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Dependent clauses following Biber et al. (2002, 1999) by T. Navés (Search:

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1 Dependent clauses following Biber et al. (2002, 1999) by T. Navés (Search: Naves)

2 Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (Eds.). (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman. Biber, D., S. Conrad, et al. (2002). Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman.

3 FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSES B A finite dependent clause contains a VP which is marked for TENSE or MODALITY. There is regularly a Sbj [agreement] except under conditions of ellipsis. NOMINAL ADVERBIAL RELATIVE COMPARATIVE REPORTING COMMENT PERIPHERAL

4 NOMINAL CLAUSES B Nominal clauses are used as –Sbj. –Sbj. Predicative [Sbj. Complement] –DO –Other clause elements –Phrase modifiers / phrase complements Introduced by the (omissible) subordinator –THAT –WH-word Dependent Interrogative clauses (indirect clauses) NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES

5 NOMINAL CLAUSES B TASK 1. Identify the nominal clause and their function and classify them 1.That is why a tactical decision quickly became apparent 2.They believe that the minimum wage could threaten their jobs 3.The important point, she said, was that her party had voted with her. 4.What I don’t understand is why they don’t let me know anything. 5.Understanding how a planet generates and gets rid of heat is essential if we are to understand how that planet works 6.Any reciprocal learning will depend mainly on what Japanese companies choose to make available. 7.I forgot to ask you what was in the caravans, the sleeping arrangement 8.I mean basically we can go up to Top Shop and buy what we like can’t we?

6 NOMINAL CLAUSES B KEY 1. Identify the nominal clause and their function and classify them 1.That is why a tactical decision quickly became apparent [Sbj] 2.They believe that the minimum wage could threaten their jobs [DO] 3.The important point, she said, was that her party had voted with her [Sbj O] 4.What I don’t understand is why they don’t let me know anything [S - Sbj O] 5.Understanding how a planet generates and gets rid of heat is essential if we are to understand how that planet works [DO – DO] 6.Any reciprocal learning will depend mainly on what Japanese companies choose to make available [Prep C] 7.I forgot to ask you what was in the caravans, the sleeping arrangement [Dependent interrogative or Indirect clause] 8.I mean basically we can go up to Top Shop and buy what we like can’t we? [Nominal Relative clause]

7 NOMINAL CLAUSES B TASK 2. Identify the nominal clause and their function (Adjective complements, Noun complements, Prepositional Phrases complements) 1.He was unaware that Garda Inquiry was being conducted into the allegation, he stated 2.There is a fear that such rules will be over- bureaucratic 3.Be careful what you tell me 4.If he were in a hurry it opens the interesting question why he should be in a hurry 5.She was afraid of what might happen in Chielo suddenly turned round and saw her

8 NOMINAL CLAUSES B KEY 2. Identify the nominal clause and their function (Adjective complements, Noun complements, Prepositional Phrases complements) 1.He was unaware that Garda Inquiry was being conducted into the allegation, he stated [Adj compl] 2.There is a fear that such rules will be over- bureaucratic [Adj compl] 3.Be careful what you tell me [Adj compl] 4.If he were in a hurry it opens the interesting question why he should be in a hurry [N compl] 5.She was afraid of what might happen in Chielo suddenly turned round and saw her [Prep compl]

9 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES B Adverbial clauses are used as ADVERBIALS in the main clause, generally as CIRCUMSTANCE ADVERBIALS. As adverbials in general, they are optional and have some freedom of positioning; both initial and final placement are common. Adverbial clauses are regularly marked by a SUBORDINATOR indicating the relationship to the main clause Adverbial WH-clauses should be distinguished from Nominal WH-clauses [NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES]

10 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES B TASK 3 Distinguish the ADVERBIAL WH- Clauses from NOMINAL WH-Clauses 1.The rain had just about stopped when Kramer started walking to the subway 2.We don’t’ know when he called up

11 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES B KEY 3 Distinguish the ADVERBIAL WH- Clauses from NOMINAL WH-Clauses 1.The rain had just about stopped when Kramer started walking to the subway [ADVERBIAL WH-Clause] 2.We don’t’ know when he called up [NOMINAL WH-Clause]

12 RELATIVE CLAUSES B A relative clause (also called ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE) is characteristically a POSTMODIFIER in a NP. It is introduced by a WH-word, which has a grammatical role in the relative clause in addition to its linking function The RELATIVIZER points back to the head of the NP, which is generally referred as the ANTECEDENT Relative clauses may either be –RESTRICTIVE –NON-RESTRICTIVE NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES are not used as postmodifiers of nouns.

13 RELATIVE CLAUSES B TASK 4 Classify the following relative clauses as restrictive or non-restrictive 1.We have 30 men who are working from 6 am to 11 pm and mot of the extra payments we would expect to receive may go on overtime 2. He warned the public not to approach the men, who are armed and dangerous

14 RELATIVE CLAUSES B KEY 4 Classify the following relative clauses as restrictive or non-restrictive 1.We have 30 men who are working from 6 am to 11 pm and mot of the extra payments we would expect to receive may go on overtime. [RESTRICTIVE. It identifies a group of men who are working long hours] 2. He warned the public not to approach the men, who are armed and dangerous. [NON-RESTRICTIVE. It gives information about some particular men whose identity is already known]

15 RELATIVE CLAUSES B TASK 5 Classify the following sentences as SENTENTIAL RELATIVE CLAUSES OR SENTENCE RELATIVE OR AS NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES 1.All you told me was that Miss White was retiring but I hadn’t to tell anyone, which I haven’t done, which I don’t intend do 2.The waves are transverse, which means that the direction of oscillation has to be perpendicular to the direction of the motion of wave

16 RELATIVE CLAUSES B KEY 5 Classify the following sentences as SENTENTIAL RELATIVE CLAUSES OR SENTENCE RELATIVE OR AS NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES 1.All you told me was that Miss White was retiring but I hadn’t to tell anyone, which I haven’t done, which I don’t intend do [NOMINAL RELATIVE] 2.The waves are transverse, which means that the direction of oscillation has to be perpendicular to the direction of the motion of wave [NOMINAL RELATIVE]

17 COMPARATIVE AND DEGREE CLAUSES B Comparative expressions such as comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs require a basis of comparison Comparative clauses are introduced by THAT Ellipsis is frequent in the comparative clause, which usually mirrors the structure of a main clause A related type of clause expresses RESULT or CONSEQUENCES in relation to a preceding expression: so/such + that-clause The syntactic role of a degree expression varies; most typically is a MODIFIER OF AN ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB

18 REPORTING CLAUSES B A reporting clause accompanies direct reports of somebody’s speech or thought. It specifies the speaker/thinker, the addressee (sometimes), the type of act (ask, think, etc.), and frequently also the mode of the act (abruptly, apologetically, bitterly, etc.) The reporting clause may be placed in initial, medial or final position As there is no link specifying the type of connection, the syntactic role of the reporting clause is indeterminate. The clause containing the reporting verb is often described as the main clause, with the direct speech in object position

19 COMMENT CLAUSES B Comment clauses are similar in structure to reporting clauses –they are loosely connected to the main clause, –they lack an explicit link –they are usually short and –they can appear in a variety of postion They differ from reporting clauses –by being more FORMULAIC, and –in the frequency counts –they are usually in the present rather than past tense –they are usually in first or second rather than third person –they comment on a thought rather than the delivery of a wording

20 REPORTING AND COMMENT CLAUSES B TASK 6. Classify the following sentences into comment and reporting clauses 1.It’s a nice approach I think. 2.You know it makes you wonder, you know, you see all this unemployment 3.And she said that everything was mouldy 4.Madonna, forgive me, he prayed, forgive me for doubting the Holy Father. 5.Of course, dear. Please come over, she invited.

21 REPORTING AND COMMENT CLAUSES B KEY 6. Classify the following sentences into comment and reporting clauses 1.It’s a nice approach I think. [COMMENT] 2.You know it makes you wonder, you know, you see all this unemployment. [COMMENT] 3.And she said that everything was mouldy [REPORTING] 4.Madonna, forgive me, he prayed, forgive me for doubting the Holy Father. [REPORTING] 5.Of course, dear. Please come over, she invited. [REPORTING]

22 NON-FINITE CLAUSES B Non-finite clauses are regularly DEPENDENT. They are more COMPACT and LESS EXPLICIT than finite clauses They are not marked for TENSE & MODALITY They frequently lack an explicit Subject They frequently lack a SUBORDINATOR TYPES: –INFINITIVE CLAUSES (3.12.1) –ING-CLAUSES (3.12.2) –ED-CLAUSES (3.12.3)

23 NON-FINITE CLAUSES B TASK 7 Identify the finite dependent clauses and rewrite them as non-finite dependent clauses: 1.I don’t know what I should write about it 2.As she was crossing, she lifted the rolled umbrella high and pointed to show cars, buses, speeding trucks, and cabs. 3.Since style is relational concept, the aim of literary stylistics is to be relational in a more interesting sense than that which has already been mentioned

24 NON-FINITE CLAUSES B KEY 7 Identify the finite dependent clauses and rewrite them as non-finite dependent clauses: 1.I don’t know what I should write about it 2.As she was crossing, she lifted the rolled umbrella high and pointed to show cars, buses, speeding trucks, and cabs. 3.Since style is relational concept, the aim of literary stylistics is to be relational in a more interesting sense than that which has already been mentioned

25 NON-FINITE CLAUSES B KEY 7b Identify the finite dependent clauses and rewrite them as non-finite dependent clauses: 1.I don’t know what to write about 2.Crossing, she lifted the rolled umbrella high and pointed to show cars, buses, speeding trucks and cabs 3.Style being a relational concept, the aim of literary stylistics is to be relational in a more interesting sense than that already mentioned

26 INFINITIVE CLAUSES B TASK 8 Identify the infinitive clauses and determine their syntactic roles 1.“I believe that homosexuality is a gift from God. To deny that gift is to deny God’s will, saying His way isn’t good enough” 2.Its difficult to maintain a friendship 3.It’s a mistake to take sides 4.My goal is to look to the future 5.The only way out of the dilemma is to suppose that sometimes the photon gets through and sometime it does not. 6.Do you want me to send them today? 7.He upset very much, and I hate to see that

27 INFINITIVE CLAUSES B KEY 8 Identify the infinitive clauses and determine their syntactic roles 1.“I believe that homosexuality is a gift from God. To deny that gift is to deny God’s will, saying His way isn’t good enough” [Sbj] 2.Its difficult to maintain a friendship [Sbj] 3.It’s a mistake to take sides [Sbj] 4.My goal is to look to the future [Sbj O] 5.The only way out of the dilemma is to suppose that sometimes the photon gets through and sometime it does not. [Sbj O] 6.Do you want me to send them today? [DO] 7.He upset very much, and I hate to see that [DO]

28 INFINITIVE CLAUSES B KEY 8b 8. Some of these issues dropped out of Marx’s later works because he considered them to have been satisfactorily dealt with [Object complement] 9. Feare (1970a) thought it to be at least 90% during the first winter [Object complement] 10. A little group of people had gathered by Mrs. Millings to watch the police activities on the foreshore. [Adverbial] 11. To succeed again they will have to improve their fitness and concentration [Adverbial] 12. He is the third man to be murdered on the corner of Donegal Road [Postmodifier of HNP] 13. They’re too big to fight, that’s the trouble isn’t it? [Postmodifier of HAdjP]

29 ING-CLAUSES B TASK 9. Identify the ING-clauses and their syntactic role 1.Having a fever is a pleasant, vacant 2.Understanding how a planet generates and gets rid of its heat is essential if we are to understand how that planet works 3.The real problem is getting something done about chap imports 4.I started thinking about Christmas 5.No-one could reply his going to bed early last night 6.I didn’t come out of it looking particularly well, I know. 7.I think he smashed to cars coming down the road 8.The town is busy taking advantage of its first City Challenge victory by implementing plans aimed at revitaliseing East Middlesbrough 9.The art of expanding limited recall by asking leading, open- ended questions is a subtle one

30 ING-CLAUSES B KEY 9. Identify the ING-clauses and their syntactic role 1.Having a fever is a pleasant, vacant [Sbj] 2.Understanding how a planet generates and gets rid of its heat is essential if we are to understand how that planet works [Sbj] 3.The real problem is getting something done about chap imports [Subject object / Subject predicative] 4.I started thinking about Christmas [DO] 5.No-one could reply his going to bed early last night [Prep Compl / Prep Object] 6.I didn’t come out of it looking particularly well, I know. [Adverbial] 7.I think he smashed to cars coming down the road [Postmodifier of HNP] 8.The town is busy taking advantage of its first City Challenge victory by implementing plans aimed at revitalising East Middlesbrough [Postmodifier of HAdjP] 9.The art of expanding limited recall by asking leading, open- ended questions is a subtle one [Prepositional complement / Prepositional object]

31 ED-CLAUSES B TASK 10. Identify the ED-clauses and their syntactic role 1.God you’ve gone mad with the sugar in yours. Do you want it topped up? 2.Two-year-old Constantin will have his cleft palate repaired 3.When told by police how badly injured his victims were he said: ‘Good, I hope they die’ 4.Taken in the order shown they provide propulsive jests increasing mass flow and increasing jet velocity 5.There wasn’t a scrap of evidence to link him with the body found on the Thames foreshore at low tide 6.This, as we have seen, is the course chosen by a large minority of households.

32 ED-CLAUSES B KEY 11. Identify the ED-clauses and their syntactic role 1.God you’ve gone mad with the sugar in yours. Do you want it topped up? [DO] 2.Two-year-old Constantin will have his cleft palate repaired [DO] 3.When told by police how badly injured his victims were he said: ‘Good, I hope they die’ [Adverbial] 4.Taken in the order shown they provide propulsive jests increasing mass flow and increasing jet velocity [Adverbial] 5.There wasn’t a scrap of evidence to link him with the body found on the Thames foreshore at low tide [postmodifier of HNP] 6.This, as we have seen, is the course chosen by a large minority of households. [postmodifier of HNP]

33 INFINITIVE CLAUSES B KEY 11 Identify the infinitive clauses and determine their syntactic roles 8. Some of these issues dropped out of Marx’s later works because he considered them to have been satisfactorily dealt with [Object complement] 9. Feare (1970a) thought it to be at least 90% during the first winter 10. A little group of people had gathered by Mrs. Millings to watch the police activities on the foreshore. 11. To succeed again they will have to improve their fitness and concentration 12. He is the third man to be murdered on the corner of Donegal Road 13. They’re too big to fight, that’s the trouble isn’t it?


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