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Acting With Integrity. Survival in our society requires that we look out for our own interests. Each of us must find a way to support ourselves, seek.

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Presentation on theme: "Acting With Integrity. Survival in our society requires that we look out for our own interests. Each of us must find a way to support ourselves, seek."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acting With Integrity

2 Survival in our society requires that we look out for our own interests. Each of us must find a way to support ourselves, seek out shelter and food, and do everything else it takes to be satisfied with our lives. No one else can do these things for us. Microsoft Office Online

3 Fortunately, we don’t have to do this alone. To help us with these tasks, we build communities to provide us with certain resources we all depend on. Environmental Protection Agency

4 There are times when pursuing our individual best interest actually works against us, because it destroys a resource that we and others rely upon. © T. Hofer/FAO Collecting firewood © S. Braatz/ FAO Deforestation

5 When it is immediately obvious how our actions deplete a common resource, most of us will see the conflict and make other choices. Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference

6 But sometimes the conflict is not so obvious. Sometimes it takes time or experience to see how our actions harm our communal resources. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

7 Communities have rules to preserve the resources we all rely on To protect common resources that we all depend on, we ask our community leaders to see the “big picture” for us, and provide us with rules that spell out when we should refrain from following our individual interests.

8 The most obvious rules are the laws and regulations set by the governments of the local, state and national communities we live in. But we are also members of smaller communities. UMBC Alumni Association The United States Capitol

9 For example, the residents in a dormitory form a community. Members of the dorm community expect their rooms will be quiet at night so that they can sleep. UMBC Alumni Association To protect the resource of “peace and quiet” that residents depend upon, dormitories limit when and how loudly you can play music in your private room.

10 Communal resources for scholars Both professional scholars (professors) and scholars- in-training (students) rely on certain common resources: Free access to the work of others Information that is accurate and reliable Feedback on our work that is fair and accurate Stacks at the UMBC library

11 Communities of individuals that share professional goals have rules too. The rules of professional communities are called “professional ethics.” New medical students reciting the Hippocratic Oath at the Medical College of Virginia Medical College of Virginia Alumni Assn.

12 UMBC is a community of scholars There are many communities at UMBC, but above all UMBC is a community of scholars. UMBC students present their work at the 5 th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium.. Emily Davis

13 To help protect those scholarly resources, UMBC has developed codes of professional ethics for students and faculty. The professional ethics code for students is called the UMBC Undergraduate Student Academic Conduct Policy. The complete code can be found at this website:

14 Many of the professional ethics rules in our academic conduct policy are easy to understand and apply. But others are not. In the two tutorial modules that follow, you will find instruction in the areas students have the most difficulty applying: citing your sources properly, and receiving help from other students.

15 Ethics For Using the Work of Others

16 “If I have seen farther it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.” Isaac Newton The task of a scholar is to create new knowledge: insights or information that no one else has contributed before. However, most of our knowledge builds incrementally. Individual scholars hear of other people’s work, then use that information to make new discoveries.

17 For example, Gregor Mendel established that the inheritance of traits could be predicted by applying some basic principles that we now call “Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance.” When Thomas Hunt Morgan applied Mendel’s Laws to the inheritance of white eyes in fruit flies, things did not work out as Mendel predicted. The discrepancy between his results and Mendel’s predictions led Morgan to discover sex chromosomes. Gregor Mendel Thomas Hunt Morgan Office of NIH History Nobel Foundation

18 Mendel’s ideas formed a framework that helped Morgan to interpret his new findings, but Mendel’s ideas alone were not sufficient to explain how traits are inherited. Scholars count on future generations to build on their work, and previous generations to inspire them. For this reason, we all benefit when scholars freely share their work. Building new knowledge requires free exchange of ideas

19 Disincentives to free exchange of ideas The primary reward for scholarship is recognition. Scholars are reluctant to share their work if they see others using their work without giving them the recognition they’ve earned.

20 Citations establish the origin of ideas So on the one hand, scholars NEED to use others’ ideas to do their own work, but on the other hand, incorporating someone else’s work into your own can give false impressions of who should get credit for the ideas. To keep track of who is responsible for each idea in an intellectual work, scholarly societies have devised methods for marking passages that contain other peoples’ ideas. When these methods are followed, scholars are satisfied that their work is adequately recognized. When another author’s work is incorporated into someone else’s writing without proper attribution, it is called “plagiarism.”

21 When do students commit plagiarism? The ones you probably know…  Downloading a paper from an internet paper- mill site  Copying a paper written by another student  Copying sentences or phrases word-for-word from printed sources (books, encyclopedias, etc.) WITHOUT enclosing the words in quotation marks

22 When do students commit plagiarism? Also plagiarism...  Presenting the information from another author’s work in your own words without citing the source of the information  Reporting “facts” you just learned from a website without citing the website  Incompletely rewriting another author’s passage so that it is too close to the original

23 So What Exactly is Plagiarism? Plagiarism- Incorporating someone else’s intellectual work into your own work without giving them credit

24 First, we need to clarify what is considered “intellectual work.” Plagiarism- Incorporating someone else’s intellectual work into your own work without giving them credit

25 The following are considered “intellectual work”: CREATIVE WRITING IDEAS INFORMATION INVENTIONS ARTISTIC CREATIONS

26 Example- Three different ways to explain the symptoms of diabetes:  “polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria...”(1)  “extreme thirst, frequent urination [and] increased appetite”(2)  Are you hungry and thirsty a lot? Are you inconvenienced by an “overactive bladder?” These are all signs that you might have diabetes. CREATIVE WRITING- A particular choice or sequence of words to express an idea or fact

27 Example:  Using an analogy of empty chairs to explain how enzyme rates change as you increase substrate concentration  A mathematical equation expressing an the relationship between population density and fertility  Generalizations about the voting patterns of “soccer moms” IDEAS- Interpretations of events, data or facts

28 INFORMATION- Facts, measurements, results from an experiment, statistics, eyewitness accounts Example:  The chromosome a gene is located on  The number of people living in the United States in 2004

29 INVENTIONS Examples:  A computer program  A mathematical proof  An engineering design

30 ARTISTIC CREATIONS Example:  A photograph posted on a website

31 Summary If it’s information, creative writing, ideas, an artistic creation or invention AND you were not the first to come up with it You MUST cite the source

32 So how do you properly give credit? Plagiarism- Incorporating someone else’s intellectual work into your own work without giving them credit

33 Take good notes Avoiding plagiarism begins with good note- taking. As you take notes from your reading, be sure to keep track of where your information comes from. In your notes, you should mark which words are summaries written in your own words of someone else’s information (also known as a “paraphrase”), which are your own ideas, and which are direct quotations (word-for-word copies).

34 A plagiarism-proof note-taking strategy Before you begin to read a source, prepare a blank piece of paper for your notes. Head the paper with the complete bibliographic information you will need for your reference list. Read the material once, from beginning to end. Then CLOSE THE BOOK (or turn your monitor off) and write- in your own words- what you learned from the source that you didn’t know before. This is called paraphrasing. Leave space after each of your paraphrased statements so you can add missed details later. Now open up the book and go back and fill in the missing details (numbers, facts, etc.). If you must copy a phrase verbatim (word-for-word), put quotation marks around it IMMEDIATELY.

35 Read the text below. How would you paraphrase this passage? Even though it was located but seven miles from Savannah, in terms of style and grace the Pin Point, Georgia, of the 1940s and 1950s was light-years away from its big city neighbor to the west. With a population of 500, Pin Point was more hamlet than town, more drive-past than drive-in. The thought that this bump in the road could be the birthplace of a child who would rise to become a justice of the United States Supreme Court– a black child who would rise to become a justice of the United States Supreme Court—was inconceivable. The distance from here to there, or, as the justice himself would grow fond of saying, from the outhouse to the courthouse, was simply too great. A black child from Pin Point, Georgia, becoming a member of the U.S. Supreme Court? It simply couldn’t happen. Except that it did (4).

36 An example of successful paraphrasing ( 5) Paraphrase: Greenya (4) notes that in the small, insignificant town of Pin Point, Georgia, no one would have predicted that one of its citizens, particularly a black citizen, would become a justice for the highest court in the land. However, that is exactly what happened when Clarence Thomas became the second black Supreme Court Justice.

37 Incomplete paraphrasing When paraphrasing, it is important to avoid copying phrases, sentence structure and paragraph structure. Paraphrases must be rewritten in your own words. What follows is an example of a paraphrase that is identical to the original passage except for a few shuffled phrases and substituted synonyms. We call this “incomplete paraphrasing.”

38 Incomplete paraphrasing (6) Original text: “In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas”(7). Plagiarism: In research writing, we cite sources for a couple reasons: to notify readers of our information sources and give credit to those from whom we have borrowed (7).

39 Fixing incomplete paraphrasing (6) If your paraphrase matches the original text too closely, go back and try again to rewrite it in your own words, or treat it as a direct quote. Original text In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas. Acceptable- NOT plagiarism A researcher cites her sources to ensure her audience knows where she got her information, and to recognize and credit the original work (7). In her book A Writer's Reference, Diana Hacker notes, “In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas” (7).

40 Fixing incomplete paraphrasing (6) You can also fix your incomplete paraphrase by treating it as a direct quote with quotation marks at the beginning and end, ellipses (…) to show where you’ve left out words, and brackets [ ] to show where you’ve substituted words. Original text In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas. Incomplete paraphrase- plagiarism In research writing, we cite sources for a couple reasons: to notify readers of our information sources and give credit to those from whom we have borrowed (7). “Fixed” incomplete paraphrase- NOT plagiarism “In research writing, [we cite sources for a couple] reasons: to [notify] readers [of our information sources] and …give credit to [those] from whom [we] have borrowed …”(7). While this last solution adequately acknowledges the creative writing AND the information in the original text, it’s very messy to read and write! For this reason, it is better to treat it as a direct quote or rewrite it.

41 Avoid direct quotes Direct quotations are seldom used in scholarly writing. In scientific writing, they are NEVER used. If you find yourself copying down lots of direct quotations, it’s probably a sign that you haven’t fully understood what you have read. Go back and look up the terms you don’t understand, then see if you can successfully paraphrase the information. Alternatively, go back and look at the instructions for the assignment again, and consider leaving out the information altogether. If it’s so highly technical that you don’t understand it, chances are it’s not a main point.

42 How to properly cite Whether it is creative writing, ideas or information, when you are ready to introduce someone else’s work in your own, in order to “cite” you have to do two things: Mark the passage that comes from someone else List the bibliographic information for the source of the passage in a reference list

43 How to properly cite How you mark the passages depends on Whether the passage is a direct quotation or a paraphrase The citation format you have chosen to use

44 Citing direct quotations ( i.e. word-for-word copying) To mark a direct quote you must: Put quotation marks around copied words. Even two- word phrases copied from a source- if they are unique- must be enclosed in quotation marks. If the passage is long (more than 4 lines), set the passage off by indenting at the beginning and end of each line instead of using quotation marks. Put an in-text citation mark between the final quotation mark and the period.

45 Example: Citing direct quotations Put quotation marks around copied words. Even two- word phrases copied from a source- if they are unique- must be enclosed in quotation marks. If the passage is long (more than 4 lines), set the passage off by indenting at the beginning and end of each line instead of using quotation marks. Put an in-text citation mark between the final quotation mark and the period. “In research writing, sources are cited for two reasons: to alert readers to the sources of your information and to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and ideas”(7).

46 Example: Citing direct quotations Put quotation marks around copied words. Even two-word phrases copied from a source- if they are unique- must be enclosed in quotation marks. If the passage is long (more than 4 lines), set the passage off by indenting at the beginning and end of each line instead of using quotation marks. Put an in-text citation mark between the final quotation mark and the period. Even though it was located but seven miles from Savannah, in terms of style and grace the Pin Point, Georgia, of the 1940s and 1950s was light-years away from its big city neighbor to the west. With a population of 500, Pin Point was more hamlet than town, more drive-past than drive-in. The thought that this bump in the road could be the birthplace of a child who would rise to become a justice of the United States Supreme Court– a black child who would rise to become a justice of the United States Supreme Court—was inconceivable. The distance from here to there, or, as the justice himself would grow fond of saying, from the outhouse to the courthouse, was simply too great. A black child from Pin Point, Georgia, becoming a member of the U.S. Supreme Court? It simply couldn’t happen. Except that it did (4).

47 Citing paraphrases For paraphrases, you only need to do ONE thing to mark the passage: Put an in-text citation mark at the end of each sentence that contains new information, even if it came from the same source as the previous sentence. Putting one in-text citation mark at the end of a paragraph is NOT sufficient.

48 Example: citing paraphrases (8) Giardiasis, the most common waterborne disease caused by an enteric parasite in humans, is produced by the flagellated protozoan Giardia lamblia (1). The Giardia life cycle present two morphologically distinct forms, trophozoites and cysts, [but] the disease is caused by the trophozoite forms and frequently presents as acute or chronic diarrhea... (1). Transmission occurs through the ingestion of Giardia cysts, usually from fecally contaminated food or water or interpersonal contact (2). Put an in-text citation mark at the end of each sentence that contains new information, even if it came from the same source as the previous sentence. Putting one in-text citation mark at the end of a paragraph is NOT sufficient.

49 Formatting The way scholars format their reference lists and in-text citation marks depends on their discipline. You should ask each professor which format- MLA, APA, CSE, etc- they would like you to use for your assignments. The instructions that follow show you how to format your citations with a system used by biologists- the Council of Science Editors (CSE) system.

50 Formatting in-text citation marks There are two ways to format in-text citation marks in the CSE system CSE citation-sequence system  Insert [#], (#) or # at end of passages, with # replaced with a number representing the order in the paper in which the sources appear.  If same source is cited later in the paper, the number is the same. For example, all information from Jones, 1983, is marked [3] throughout the paper because it’s the third source mentioned in the paper, even if the next time it’s mentioned comes after source #12. CSE author-year system  Insert (Author last name, year of publication) at end of passages  If two authors: (Last name of first author & last name of second author, year)  If three or more authors: (Last name of first author, et. al., year)

51 Examples of Citation-Sequence in-text citation marks This passage from a scientific journal article (8): This tutorial Giardiasis, the most common waterborne disease caused by an enteric parasite in humans, is produced by the flagellated protozoan Giardia lamblia (1). The Giardia life cycle present two morphologically distinct forms, trophozoites and cysts, [but] the disease is caused by the trophozoite forms and frequently presents as acute or chronic diarrhea... (1). Transmission occurs through the ingestion of Giardia cysts, usually from fecally contaminated food or water or interpersonal contact (2).

52 Examples of Author-Year in-text citation marks Here is the same passage (8) rewritten in author- year format: Giardiasis, the most common waterborne disease caused by an enteric parasite in humans, is produced by the flagellated protozoan Giardia lamblia (Adam, 1991). The Giardia life cycle present two morphologically distinct forms, trophozoites and cysts, [but] the disease is caused by the trophozoite forms and frequently presents as acute or chronic diarrhea (Adam, 1991)... Transmission occurs through the ingestion of Giardia cysts, usually from fecally contaminated food or water or interpersonal contact (Craun, 1990).

53 Formats for CSE reference lists Put at end of paper under a separate heading called “References” Organize in order cited if using number- sequence system Organize alphabetically by last name of first author if using author-year system Bibliographic information to include depends on type of source (website, journal article, book, etc.)

54 Example reference lists Citation-sequence References 1.Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor Lab. Press, Plainview, NY). 2.Holt, W.V. (1982) J Reprod Fertil 64: Anonymous. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Homepage. URL: Accessed 1/10/2004.http://www.jdrf.org/index.cfm

55 Example reference lists The same list in Author-Year format References Anonymous. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Homepage. URL: Accessed 1/10/2004.http://www.jdrf.org/index.cfm Holt, W.V. (1982) J Reprod Fertil 64: Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor Lab. Press, Plainview, NY). Notice that both the appearance and the order of the list is different

56 Which to use? AdvantagesDisadvantages Citation- sequence Less typing, papers not so cluttered with references Must re-number after each round of editing Author-year Acquaints you with workers in the field, allows you to make connections between publications written by same authors Harder to read

57 Choose only one Whichever you choose to use, you must use the same system for marking text passages throughout the entire paper.

58 When DON’T I have to cite? When providing your own original analysis of other people’s intellectual work When expressing an original thought of your own When relating information from your own research or life experience When reporting “common knowledge”

59 When DON’T I have to cite? When providing your own original analysis or summary of other people’s intellectual work  Example: Making a generalization about a pattern or trend in biology gleaned by reading other people’s papers. E.g. “Eukaryotic genes have introns, but prokaryotic genes don’t.”  But: If someone else makes an analysis or summary that you agree with, it’s still not your own, even if you thought of it before you read the paper. In scholarly work, the first person to publish an idea gets credit for it.

60 When DON’T I have to cite? When relating information from your own research, or your own life experiences  Example: “A common myth is that swallowed gum sits in your stomach, undigested, for seven years.”  Example: Data collected by you in your science laboratory classes

61 When DON’T I have to cite? When reporting “Common Knowledge”  Common knowledge: Information that is commonly known among your peers  Who your peer group is changes depending on the context of your writing assignment For school assignments, use students whose knowledge is limited to what they learned in courses that are pre-requisite to the course you are writing for as your peer group For professional papers, use specialists in the field as your peer group

62 “ Common Knowledge” in Freshman- level science courses (high school diploma pre-requisite) EXAMPLES Diabetes is a disease caused by an inability to either make or use insulin DNA is the genetic material in chromosomes The chemical formula for water is H 2 O Electricity is caused by the flow of electrons

63 “ Common Knowledge” in any upper- level course that lists a UMBC course as a pre-requisite EXAMPLES Any information found in the textbook of the pre-requisite course

64 NOT common knowledge in a freshman-level science course (high school diploma pre-requisite) EXAMPLES The symptoms of diabetes are polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria Mice have 20 chromosomes The abundance of the elements in the universe The effect of black holes on the angular momentum of objects

65 Common misconceptions I only need to cite the source of direct quotations. FALSE I don’t need to cite information I get from the internet. FALSE When I summarize information in my own words (i.e. paraphrase), it becomes my work, therefore I don’t need to cite the information source. FALSE If the instructor tells me to use certain sources, the instructor already knows where I got my information from so I don’t need to cite. FALSE

66 FAQ’s #1 Q.Why don’t I have to cite sources when answering questions in my lab manual? A.Questions in lab manuals usually ask you to do one of two things: 1)Report or interpret your original results from an experiment 2)Apply information you’ve been given to a specific situation Your data, your interpretations of your data, and your analyses are your own original work, and so all of these are adequately cited by your name at the top of the assignment.

67 FAQ’s #2 Q.I’ve written papers during the entire 3 years I’ve been in college, but this is the first time I’ve ever been charged with plagiarism. Why now? A. Plagiarism is an issue that only comes up when your assignment requires you to consult someone else’s intellectual work. There are many types of writing assignments you can do without consulting outside sources.

68 FAQ’s #3 Q.Some places define plagiarism as “misrepresentation of authorship.” While I forgot to put an in-text citation mark in my paper, I also never put in a mark saying the information was mine. So why is that misrepresentation? A. When you put your name at the top of a paper, you’re claiming that the words, ideas and information in the paper are your intellectual work. In-text citations and quotation marks show the reader the exceptions to that rule. If a passage is not marked, it’s assumed to be the author’s work by default.

69 FAQ’s #4 Q.I never see citation marks or reference lists in newspaper articles, magazines or textbooks. Are you saying that THEY are plagiarizers? A. Magazines, newspapers and textbooks are commercial publications, not scholarly publications, and so they follow different rules for acknowledging other people’s intellectual work. The editors and publishers of all three of these sources are responsible for making sure their writers follow intellectual property law (copyright law), which is based on the same principle of respecting ownership of other people’s intellectual work. Journalists primarily use interviews with “experts” or “the man on the scene” as their source of information, so they only need to mention the name and the qualifications of the person they are interviewing (e.g. “according to John Jones, the deputy chief of administration”…). The quality of the information they give you, therefore, is only as good as that “expert’s” memory or knowledge of his/her field. Caveat emptor!

70 FAQ’s #5 Q.In the country I came from, copying from someone else was a way to show your respect for their status as an “expert”, and it was considered presumptuous for students to write anything original. I can’t help but feel I’m doing a poor job of writing unless I copy someone else’s work. How can I be penalized for doing what seems to me to be the most honorable thing? A.In American educational institutions we expect students of all ages to make original contributions, and we show our respect for other people by giving them explicit credit for their work. These are the values that govern practice at UMBC. As a student who was raised in a different culture, your choice to earn a college degree at an American university requires some extra work on your part. Not only do you have to learn the material taught in your classes and express yourself in a second language, but you also need to learn a whole different value system. Start by studying the academic conduct policy. If you are not sure how the policy applies to particular situations, ask your professor for guidance. You will probably find it useful to seek the advice of faculty members or more senior students who came from academic backgrounds similar to your own. They may be able to help you find other assumptions you carry from your upbringing that are in conflict with our university rules.

71 Ethics For Learning From Your Peers

72 Study groups are an effective strategy for learning Research has shown that studying with other students can improve your understanding of course material (9). At UMBC we encourage you to learn from your peers as well as from your professors. UMBC Alumni Association

73 Learn from others ethically However, when learning from others, you need to make sure you don’t use other student’s work inappropriately. How do you know when you are using someone else’s work inappropriately? Let’s start to examine this issue by looking at what YOU think. In the next slide is a fictional story about two students collaborating together on an assignment. Do you think these students are using each other’s work inappropriately? Why or why not?

74 The Case of the Lab Partners Pedro and Napoleon have been best friends since high school, and now they are lab partners in a physics course. Since they are asked to work in pairs on their physics experiments, Pedro and Napoleon take turns operating the equipment and recording the measurements in their lab manuals. After class, they go home and use the measurements to complete a worksheet assignment. Napoleon cannot figure out how to do a problem, so he calls Pedro and asks him to explain how he solved it. After Pedro reminds Napoleon that the professor worked a similar problem on the board during lecture, Napolean hangs up the phone, reviews his notes, and is now able to finish the problem by himself.

75 University rules There are two rules from the Undergraduate Academic Conduct Policy that apply to situations like this. The Policy forbids cheating and plagiarism, which are defined as follows: “Cheating means knowingly using or attempting to use unauthorized material, information, study aids, or another person’s work in any academic exercise.” “Plagiarism means knowingly, or by carelessness or negligence, representing as one's own in any academic exercise the words, ideas, works of art or computer-generated information and images of someone else.” We’ve already talked about plagiarism in the previous module, but what determines which material is “unauthorized?” And at what point does what you learned from someone else switch over from “another person’s work” to become your own knowledge?

76 Individual professors determine what’s “authorized” What is considered “unauthorized” use is determined by each faculty member, for each assignment in each course. Nevertheless, you can usually predict for yourself what practices your professors will prohibit if you understand their point of view. So let’s begin by reviewing why professors give assignments in the first place.

77 What assignments accomplish Professors give you assignments because they hope to accomplish one or both of the following: 1.Learning- In the course of completing the assignment you will learn something new 2.Evaluation- The end-product of the assignment demonstrates how much you’ve learned

78 What would be considered unauthorized? Faculty members are likely to forbid use of other students’ work or knowledge if it would interfere with either of those goals. They would consider that inappropriate use. Inappropriate use of other student’s work/knowledge Any use of another student’s work or knowledge which prevents you from learning the skills or information your instructor intended for you to achieve from the assignment Any use of another student’s work or knowledge which causes the evaluation of what you know to be inaccurate

79 Checklist for learning from your peers You can turn these objectives into a simple checklist of questions to ask yourself when working with other students. If you answer “yes” to either question below, you have probably crossed the line into inappropriate use of another student’s work or knowledge.  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine?

80 Applying the checklist Let’s see how this checklist works by applying it to The Case of the Lab Partners- Napoleon and Pedro.

81 Applying the checklist to The Case of the Lab Partners  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine? Napoleon would answer NO to both questions. Pedro coached Napoleon. He helped him find resources to solve the problem for himself, he didn’t just give Napoleon the answer. Napoleon learned all that the instructor intended him to, and he now knows how to do the problems on her own, so the answer he gives is an accurate picture of what’s in Napoleon’s head. Napoleon now “owns” the knowledge The verdict: Napoleon used Pedro’s knowledge appropriately. This is what effective learning from your peers looks like.

82 More practice Here are three more fictional accounts of students using each other’s work. Did they behave appropriately?

83 One Person’s Trash is Another Person’s Treasure Brittney and Kevin are suitemates. Kevin took the same introductory psychology class Brittney took last semester, so he gave Brittney all his lecture notes, graded assignments and exams to help her study for the course. For the rest of the semester, Brittney completes her assignments by using Kevin’s assignments as “templates.” She copies Kevin’s assignments, improving them wherever she thinks she can do a better job than he did, then hands them in with her name at the top. How would Brittney answer these questions?  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine?

84 Applying the checklist to One Person’s Trash is Another Person’s Treasure  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine? Brittney would have to answer YES to the first question. As she edits Kevin’s work, she is learning the “correct” answer from his assignments, and she also has learned more than he did in some respects, since she is able to improve on his work with her ‘edits.’ However, composing assignments requires that you search through everything you’ve learned from the class, understand it well enough that you can figure out which material is relevant to the assignment and which is not, then organize the material in your head until you can give a coherent answer using the vocabulary you learned in class. By using Kevin’s assignments as a template, Brittney has skipped all of those steps, and thus she has learned less than what the instructor intended for her to learn from the assignment. The verdict: Brittney used Kevin’s work inappropriately.

85 The Purloined Paper Elvis is in over his head. He’s taking seventeen credits, working twenty hours per week bagging groceries at the local supermarket, and has been rehearsing for the next American Idol competition. A paper is due in his history class the same day as his chemistry exam, and he doesn’t have enough time to prepare for both. He goes to visit Priscilla- a friend of his from his history class. While Priscilla is using the restroom, Elvis finds her finished history paper on her computer and s it to himself. When he gets home, he replaces Priscilla’s name at the top of the paper with his own, then hands it in to his history professor the next day. This leaves him plenty of time to study for his chemistry exam. How would Elvis answer these questions?  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine?

86 Applying the checklist to The Purloined Paper  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine? Elvis would answer YES to both questions. Although he might have read over her paper before submitting it, he skipped all the steps that go into researching, organizing and composing a paper, so he definitely learned less than his professor intended. By copying Priscilla’s paper word-for-word, Elvis is presenting a snapshot of what’s in Priscilla’s head, not his. And by using Priscilla’s paper without her consent, Elvis has most likely ruined his relationship with Priscilla. Not covered by academic conduct rules, but definitely not a smooth move. The verdict: Elvis used Priscilla’s work inappropriately.

87 Taking Efficiency Too Far! Will and Grace met each other as freshmen in their introductory computer programming class. Both of them have decided to pursue a major in computer science, so they often study together for the classes they are taking simultaneously. The approach that they have found most useful is to divide up the work. Each of them takes turns writing the code for the assignments, then gives it to the other to copy down. How would Will and Grace answer these questions?  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine?

88 Applying the checklist to Taking Efficiency Too Far! Will and Grace would answer YES to both questions. Unlike the scenario with Pedro and Napoleon, Will and Grace are getting only half of the practice writing code that the instructor intended. Furthermore, half of the assignments submitted by Will actually show what’s in Grace’s head, and vice- versa. The verdict: Will and Grace used each other’s work inappropriately.  By using another student’s knowledge or work as a resource, have I learned less than I would have without it?  Does this assignment give a more accurate snapshot of what’s in somebody else’s head than what’s in mine?

89 Penalties

90 Voluntary compliance creates a climate of trust Codes of professional ethics are most useful when ALL members of the community agree to follow them voluntarily, because it creates a climate of trust within the community. Communities where members trust each other run more efficiently, and are more pleasant to take part in. Microsoft Office Online

91 But if ALL members won’t voluntarily abide by the rules, community resources must be protected by enforcing the rules. Enforcing the rules involves sanctions, penalties or restrictions. Microsoft Office Online

92 UMBC penalties At UMBC the university gives EACH INSTRUCTOR the responsibility of enforcing the academic conduct policy, and deciding on a penalty for each incident of academic misconduct they encounter in the classes they teach. If you violate the academic conduct policy, your professor is also obligated to report the incident to the university in the form of a “Notice of Academic Misconduct.” For a complete explanation of UMBC policy, consult the UMBC Academic Handbook, or

93 Do the right thing- for your own sake, for the sake of others We ask you to pledge to follow those rules so authors of ideas will know you respect their contribution We ask you to pledge to follow those rules so that your grades are accurate, fair evaluations of what you have learned We ask you to pledge to follow those rules so that your classes can be conducted in a climate of trust

94 Do the right thing- for your future We want our students to be successful in their chosen careers after they leave college. Success in the workforce will require that you achieve while operating within the ethical guidelines of your profession. This requires strategic skills. It requires knowing your own strengths and limitations, and figuring out ways to compensate. Microsoft Office Online Learning to succeed academically while staying within the bounds of the university’s ethical rules will help you hone those skills.

95 What’s next? This concludes the Academic Integrity tutorial. Follow the instructions from your course instructor to complete the accompanying quiz.

96 Resources Citation style guides (including Council of Science Editors) UMBC Policies on Academic Integrity UMBC Kuhn Library webpage on plagiarism:

97 References 1. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. MIM Number: : 12/8/2003:. URL: Accessed 1/10/ Anonymous. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Homepage. URL: Accessed 1/10/ Anonymous. “Phenylketonuria”. Genes and Disease. URL: Accessed 1/10/ Greenya, John. Silent Justice: The Clarence Thomas Story. NJ: Barricade Books, Inc., Patricia Denver and LaTasha Tucker. “Plagiarism: What it is and how to Avoid It.” in Lark Claassen, ed., Symbiosis. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing, Student Judicial Affairs, University of California, Davis. October Avoiding Plagiarism: Mastering the Art of Scholarship. Accessed October 2003.http://sja.ucdavis.edu/avoid.htm 7.Hacker D. A Writer’s Reference. London: St. Martin’s Press; HD Lujan, et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, Sokolove, P.G and G. Marbach-Ad Benefits of out-of-class group study for improving student performance on exams: A comparison of outcomes in active- learning and traditional college biology classes. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10(3):

98 About this tutorial This tutorial was written by Dr. Lark Claassen, a faculty member in the UMBC Department of Biological Sciences. UMBC faculty members may freely adapt this tutorial and the associated quiz for use in their classes without further permissions. Distribution outside the UMBC community and use for non-educational purposes is not permitted at this time.


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