Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSEQUENCE OF DISASTER Ms. Aida S. Cuadra, RN."— Presentation transcript:
PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSEQUENCE OF DISASTER Ms. Aida S. Cuadra, RN
OBJECTIVES: At the end of the presentation, the participants will be able to: 1.Discuss the Psychosocial consequences of disaster. 2.Enumerate ways which can help mitigate these consequences. 3.Discuss how you can help mitigate the consequences in the phases of disaster where you can be involved with.
Disaster is an emergency which local administrative authorities CAN NOT COPE with the impact or the scale of the hazard, and therefore the event is managed from outside the affected community.
Psychological and social impacts of emergencies may be acute in the short term can also undermine the long-term mental health and psychosocial well-being
Problems Nature of Problems are predominantly: Social Psychological Pre-existing (pre- emergency) Emergency-induced Humanitarian aid - induced or -related
Predominantly Social Problems Pre-existing (pre- emergency) social problems E.g. extreme poverty; domestic violence, criminality, belonging to a group that is discriminated against or marginalised; political oppression);
Emergency-induced social problems E.g. family separation; Unemployment; disruption of social networks; destruction of community structures, thrust and resources; increased substance abuse, gambling, gender-based violence;
Predominantly Social Problems Humanitarian aid-induced social problems E.g. Undermining of community structures or traditional support mechanisms.
Predominantly Psychological Problems Pre-existing (pre-emergency) problems E.g. mental disorder; alcohol/drug abuse, gender-based violence, child abuse, Criminal violence, Social/ cultural deprivation or isolation
Predominantly Psychological Problems Emergency-induced problems E.g. grief, trauma related distress; depression and anxiety disorders post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD);.
Humanitarian aid- related problems E.g. anxiety due to a lack of information and coordination, insufficiency of relief provisions, poor survivor-caregiver dynamics due to caregiver burnout, or compassion fatigue, etc
5 PHASES OF DISASTER RESPONSE Phases of D.RUsual Length of Time in that Phase ActionsEmotions WARNING OR THREAT PHASE Days before actual incident/ or no warning at all If warning is given, some people will make preparations/ some may ignore If no warning, may feel vulnerable, unsafe & fearful of future unpredicted tragedies IMPACT PHASE -start of disaster -Immediately characterized by great dysfunction, intense overwhelming emotions or shock Day 1 – 3 daysGetting over the destruction and its effects/ depends on the extent The greater the scope, destruction & personal losses associated w/ the disaster, the greater the PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS
5 PHASES OF DISASTER RESPONSE Phases of D.RUsual Length of Time in that Phase ActionsEmotions HEROIC STAGE (Rescue Stage) - People working together to save each other/ properties- concern for survival Prior to Impact up to 1 week afterwards Struggle to prevent loss of lives & Property damage; survival; activity level; actual productivity Fear, anxiety, stunned HONEY MOON STAGE (Remedy Phase) - Victims bouyed & supported by promises of help from GO’s, NGO’s 2 weeks – 2 months Relief efforts lift spirits of survivors; hope of Quick recovery run high; optimism often shortlived Euphoria at being alive; grateful; grief; disbelief
5 PHASES OF DISASTER RESPONSE Phases of D.RUsual Length of Time in that Phase ActionsEmotions DISILLUSIONMENT PHASE -Unexpected delays & failure – frustration– from bureaucratic confusion -Rebuilding their own lives -Solving own individual problems Several months to over a year Realities of bureaucratic paper works; recovery delays; outside help leaves; Survivors realize they have lots to do by themselves & their lives may never be the same again Frustration; depression’ self doubt; loss/grief; isolation RECONSTRUCTION PHASE - Characterized by coordinated individual & community effort to rebuild & reestablish normalcy Several yearsNormal Functioning is gradually re- established; emo’l resources w/in the family-exhausted Satisfied with progress, emotions appropriate to current events
PHASES OF DISASTER Pre Disaster Warning THREA T IMPACT Inventory HEROIC HONEYMOON ( Community cohesion) DISILLUSIONMENT Working through GRIEF (coming to terms) Trigger events & anniversary reactions RECONSTRUCTION (a new beginning) 1-3 days 1-3 years TIME
3 TYPES OF VICTIMS DIRECT VICTIMS INDIRECT VICTIMS HIDDEN VICTIMS
KEY CONCEPTS OF DISASTER 1.Everyone who sees a disaster is affected by it. (anxiety provoking esp. people w relatives/loved ones who lives in the area) 2.Target Population is primarily NORMAL.(pertain to hysterical reactions;crying,tembling etc.consider normal under the circumstances. 3.How people have coped with CRISES in their past will be a GOOD INDICATOR of how they will handle the disaster
4. People do not disintegrate in response to disaster. (help each other; bayanihan system) 5.Disturbance is transitory. Splitting events cant stop for awhile and have recurrent episodes. Emotional Reactions of survivors is brought about by disaster rather than poor coping skills. 6.Disaster relief procedures have been called the “SECOND DISASTER”.
7. Disaster stress reactions may be immediate or delayed. (anxiety delay or immediately response to stress or event 8. Be innovative in offering help. (regret disaster assistance, busy, pride,, feel control of the event, named crazy) 9. Avoid mental health labels. (stigmatized and would create more trauma) (crisis worker, counsellor)
14. Mental health staff need to set aside traditional, office-based psychotherapy in order to intervene successfully in disaster. : Essential mental health intervention includes: * outreach * rapid assessment/ psyche triage * Crisis intervention & brief treatment * Case management * Advocacy * Education * Information & referral * Debriefing for service providers ( health care providers will directly go to place of disaster. Sometimes interventions are being done ( inside tent or evacuation center) 10. People respond to active interest and concern. (Diffusing, ventillation of feelings, lessening trauma, w/c has cathartic effect) 11. Informed early intervention can speed recovery and prevent serious or long term problems. (cisd- coordination and voluntary)
12. The FAMILY is the FIRST line for individuals. (Stay together in one place, main support sys., locate missing members) 13. Support systems are crucial to recovery. (the more support the faster & better the recovery is)
Guinsaogon, So. Leyte 15. A disaster CAN BRING OUT THE BEST & THE WORST IN MAN. “No disaster is so huge that it can’t be insurmountable” 14. Fit the program into the community in order to have it accepted