Presentation on theme: "Historical Trauma and Grief An Intervention Project Related to Place American Indigenous Research Association Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, MT October."— Presentation transcript:
Historical Trauma and Grief An Intervention Project Related to Place American Indigenous Research Association Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, MT October 10-11, 2014 1 Gyda Swaney, PhD 1 Ke Wu, PhD 2 Patricia A. Holkup, PhD, RN 2 Emily Matt Salois, MSW, ACSW 1 University of Montana, Missoula 2 Montana State University College of Nursing, Bozeman
Introduction CBPR & Indigenous research approaches Underlying issue related to health disparities Impact of widespread grief Goals of project Develop and pilot an intervention to address historical trauma and grief (quantitative) Elicit a description of community members’ experiences of grief (qualitative)
The Intervention: A 3-Day Grief Retreat An Indigenous ceremony to honor historical trauma and grief
Intervention Day 1: BELONGING Birth/Infancy/Discovery Introduction, virtues, telling the HT story, signs and symptoms of unresolved and disenfranchised grief. Day 2: MASTERY Adolescence/Faith/Personal Growth Exploration of intergenerational/current family situations and dynamics, work on Circle of Grief (chronological identification of losses & positive lessons). Day 3: INDEPENDENCE Adult/Autonomy/Freedom/Recovery Identification of relationships with the losses, letter writing exercise. Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1990; DeRoche & Malatare, 2010
What is the effect of the Grief Retreat on participants’ expression of grief, resilience/coping skills, psychological wellbeing, and experience of historical trauma? Grief Retreats 1-4 (N = 50, F=26; M=24) Grief Retreats 5-6 (N = 37, F=18; M=19) Table 1. Data collection schedule (Groups I – IV) Measures Pre Grief Retreat (Intervention) Post Time 1 1 st day Time 2 1 month after Demographic Grief History Questionnaire Historical Trauma Historical Loss Scale (HLS) Historical Loss Associated Symptoms Scale (HLASS) Traumatic Grief Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG) Table 1. Data collection schedule Measures Pre Grief Retreat (Intervention) Post Time 1 1 st day Time 2 1 day > Time 3 1 mo > Time 4 3 mo > Demographic Grief History Questionnaire Grief Question: 1.Have you experienced another death? Qualitative Questions: 1.What was helpful? 2.What do you wish was included? Historical Trauma Historical Loss Scale (HLS) Historical Loss Associated Symptom Scale (HLASS) Traumatic Grief Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG) Resilience/Coping Brief COPE Inventory (BC) Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) Inventory of Support Evaluation List (ISEL) Psychological Kessler-6 (K-6) Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) Approximate time to complete the packet 50 min35 min40 min50 min Note: References for instruments included at the end
Demographics N = 87 (female = 44; male = 43) Live alone (yes = 20.7%; no = 79.3%) Employed (yes = 43.7%; no = 56.3%) Education 6 th Grade or less = 1.1% Partial High School = 4.6% High School Diploma/GED = 21.8% Partial College = 34.5% Completed College = 21.8% Graduate/professional training = 12.6% Other = 2.3% Organized Religion (yes = 62.4%; no = 37.6%) Tribal traditional spiritual practices: (yes = 67.8%; no = 32.2%)
Grief History: Number of Deaths per Participant in Past 5 Years
Preliminary Results MEASUREGroups 5 & 6 Historical Loss Scale (Developed for Native Americans) Participants thought more about Historical Loss [T1 (M = 44.67) – T2 (M = 47.33) – T3 (M = 41.0) – (T4 (M = 34.78); p =.033, eta =.328, n = 9] Historical Loss Associated Symptom Scale (Developed for Native Americans) NSF Anxiety/Depression (T1 – T3, p =.06, eta =.273, n = 9) Anger/Avoidance (NSF) Brief COPE InventoryCoping/Planning (NSF) Acceptance (NSF) Humor (NSF) Religion (NSF) Support (NSF) Distraction/Venting (NSF) Denial/Self-Blame (NSF) Substance Use [T1 – T3, p <.038 and T1 – T4, p <.05] Behavioral Disengagement (NSF) Brief Resilience ScaleNSF Overall, the participants’ scores demonstrated resilience (M = 20.143 – 19.143, n = 7) MSDN T15.302.4910 T24.801.9310 T33.10*1.7310 T43.40*1.8419
Preliminary Results (continued) Interpersonal Support Evaluation List Appraisal [T1 (M = 22.3) – T2 (M = 18.2), p < 0.05; n = 10] Tangible (NSF) Self-Esteem Support (NSF) Belonging Support [T1 – T2, p =.135, eta =.256] The Intervention had an impact on participants’ feelings of support and belonging while in the group Kessler-6 ScalePsychological Distress decreased significantly when in group, then increased (but not significantly) [T1 (M = 19.8) – T2 (M = 22.5), n = 10, p <.05, eta =.403] Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Positive Affect stayed essentially the same (n = 8) Negative Affect DECREASED initially and then returned to baseline at 3 month follow-up (n = 9) NSF Brief Resilience ScaleNSF Overall, the participants’ scores demonstrated resilience (M = 20.143 – 19.143, n = 7)
Preliminary Assessment of the Inventory of Traumatic Grief Question: Can the ITG be used with Native American populations? Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG) Developed for Euro/American populations Two domains: Separation & traumatic distress Focus: Grief related to loss of a significant other ITG culturally vetted: Relevance and offensiveness Slight modifications made Noted: ITG focuses on one death; Native Americans often experience frequent, multiple, and layered deaths Convergent validity (ITG & HLASS) Conclusion: Statistical significance suggests measurement of the same construct, grief, but low r values may represent differing domains in the larger grief construct.
Inventory of Traumatic Grief N = 87; M = 57.94; SD = 25.64; Range = 0 - 150 Cut Score is 90 10 (of the 87 participants, 11%) scored above 90
Individual Family Tribal Community Traditional Homelands Emerging Model: Grief and Resilience GRIEF is experienced on multiple levels Grief begins a process that is met with multiple levels of RESILIENCE GRIEF RESILIENCE
Presentation References Brendtro, L.K., M. Brokenleg, and S. Van Bockern, Reclaiming youth at risk: Our hope for the future. 1990, Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. DeRoche, M.L. and M. Malatare, Historical trauma and the grief life cycle, in Alberta Delegated First Nations Agencies: Best Practices Symposium "Nii stow a tsi maan: Raising Our Children". 2010: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. References for Instruments Historical Loss Scale & Historical Loss Associated Symptoms Scale Walls, M.L. and L.B. Whitbeck, Distress among Indigenous North Americans: Generalized and culturally relevant stressors. Society and Mental Health, 2011. 1(2): p. 124-136. Walls, M.L. and L.B. Whitbeck, The intergenerational effects of relocation policies on Indigenous families. Journal of Family Issues, 2012. 33(9): p. 1272-1293. Whitbeck, L.B., et al., Conceptualizing and measuring historical trauma among American Indian people. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2004. 33(3/4): p. 119-130. Whitbeck, L.B., et al., Depressed affect and historical loss among North American Indigenous adolescents. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 2009. 16(3): p. 16-41.
Inventory of Traumatic Grief Boelen, P.A., et al., Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG). Death Studies, 2003. 27: p. 227-247. Jacobs, S.C., C. Mazure, and H. Prigerson, Diagnostic criteria for traumatic grief. Death Studies, 2000. 24: p. 185-199. Jacobs, S.C. and H.G. Prigerson, Psychotherapy of traumatic grief: A review of evidence for psychotherapeutic treatments. Death Studies, 2000. 24: p. 479-495. Prigerson, H.G., et al., Traumatic grief as a risk factor for mental and physical morbidity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1997. 154(5): p. 616-623. Prigerson, H.G., et al., Influence of Traumatic Grief on suicidal ideation among young adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1999. 156(12): p. 1994-1995. Prigerson, H.G., et al., Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric Validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11. PLoS Med 2009. 6(8). Prigerson, H.G. and S.C. Jacobs, Traumatic grief as a distinct disorder: A rationale, consensus criteria and a preliminary empirical test, in Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, and care, M.S. Stroebe, et al., Editors. 2001, American Psychological Association Press: Washington, DC. p. 613-645. Prigerson, H.G., et al., Inventory of complicated grief: A scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss. Psychiatry Research, 1995. 59: p. 65-79. Prigerson, H.G., et al., Consensus criteria for traumatic grief: A preliminary empirical test. British Journal of Psychiatriy, 1999. 174: p. 67-73. Prigerson, H.G., et al., Traumatic Grief: A case of loss-induced trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1997. 154(7): p. 1003-1009.
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Acknowledgements Mary Louise DeRoche, MSH, LAC Melveena Malatare, MA, LAC Annie Belcourt, PhD InPsych Research Team Ann Douglas, MA; Ciara Hansen, MA; Desiree Pierre-Fox, MA; Ennis Vaile, MA; Georgie Ferguson, MA; Jennie Fretts, MA; Maegan Rides at the Door, MEd; Matthew Croxton, MA; Raquel Arouca, PhD; Vernon Grant, MS; William Shunkamolah, PhD Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, PhD Ray Daw, MA This project was supported by a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (8 P20 GM103474-11) from the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences or the National Institutes of Health