3William Faulkner’s life Born near Oxford, Mississippi in 1897Great-grand father: a local legend - colonel in the Civil War, lawyer, railroad builder, financier, politician, writer, public figure shot and killed by a business and political rival in 1889.Father loved to hunt, drink and swap stories with his hunting friends; mother, ambitious, sensitive and literary, loved him the most of her four sons, died in 1907.Dropped out of high school in 1915.Enlisted in the British Royal Flying Corps in 1918Published a collection of poems in 1924, first novel Soldier’s Pay in 1926, the first significant novel Sartoris in 1929.Married his high school love Estelle Oldham in 1929, now divorced and returned to Oxford with two children.Awarded Nobel Prize in 1950
4William Faulkner’s major works NovelsThe Sound and the Fury (1929)As I Lay Dying (1930)Light in August (1930)Absalom, Absalom (1936)Short fiction (short stories)“A Rose for Emily” (1930)“Dry September” (1931)“That Evening Sun” (1931)“Barn Burning” (1938)
5Which William Faulkner? Regionalist: ‘the postage stamp of my little native soil’ (我那片像邮票一样大小的故乡).Traditionalist: conventional themes- themes of morality, of the relationships between individuals & community, ancient myths & modern decay, traditional value & historical change, of the conflict between South and North, and of the relationship between past and present, or most essentially as Faulkner said in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, of “the human heart in conflict with itself”.Modernist: experimentalist in art; radical views of art, his new concept of narration and his readiness for stream-of-consciousness
6William Faulkner’s South Yoknapatawpha countyThe Southern aristocrat- decline of the Compson, Sartoris, Benbow, McCaslin familiesThe illiterate poor white- rise of the unscrupulous（无耻） Snopes familyThe NegroThe Indians* The sin of pride dooms the ambitious families while lowly blacks and poor whites endure.
7Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech by William Faulkner 1 “the problems of the human heart in conflict with itself … alone can make good writing” and “only that is worth writing about, worth the agony and the sweat.”单写人类内心冲突的问题就能创作出好作品，而且这也是唯一值得写、值得为之呕心沥血去写的题材。
8Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech by William Faulkner 2 “love and honor and pity and pride and compassion and sacrifice” are “the old universal truths lacking which any story is ephemeral and doomed.”不反映爱、荣誉、怜悯、自尊、同情与牺牲这些古老的普遍真理，任何小说都只能昙花一现，不会成功。
9Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech by William Faulkner 3 Man is immortal “because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance.” “The poet's, the writer's, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which have been the glory of his past. The poet's voice need not merely be the record of man, it can be one of the props, the pillars to help him endure and prevail.”
10Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech by William Faulkner 4 人之不朽 “是因为他有灵魂，有同情心、有牺牲和忍耐精神。”“诗人和作家的责任就是把这些写出来。诗人和作家的特殊光荣就是去鼓舞人的斗志，使人记住过去曾经有过的光荣——人类曾有过的勇气、荣誉、希望、自尊、同情、怜悯与牺牲精神——以达到不朽。诗人的声音不应只是人类的记录，而应是使人类永存并得到胜利的支柱和栋梁。”
11Background Union / Confederate states Sharecropping / sharecropper / cropperWhite trash
14sharecropping White landowners Sharecroppers: - Ex-slaves (blacks) - Poor whitesHalf-half share of the harvest70-30 shareHigh interest charges of the loaned tools, animals, and money tied croppers to the land30-70 share
15white trashpoor whites outcast from respectable society living on the fringes of the social orderwho are seen as dangerous because they may be criminal, unpredictable, and without respect for authority whether it be political, legal, or moral.
16Barn Burning Introduction The story won the O. Henry prize the year it was published (1938), and has been adapted for the screen in It is a prequel to The Hamlet, The Town, and The Mansion. These three novels make up the "Snopes" trilogy.Setting:- southern small towns about 30 years after the Civil War (1895)Characters:- Abner Snopes is a sharecropper- Colonel Sartoris Snopes (Sarty) is a ten-year-old boy- landowners: Mr. Harris, Major de Spain
17Discussion QuestionsWhat is the nature of the story's conflict? How does each of the story's six scenes serve to reveal, clarify, and intensify the conflict?What seems to motivate Abner's violent, antisocial behavior? Why does he try to make his son Sarty an accomplice to the burning of Major de Spain's barn? Why does Sarty fianally defy him and try to warn Major de Spain?The character of Abner SnopesThe character of SartyWhat comments does the story offer about the social, moral, and economic values of the old and the new South?
18nature of the story's conflict Conflict within Sarty’s mind
19Scene I (pp.166-168) Setting - an afternoon in the store Characters - Sarty- Abner- Mr. Harris- Justice of the Peace- audience (townspeople, half-grown boys)- Sarty’s brother, sisters , mother, auntEvent- Mr. Harris sues Abner for burning his barn- fight between Sarty and another boy
20Scene I (pp.166-168) Questions From whose point of view is the scene described?What do the following phrases reveal about Sarty’s feelings?- the smell and sense just a little of fear because mostly of despair and grief, the old fierce pull of blood (para. 1, p. 166)- the smell of cheese and sealed meat, the fear and despair and the old grief of blood (middle para., p. 167)- grim faces (p. 167)- feeling no floor, weightless, no blow, … (p. 167)
21Scene II (pp )Setting- early next afternoon at Major de Spain’s houseCharacters- Abner- Sarty- the old Negro watchman- Miss Lula (wife of Major de Spain)Event- Abner stains the rug with fresh horse droppings
22Scene II (pp.170-171) Questions What is Sarty’s impression of Major de Spain’s house?How is his mood changed?- a surge of peace and joy (p.170)- the spell of the house
23Scene III (pp.171-173) Setting - late that afternoon in the rent house of the SnopesCharacters- Sarty, mother, aunt- Major de Spain and his Negro youth servant- brother- father, two sistersEvent- rug washing
24Scene III (pp.171-173) Questions How does Sarty react to the appearance of Major de Spain?How does Sarty react in the whole process of rug washing?
25Scene IV (p.173)Setting- early next morning (Wednesday) in Major de Spain’s lotCharacters- father, brother, Sarty- Major de SpainEvent- Major de Spain tells Abner that he will charge Abner a compensation of 20 bushels for the ruined rug.
26Scene IV (p.173)Questions1. How does Sarty react to Major de Spain’s claim for a compensation?2. What is his intention in offering to help his father hide the harvested corn? (p.173)3. What has Sarty been doing after that?- working hard- dreaming (p.174)
27Scene V (pp.174-75) Setting - Saturday morning in a store Characters - Sarty, Abner, brother- Justice of the Peace- Major de Spain- audienceEvent- Abner sues Major de Spain for charging him too high a price for the damaged rug.
28Scene V (pp.174-75) Question What is Sarty’s reaction? - similar to the last scene, trying to appease his father (p.175)
29Scene VI (pp )Setting- Saturday night from the Snopes’ house to Major de Spain’s house to a hill topCharacters- Sarty- father, brother, mother, aunt- Major de Spain and his menEvent- Sarty tries to stop his father from burning Major de Spain’s barn by reporting to Major de Spain of his father’s intention.
30Scene VI (pp.176-78) Questions When is the most intense moment of conflict within Sarty’s mind?- in the whole process of his running to Major de Spain and to his father2. The word “run” is repeated many times in the description of Sarty in this scene. What does it indicate about Sarty?
31Conflict within Sarty Despair and Grief due to the conflict between - Loyalty to blood, family and father“the old fierce pull of blood” (p.166, 167, 170, 174, 176, 178)- Sense of honor, justice and responsibility for the community; dream of good and comfortable life“the smell of cheese and hermetic meat” (p.166-7)“a lane of grim faces”, “the palpable weight of grim turning faces” “two lines of grim-faced men” (p.167)“peace and dignity” of Major de Spain’s house (p.170)
32What motivates Abner’s violent, antisocial behavior? Abner’s imbalanced state of mind, “ravening and jealous rage” at the great gap between his poverty and the landowners’ richnessWhy barn burning instead of other ways?
33Abner vs. landowner“Pretty and white, ain’t it? … That’s sweat. Nigger sweat. Maybe it ain’t white enough yet to suit him. Maybe he wants to mix some white sweat with it” (陶洁171)- a comment on Major de Spain’s house- indicating Abner’s despise of and hostility toward the landowner
34Characters – Abner Snopes mercenary Civil War veteran / former horse thiefAbusive and violentTough – unyielding, stubborn; hardened; rough (“stiff foot” “stood stiffly” “planted stiffly on the stiff foot”, ; “hard” arm and hand,p.173)Wolflike ravening ferocity (p.168)Full of jealousy and resentment against landowners
35Symbol of fire and related images Small campfires made by father- "neat, niggard almost, shrewd“ (p. 168)- “the one weapon for the preservation of integrity” (p. 169)With fire, Ab feels powerful and feels that he can control his fate.- strike mules and Sarty, shout at the niggar “without heat” (p. 168, 169, 171)- saving energy to fight against landowners- a man of action, not of words or feelings
36Characters - Sarty Impassioned & sensitive Love for his family Love and admiration for his fatherSense of justice and responsibility for the communityBraveNaïve (father’s bravery, world’s wealth distribution and concept of justice)
37The old and the new South Social, moral and economic values of the old South- plantation economy / hierarchy (aristocracy, slavery) / honorSocial, moral and economic values of the new South- agriculture / sharecropping system / money-oriented (capitalism) / pragmatism
38Assignments for Hemingway’s “A Clean, Well-lighted Place” Read the story and write a short review about one aspect of the story, such asa. the themeb. the character(s)c. the styled. the artistic device (image, symbol…)e. topics on the textbook (p185).