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Chapter 2 Workforce Safety and Wellness of the EMT Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Prehospital Emergency Care, Ninth Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Workforce Safety and Wellness of the EMT Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Prehospital Emergency Care, Ninth Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Workforce Safety and Wellness of the EMT Copyright ©2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Prehospital Emergency Care, Ninth Edition Joseph J. Mistovich Keith J. Karren

2 Objectives 1.Define key terms introduced in this chapter. 2.Given a description of a patient or family member’s behavior, identify the stage of grief it most likely represents (slides 13-15).slides Explain the principles for interacting with patients and family members in situations involving death and dying (slides 16-17).slides Give examples of situations that EMS providers may find stressful (slide 18).slide 18 5.Compare and contrast the characteristics of acute, delayed, and cumulative stress reactions (slides 20-21).slides 20-21

3 Objectives 6.Recognize signs and symptoms of stress reactions (slides 22-23).slides Describe lifestyle changes you can make to help you deal with stress (slides 24-27).slides Describe responses your friends and family may have to your work in EMS (slides 28-29).slides Describe changes in the work environment that can help you manage job-related stress (slides 30-31).slides Discuss the components of a comprehensive system of critical incident stress management (slides 32-36).slides Describe measures you can take to protect yourself from exposure to diseases caused by pathogens and accidental and work-related injury (slides 37-46).slides 37-46

4 Objectives 12.Give examples of diseases caused by each of the different types of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) (slides 38-39).slides Describe the Standard Precautions that must be taken to protect health care workers from exposure to infectious diseases (slides 40-44).slides Describe the personal protective equipment that may be used by EMS personnel (slides 42-43).slides Explain the role of immunizations and tuberculosis testing in maintaining good health (slide 45).slide 45

5 Objectives 16.Discuss the risks and preventive measures for specific infectious diseases of concern to EMTs, including (slides 47-61):slides a.Hepatitis B b.Hepatitis C c.Tuberculosis d.Acquired immune deficiency syndrome e.Severe acute respiratory syndrome f.West Nile virus g.Infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms

6 Objectives 17.Explain the risks and measures that can be taken to protect yourself against the following hazards (slides 62-68):slides a.Hazardous materials b.Hazardous rescue situations c.Traffic-related injuries d.Violence and crime 18.Describe the components of physical and mental wellness (slides 69-80).slides 69-80

7 Multimedia Directory Slide 36Grief and a Child’s Death Video Slide 42Putting on Clean Gloves Video Slide 54Epidemiology of AIDS Video

8 Topics Emotional Aspects of Emergency Care Scene Safety Wellness Principles

9 CASE STUDY Dispatch

10 EMS Units 111 and 112 Both units respond to 327 Manchester Avenue — possible domestic dispute with reported gunfire — called in by the police department. Time out 1441

11 Upon Arrival Three police cruisers surround the house Guns drawn Police signal you to stay back With binoculars you see a downed officer by the front door Hear gunshots

12 How would you proceed?

13 Back to Topics Emotional Aspects of Emergency Care

14 Death and Dying Five Emotional Stages

15 Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Back to Objectives

16 Death and Dying Dealing with the Dying Patient, Family, and Bystanders Back to Objectives

17 Maintain patient’s dignity Show respect Communicate Don’t give false assurances Listen empathetically Use a gentle tone of voice

18 High-Stress Situations Back to Objectives

19 Multiple-casualty incidents (MCIs) Emergencies involving children Injury or death of a coworker Responding to friends or family members Abuse (© Chip East/Reuters Newmedia Inc../Corbis)

20 Stress Reactions Types of Reactions Back to Objectives

21 Acute Delayed Cumulative (© Mark C. Ide)

22 Stress Reactions Common Signs and Symptoms of Stress Reactions Back to Objectives


24 Stress Management Make Lifestyle Changes Back to Objectives

25 Diet Exercise Relax Avoid self-medication

26 Stress Management Keep Balance in Your Life

27 Assess your priorities Talk to someone you trust Understand mistakes happen

28 Stress Management Recognize the Response of Your Family and Friends Back to Objectives

29 Lack of understanding Fear of separation or of being ignored Worry about on-call situations Inability to plan Frustrated desire to share

30 Stress Management Make Changes in Your Work Environment Back to Objectives

31 Use a “buddy” system Encourage and support coworkers Exercise Request a rotation of duty assignment

32 Stress Management Seek Professional Help Back to Objectives

33 Don’t be afraid to seek mental health advice.

34 Critical Incident Stress Management

35 Critical incident Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) Defusing

36 Grief and a Child’s Death Return to Directory Click here to view a video on the topic of grief and a child’s

37 Back to Topics Scene Safety

38 Protecting Yourself from Disease How Diseases Spread Back to Objectives

39 Pathogens Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Helminths Back to Objectives

40 Standard Precautions Protecting Yourself from Disease Back to Objectives

41 Hand Washing Wash hands even if you wore gloves Ten to 15 seconds of scrubbing Foaming hand sanitizer if no access to water

42 Putting on Clean Gloves Return to Directory Click here to view a video on the topic of putting on clean

43 Eye protection Protective gloves Gowns Masks Personal Protective Equipment Back to Objectives

44 Additional Guidelines Cleaning Disinfecting Sterilization

45 Immunizations PPD Tetanus Hep B Influenza Polio MMR Varicella (© Michal Heron) Back to Objectives

46 Reporting Exposure Date Time Amount of fluid Details of exposure

47 Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT Hepatitis B Back to Objectives

48 Can be symptom free and still spread disease Affects the liver Protective procedure -Gloves, wash -Vaccines -Double bag -Clean and disinfect

49 Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT Hepatitis C

50 Transmitted primarily through needle sticks No vaccine Standard Precautions Needle safety

51 Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT Tuberculosis

52 Spread by droplets Protective procedures –Gloves –N95 –Wash hands –Disinfect nondisposable equipment

53 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT

54 Epidemiology of AIDS Return to Directory Click here to view a video on the topic of epidemiology of

55 Spread through –Sexual contact –Infected needles –Infected blood –Mother-child transmission Standard Precautions Not through casual contact HIV leads to AIDS

56 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT

57 Respiratory virus Transmitted by droplets in close proximity Protective procedure –Surgical mask, eye protection, gloves

58 West Nile Virus Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT

59 Spread by mosquitoes Symptoms can be mild to severe Especially dangerous in young and elderly Use Standard Precautions

60 Multidrug-Resistant Organisms Infectious Diseases of Concern to the EMT

61 Pathogens include –MRSA –VRE –PRSP –DRSP Spread through direct contact Follow Standard Precautions Resist antimicrobial drugs Common in long-term care facilities

62 Protecting Yourself from Accidental and Work-Related Injury Hazardous Materials Back to Objectives

63 Use binoculars Identify placards Allow trained personnel to rescue injured Treat after decontamination, if possible

64 Protecting Yourself from Accidental and Work-Related Injury Rescue Situations

65 Call for assistance Control scene Wear protective clothing Watch scene hazards (© Mark C. Ide)

66 High-Visibility Vest American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Class one Class two Class three

67 Protecting Yourself from Accidental and Work-Related Injury Violence and Crime

68 Consider police for situations such as Domestic disputes Patients under the influence Fights Suicides Angry family or bystanders Behavioral emergencies Crime scenes (©Craig Jackson/In the Dark Photography)

69 Back to Topics Wellness Principles

70 Physical Well-Being Physical Fitness Back to Objectives

71 Cardiovascular Endurance Target heart rate Measure resting heart rate (HR) Subtract your age from 220; this is your max HR Subtract resting HR from max HR; multiply by 0.70 Add the final number to your resting HR

72 Strength Endurance Flexibility Body Composition

73 Physical Well-Being Adequate Sleep

74 Select a cool and dark environment Choose an uninterrupted block of time when sleep can be achieved Avoid heavy meals, caffeine, or exercise immediately prior to sleep Turn off phone ringers and pagers to reduce interruptions Methods to Improve Quality and Amount of Sleep

75 Physical Well-Being Smoking Cessation

76 Increases risk of –Cardiovascular and pulmonary disease –Cancer Quitting improves public image of EMS

77 Physical Well-Being Alcohol- and Drug- Related Issues

78 Does not get rid of stress Seek professional assistance Many places have assistance programs

79 Mental Well-Being

80 Exercise, relaxation, and engaging in activities you enjoy Don’t be afraid to ask for professional help

81 Follow-Up CASE STUDY

82 Husband holding wife and daughters hostage Two hours later still not permitted in Husband then releases two children Single gunshot then heard CASE STUDY Primary Assessment

83 Husband then begins to shoot randomly Fire then returned by special tactics team CASE STUDY Primary Assessment

84 Patient Assessment CASE STUDY After scene is secure, you are permitted to enter – Police officer DOA – Gunman DOA – Wife DOA Advise dispatch no additional transport Cleared from scene

85 Critical Incident Follow-Up CASE STUDY Your partner is very quiet and tense – States he is going to quit EMS Supervisor meets with partner; encourages him to contact the employee assistance program Partner returns relaxed and confident

86 Three-year-old female patient who was shot in the chest Upon arrival, you find blood covering the front porch and sidewalk Critical Thinking Scenario

87 1.What would you do to ensure scene safety? 2.What other resources should be requested? 3.Why is this a potential high-stress situation? 4.What can be done to reduce your stress associated with the call? Critical Thinking Questions

88 Reinforce and Review Please visit and follow the myBradykit links to access content for the text.

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