48 Review B [End of Section] 1.If any of the oranges are left, please put it away. 2.The League of Women Voters will sponsor their annual debate for the candidates next week. 3.Mike bent the pliers and wasn’t able to straighten it. 4. One third of the field doesn’t have any crops planted in them. 5.Does anyone still need their locker combination? The following sentences contain errors in pronoun- antecedent agreement. Identify each error, and give the form of the pronoun that agrees with its antecedent.

49 3.Mike bent the pliers and wasn’t able to straighten them. 4. One third of the field doesn’t have any crops planted in it. 5.Does anyone still need his or her locker combination? 2.The League of Women Voters will sponsor its annual debate for the candidates next week. Review B The following sentences contain errors in pronoun- antecedent agreement. Identify each error, and give the form of the pronoun that agrees with its antecedent. 1.If any of the oranges are left, please put them away.

50 The End


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