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Unit 3, Part 2 UNIT 3, Part 2 Loves and Losses Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3, Part 2 UNIT 3, Part 2 Loves and Losses Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 3, Part 2 UNIT 3, Part 2 Loves and Losses Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue

3 Unit 3, Part 2 MAIN MENU Loves and Losses (pages 630–644) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

4 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 630–633)

5 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ Meet Rita Dove Click the picture to learn about the author.

6 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ The following poem is primarily about loss and the ways in which people react to loss. In this poem, the speaker’s view of death is different from that of his or her family members. Connecting to the Poem

7 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ Before you read the poem, think about the following questions: Have you ever disagreed with family members about an important topic? How did you deal with this difference in opinion? Connecting to the Poem

8 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ A parlor is a formal room in a home, used primarily for conversation or the reception of guests. Building Background

9 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ The speaker of the poem listens to her transistor radio. Transistor radios were popular in the 1950s and 1960s. These lightweight radios ran on batteries and were small enough to hold in the hand or fit in a pocket. Teenagers plugged an earphone in one ear and tuned in to their favorite music. Building Background

10 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ As you read this poem, ask yourself what lessons the speaker of the poem learned from his or her grandmother’s life and death, and what message the poet conveys through her poem. Setting Purposes for Reading Loves and Losses

11 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ Imagery is descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. This use of sensory detail helps create an emotional response in the reader. Imagery

12 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ As you read “Parlor,” pay close attention to Dove’s imagery. Concentrating on it will help you grasp and retain the meaning as well as enhance your experience of the poem. Imagery

13 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Writers use imagery to paint a picture with words in a way that helps the reader respond emotionally to what the writer has written. When you interpret imagery, you form a picture in your mind’s eye of the images the writer has painted with words. While reading “Parlor,” notice how the imagery that Dove uses helps you make sense of the poem.

14 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Summarizing Try visualizing the setting that Dove has created in the poem by summarizing each stanza using your own words and by drawing on the images created in your mind’s eye. To help develop your thoughts use a graphic organizer like the one on the next slide for each stanza. Interpreting Imagery

15 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ Interpreting Imagery

16 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor BEFORE YOU READ chinachina n. fine, glossy pottery used for tableware (p. 632) I washed and dried the china after we ate dinner. aglowaglow adj. glowing (p. 632) The house was so aglow with lights, she could see into every room. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

17 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor

18 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Loves and Losses Keep the following questions in mind as you read. What do the characters in the poem love? What have they lost? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The speaker loves her grandmother and her transistor radio. Her grandmother loves her possessions and her family, but she keeps both at a distance. The mother loves life. The speaker and her mother have lost the grandmother.

19 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Loves and Losses Read the text highlighted in tan on page 632. What does this statement tell you about the beliefs of the speaker’s grandmother with regard to love and loss? READING THE SELECTION

20 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Answer: Answers will vary. It may show that the grandmother takes comfort in things she treasures, or she knew that eventually she would have to leave, so it was better not to become too close to things. READING THE SELECTION

21 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Imagery To which sense does Dove appeal most in this poem? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Hearing.

22 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Imagery Which image seems most vivid to you? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Images might include reminders of loved ones or of familiar places.

23 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor

24 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Answer: You may prefer to keep things close to protect you, others to keep them in the safest place to prevent them from being broken. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.The speaker seems to think that it’s best to keep the things you love at a distance. Do you agree? Why or why not?

25 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Some may say the things in the parlor are old and tired, but revered. (b) In Grandma’s house Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) What does the image of “tired eyes of saints / aglow on velvet” remind you of? (b) What can you infer about where the poem takes place based on this imagery?

26 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) What do the speaker’s mother and grandmother disagree about? (b) How would you characterize the speaker’s grandmother? Be specific.

27 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) How to live one’s life, what things are important (b) Students may say wise, because she speaks of “peace” not being found in material things and “strength” in silence.

28 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 4.(a) How do you interpret the speaker’s mother saying “things harden with age”? (b) What does the mother’s view say about her?

29 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) That life simply gets more difficult, or that as people age they become cynical and stubborn (b) That she is preoccupied with her own aging and sense of mortality.

30 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 5.(a) The speaker states that he or she wishes for “... a room you couldn’t enter, except in your mind.” What do you think the speaker means? (b) Why do you think he or she wishes for this?

31 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) That a private place, like a “room you couldn’t enter” would be the safest place to keep things you love. (b) The speaker misses the grandmother.

32 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 6.(a) How does Dove establish setting in this poem? (b) Do you think that her establishment of setting is effective?

33 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) “China gleam,” “velvet,” and things that “harden with age” lend themselves to the image an old parlor room. (b) The setting, although isolated and alone, is not devoid of a deeper identity, much like the grandmother. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

34 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Perhaps in the dining room, near the parlor (b) Because she “slipped off to sneak a peek” at the place that she previously had “passed through” Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 7.Where does the ending of the poem take place? What clues lead you to think that this is the setting?

35 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Answer: She came to understand why Grandma had kept everything she loved at a distance. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 8.What does the speaker come to realize about loves and losses at the end of the poem? How does he or she come to realize this? Loves and Losses

36 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Imagery Many writers use imagery to evoke an emotional response from their readers. Imagery often appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

37 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Imagery Answer: Answers will vary. You should support your answer with examples. 1.How does the imagery in the poem appeal to your senses?

38 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Imagery Answer: Answers will vary. Specific terms should be used in support of opinions. 2.Is Dove’s use of imagery effective in “Parlor”? Explain.

39 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ With a partner, reread “Parlor” paying particular attention to stanzas three and five. Choose one person to be the mother and the other to be the grandmother. After rereading the poem, role-play a conversation between the two women. Center the discussion on whether things were made to be used or to be left alone. Listening and Speaking

40 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Sometimes a poem has layers of meaning. For example, although this poem is about an event in the life of a child, the meaning of the poem is much deeper. When you interpret imagery, you determine the deeper meaning of images. Interpreting Imagery

41 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Answer: That some people are surrounded by things and people but don’t get near physically or emotionally. 1.What main message do you think the poet is trying to convey in “Parlor”?

42 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Answer: Terms such as “silence,” “tired,” “unsaid,” “quiet,” and “distant” evoke feelings of sadness and possibly death 2.How does the imagery support the meaning of the poem?

43 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Context Clues Use context clues to choose the correct definitions for the boldfaced vocabulary words.

44 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Practice 1.They received a set of china for their wedding, and they used it every night for dinner. A.drapes B.towels C.tableware

45 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor AFTER YOU READ Practice 2.The lights on the computer were aglow, so she knew is was on. A.dark B.lit C.beeping

46 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor

47 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 634–637)

48 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Meet Sherman Alexie Click the picture to learn about the author.

49 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ In the following poem, Alexie addresses the challenges of growing up, dealing with the loss of a parent, and claiming our places as adults in society. Connecting to the Poem

50 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Before you read the poem, think about the following questions: How do your parents or other family members link you to the past? How connected do you feel to other people in your community? Connecting to the Poem

51 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Alexie uses his work to explore the challenges that American Indians face when trying to reconcile the need to contribute to modern society with the desire to honor historic traditions. As Alexie himself once said, “I... know that I live a happier, more adventurous life, by crossing borders. Of course, the crossings are always painful, as well.” Building Background

52 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Drawing on his own experience of “crossing borders” by leaving the reservation on which he grew up, Alexie frequently writes about the conflicting desires and emotions felt by characters who leave their homes or societies to live in places where they at times may feel alienated and alone, yet may also have opportunities. Building Background

53 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ As you read, notice how Alexie highlights the character’s loneliness among a sea of people. Setting Purposes for Reading Loves and Losses

54 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ Diction is a writer’s choice of words. Diction is an important element in the writer’s voice or style. Understanding why authors choose some words over others will help you understand the tone and meaning of a poem. Diction

55 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ As you read, notice how Alexie’s careful choice of words affects the way in which you interpret the poem and its speaker. Diction

56 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Visualizing Visualizing is picturing a writer’s ideas or descriptions in your mind’s eye. Poets often illustrate actions without using typical cause-and-effect descriptions. Visualizing a poet’s descriptions of a scene can help you understand the poem’s sequence of events.

57 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Visualizing As you read, identify five actions that the main character takes in the present. Because the poet does not always use verbs to describe those actions, look for words that evoke powerful images in your mind.

58 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Creating a Flow Chart Capture these images as a sequence of events, connected by arrows. For instance, if you were to capture the series of events that happened to the characters in the past, you might create a chart like the one on the next slide. Visualizing

59 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ Visualizing

60 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief BEFORE YOU READ nostalgicnostalgic adj. longing for persons, things or situations from the past (p. 636) The old man was nostalgic for the music of his youth. marveledmarveled v. to become filled with wonder or astonishment (p. 636) The young girl marveled at the toy store’s selection of dolls. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

61 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief

62 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief Loves and Losses Keep the following question in mind as you read. Why does the character in the poem put on his father’s clothes? READING THE SELECTION Answer: He wears his father’s clothes as a means of coping with his father’s death, and possibly as a way of picking up where his father left off.

63 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief Diction Read the text highlighted in purple on page 636. What does the author’s choice of “blazer” say about the father? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: A blazer is a lightweight sports jacket, contrasting with the more formal black shoes and wool pants. The father may have enjoyed dressing up, but not too formally.

64 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief Loves and Losses Read the text highlighted in tan on page 636. Besides invoking the loss of a father, what other loss might the poet be referring to here? READING THE SELECTION Answer: You might suggest that the speaker, far from his home, has lost his birthplace as well as his father.

65 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief

66 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.How do you feel about the idea of following in the footsteps of someone in your family?

67 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Strangers (b) Nostalgic in his father’s clothing and isolated among strangers. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) Who does the son walk among? (b) How does the son feel about walking among these people?

68 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) ”A thousand miles away” (b) A cold, urban environment Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) How far away from his family has the son moved? (b) What kind of environment does Alexie suggest the main character now lives in?

69 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: Black shoes, suits, and ties suggest funeral attire. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 4.How does Alexie use descriptions of clothing worn by the characters to suggest loss?

70 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: As a child, wearing clothes identical to his father’s, emulated his father. As an adult, wearing his father’s clothes shows he has adopted his father’s habits or routines Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 5.How does the author use images of clothing to suggest a change within the son?

71 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: Secondhand clothing, like grief, represents a shared experience with anyone who has suffered loss. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 6.How are secondhand clothes like “secondhand grief”?

72 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Answer: He has moved a thousand miles away and is now surrounded by strangers. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 7.Alexie suggests that the main character has lost not just his father, but also his connection to his heritage. Explain. Loves and Losses

73 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Diction A careful choice of words can help authors create layers of meaning. Especially in poetry, where authors must convey much meaning in fewer words, diction can provide clues to attitude and meaning.

74 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Diction Answer: “First,” “then,” “finally” 1.Without using verbs, Alexie paints a picture of a man getting dressed. What three transitions does he use to keep those images moving?

75 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Diction Answer: First he refers to “neighbors”; then to “a thousand miles away”; and finally to “strangers.” 2.What shift in words does Alexie use to describe his character’s change of location and his increasing isolation from other people?

76 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Analyze Rhythm In “Secondhand Grief,” Alexie uses words to create rhythm. How does his arrangement of lines on the page reflect the son’s actions? What effect does Alexie create by repeating a key word? Write a brief analysis in which you examine the rhythm of this poem. Writing About Literature

77 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Before you begin drafting, read the poem aloud. Note the differences between the way the poem looks on paper and the way the poem sounds when spoken. Writing About Literature

78 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ After completing your draft, meet with a peer reviewer to evaluate each other’s work and suggest revisions. Be sure to proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Writing About Literature

79 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Especially when reading poetry, visualizing can help you better understand the action in a text. Visualizing can also help you remember information. Visualizing

80 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Visualizing Answer: Students might suggest a crowded street in cool weather, in which the speaker is lost in a sea of people. 1.What kind of scene do you visualize when reading the last eight lines of the poem?

81 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Visualizing Answer: The repetition of “strangers” creates a monolithic image, reflecting the son’s alienation. 2.Does the repetition of “strangers” help you visualize them? Explain.

82 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Context Clues Identify the context clues that help you define the boldfaced vocabulary words in the sentences on the following slides.

83 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Visualizing 1.The old-fashioned diner made Grandma nostalgic for her youth. A.old-fashioned B.Grandma C.youth

84 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief AFTER YOU READ Visualizing 2.Noah marveled at the astonishing results of his scientific experiment on magic. A.scientific B.magic C.astonishing

85 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief

86 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 638–641)

87 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Meet Dudley Randall Click the picture to learn about the author.

88 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ The following poem is a poignant response to a tragic act of violence. Whether we experience it firsthand or hear about it on the news, violence, at some point, touches our lives. Connecting to the Poem

89 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Before you read the poem, think about the following questions: Have you ever read or heard about a tragic event? Did you write or create something in response? Connecting to the Poem

90 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Birmingham is the largest city in Alabama and one of the most economically important cities in the southern United States. A longtime home to the steel production industry, Birmingham was the site of much racial turbulence during the U.S. civil rights movement. Building Background

91 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ “Ballad of Birmingham” is a response to the September 15, 1963, dynamite bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, which killed four African American girls. The FBI investigation into the bombing continued off and on for decades, and resulted in the convictions of Robert Edward Chambliss in 1977 and former Ku Klux Klansmen Thomas Blanton Jr. and Bobby Frank Cherry in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Building Background

92 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ As you read “Ballad of Birmingham,” think about how Randall puts a human face on historical facts, particularly the loss of loved ones throughout the civil rights movement. Setting Purposes for Reading Loves and Losses

93 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ Narrative poetry is verse that tells a story. A literary ballad, such as “Ballad of Birmingham,” usually recounts an exciting or dramatic episode. As you read, think about how Randall’s choice of the ballad form helps him effectively tell this story. Narrative Poetry

94 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Applying Background Knowledge What you learn from what you read is connected in part to what you know. Applying background knowledge to your reading of a text can help you better understand and interpret it. As you read “Ballad of Birmingham,” think about the information you read in the “Building Background” section and also use your prior knowledge.

95 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Taking Notes It might be useful to create a chart like the one on the next slide to keep track of what you know about the subject. Applying Background Knowledge

96 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Applying Background Knowledge

97 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. convince v. to change someone’s opinion; persuade preliminary adj. introductory

98 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: By telling her that there is danger at the march—fierce dogs, clubs, hoses, and guns—and that at church she can sing in the children’s choir 1.What does the poet try to convince the lady?

99 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham BEFORE YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: The preliminary idea is the poem’s theme. 2.What is the poem’s preliminary idea?

100 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham

101 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham Loves and Losses Think about this question as you read. Why is the poem titled “Ballad of Birmingham” even though it describes on mother’s loss? READING THE SELECTION Answer: This mother’s loss is symbolic of everyone who lost loved ones during Birmingham’s struggle to achieve civil liberties for all of its citizens.

102 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham Applying Background Knowledge Read the text highlighted in blue on page 640. What information do you know about churches in Birmingham? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: There was a tragic bombing of a Birmingham church in 1963.

103 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham Narrative Poetry Read the text highlighted in purple on page 640. How does this stanza contribute to Randall’s story-telling? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Randall’s narration of the girl’s preparation for church creates a calm and peaceful scene.

104 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham

105 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Probably sad or angry (b) The mother’s feelings of horror and the death. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.(a) How did you feel at the end of the poem? (b) What about the poem made you feel this way?

106 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Go to a freedom march (b) This establishes the setting and sets up the irony— violence not at a freedom march but at a church. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) What does the child want to do at the beginning of the poem? (b) Why is this a significant detail?

107 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) White (b) White represents purity and innocence. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) What color are the child’s shoes and gloves? (b) What do you think this color may mean or represent?

108 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Because she thinks her daughter is safe at church (b) Ironic because the church was the most dangerous place she could have been at that time Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 4.(a) Why does the mother smile? (b) How is this an ironic moment?

109 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Answer: The white clothing, groomed hair, and smell of rose petals convey innocence. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 5.In what way does the fifth stanza paint an effective picture of youth and innocence? Explain.

110 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 6.(a) How does the structure of the dialogue in the final stanza differ from the structure of the dialogue earlier in the poem? (b) How does this affect the emotional impact of the poem?

111 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) Stanzas 1–4 are entirely dialogue, but only half of the last stanza is dialogue. (b) It creates a stronger impact because the reader expects the child to answer.

112 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Answer: You may say that violence seeped into every aspect of life, including places that should be safe. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 7.“Ballad of Birmingham” depicts a family tragedy against the backdrop of an important historical period. What might Randall be trying to say about the civil rights movement? Loves and Losses

113 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Narrative Poetry Narrative poetry comes in many forms, including ballads, epics, and shorter works that focus on a specific event. “Ballad of Birmingham” takes the ballad form, which is usually made up of several ballad stanzas, a common four-line structure that is part of a long tradition in English poetry.

114 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Narrative Poetry 1.Read about ballad in the Literary Terms Handbook beginning on page R1. How does “Ballad of Birmingham” show ballad characteristics?

115 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Narrative Poetry Answer: You should mark the four stressed syllables in the first and third lines and the three stressed syllables in the second and fourth lines

116 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Narrative Poetry 2.Does “Ballad of Birmingham” have a traditional narrative structure? Explain.

117 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Narrative Poetry Answer: Yes, the opening four stanzas introduce the characters and set up the conflict (the mother believes the freedom march will be dangerous and thus sends her child to church). The action rises when the daughter leaves and the mother hears an explosion. The climax is when the mother pulls a shoe from the ruins. The resolution is the mother’s final call to her child.

118 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Analyze Structure Randall structures his poem in a particular way to make the largest possible impact. How does he use foreshadowing and irony to structure his ideas? How does he use refrain to structure the language and rhythm of his poem? Write a one- or two-page analysis of Randall’s structural techniques. Use evidence from the poem for support. Writing About Literature

119 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ In a poem like “Ballad of Birmingham,” which melds historical fact and fiction, being able to apply background knowledge to the text is essential to understanding its meaning. Applying Background Knowledge

120 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Applying Background Knowledge Answer: You may say that you would not have known it refers to a historical event. 1.Imagine that you did not know about the Birmingham church bombing prior to reading this poem. Would you have interpreted it differently? Explain.

121 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Applying Background Knowledge Answer: It probably made the poem more powerful and poignant. 2.How did your background knowledge of the Birmingham church bombing and the civil rights movement affect your response to this poem?

122 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Connotation and Denotation For each word from “Ballad of Birmingham” listed below, identify whether its connotation is positive, negative, or neutral.

123 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ 1.freedom A.positive B.negative C.neutral Practice

124 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ 2.fierce A.positive B.negative C.neutral Practice

125 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham AFTER YOU READ 3.nightdark A.positive B.negative C.neutral Practice

126 Unit 3, Part 2 Ballad of Birmingham

127 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 642–644)

128 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls BEFORE YOU READ Roger Ebert is a renowned film critic and recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for criticism in He has reviewed films in print for the Chicago Sun-Times since 1967, and on television for the former program Siskel and Ebert and currently on Ebert and Roeper and the Movies. In this review, Ebert praises Spike Lee’s documentary film 4 Little Girls. Building Background

129 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls BEFORE YOU READ Read to discover the plot of 4 Little Girls and the history of the Birmingham, Alabama, church bombing. Set a Purpose for Reading

130 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls BEFORE YOU READ Evaluating Evidence Evaluating evidence is making a judgment or forming an opinion about the evidence an author uses to make a point or support an argument. Evaluating evidence also involves distinguishing between facts and opinions.

131 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls BEFORE YOU READ Evaluating Evidence Use a chart like the one below to track facts and opinions.

132 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls

133 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls Evaluate Evidence Read the first paragraph on page 642. What did Walter Cronkite mean when he said that the bombing “was the awakening”? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: The extreme violence convinced many Americans that racism and segregation were wrong.

134 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls Evaluating Evidence Read the first paragraph on page 643. What is Ebert’s purpose in mentioning Charlayne Hunter-Gault? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: He is illustrating the accomplishments that could have been made by the four young girls.

135 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls Evaluating Evidence Read the third paragraph on page 643. What did the father mean by this statement? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Telling his daughter that she wasn’t good enough to eat in a restaurant was as painful as seeing her dead.

136 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls Evaluating Evidence Read the fourth paragraph on page 643. What does this passage mean? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Until this violent incident, people accepted the reasoning of politicians and law enforcement officials.

137 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls

138 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Answer: Most of you will say that the film sounds engaging, and that you would like to see it. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.Would you be interested in seeing the film 4 Little Girls ? Why or why not?

139 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) What is the film 4 Little Girls about? (b) What is different about documenting history on film versus other mediums?

140 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) The bombing of a Birmingham, Alabama, church on September 15, 1963, in which four young girls were killed. (b) Film can use actual footage of events and the reactions of the people who were affected by them.

141 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) How does Spike Lee re-create the day of the Birmingham church bombing? (b) How does a documentary film director influence the message an audience receives from a film?

142 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Through newsreels, home movies, photographs, and eyewitness reports (b) By the way film and television clips are juxtaposed.

143 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 4.Do you think Ebert supports his position that the Birmingham church bombing “was the catalyst for the civil rights movement”? What evidence does he present for his position?

144 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: Some may argue that Ebert points out the tremendous effects of the event. Others may argue that he does not provide evidence to support the claim that the bombing sparked the Civil Rights Movement.

145 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 5.(a) What images or moments in 4 Little Girls does Ebert identify as ironic? (b) What does Ebert interpret Lee’s message to be?

146 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) He points out the comment of a Klansman—“I really didn’t believe they would go this far”—as a way for the man to “disassociate” himself from the actions of the Ku Klux Klan. He also identifies the effort of Governor George Wallace, who favored racial segregation, to claim that his best friend was his African American personal assistant. (b) A record of racism in this country and the anger it fuels, among both the racists and those who suffer from racism’s abuses. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

147 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 7.Both Dudley Randall’s poem, “The Ballad of Birmingham,” and Roger Ebert’s film review of 4 Little Girls make statements about the outcome of the Birmingham church bombing of What is similar about their messages? How are their messages different? In your opinion, which message is stronger? Explain.

148 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls AFTER YOU READ Answer: Both authors comment on the tragedy of the Birmingham church bombing and have empathy for those involved. Ebert’s review dwells on the events and the victims. Randall’s ballad focuses on two victims of the bombing. Both messages are strong, one creating a sense of sorrow by focusing on a slice of life and the other telling the story through a compassionate tone. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect

149 Unit 3, Part 2 Historical Perspective: 4 Little Girls

150 Unit 3, Part 2 Parlor Bellringer Do you have a favorite possession that you don’t like other people to touch? Why is it important to you that others keep their distance from this item? What is the significance of this possession in your life? Unit 3, Part 2 BELLRINGER

151 Unit 3, Part 2 Secondhand Grief Bellringer What does it mean to be alone? Unit 3, Part 2 BELLRINGER

152 Unit 3, Part 2 If you were assigned to write a ballad, what episode would you write about? Unit 3, Part 2 BELLRINGER

153 Unit 3, Part 2 A.the gleam of pale china B.the peace of the evening C.the silence of the mourners D.the tired eyes of saints What is aglow on velvet? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Parlor Checkpoint

154 Unit 3, Part 2 A.How do you use and feel life? B.Where do you like to sit and what do you do? C.Where is Grandma now and is she happy? D.What is peace and what is strength What questions does the speakers mom ask? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Parlor Checkpoint

155 Unit 3, Part 2 A.arguing, worrying, and criticizing B.talking, eating, and weeping C.comforting, praying, and parsing D.silence, fear, and death What does the speakers avoid at the funeral? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Parlor Checkpoint

156 Unit 3, Part 2 A.when he is among strangers B.after his father dies C.after he moves away from his family D.when he was a child When does the son wear the father’s clothes? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Secondhand Grief Checkpoint

157 Unit 3, Part 2 A.how much the son and father looked alike B.how big the son had grown C.how intelligent the son was D.how strange the father and son looked At what did the speaker’s neighbor marvel? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Secondhand Grief Checkpoint

158 Unit 3, Part 2 A.He cleans his fathers shoes. B.He places a flower in his lapel. C.He has an imaginary conversation with his father. D.He puts on his favorite overcoat. What does the speaker do just before stepping outside? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Secondhand Grief Checkpoint

159 Unit 3, Part 2 A.She agrees that the place is dangerous. B.She says she won’t be alone. C.She promises to protect herself. D.She says that the church is nearby. What response does the daughter give after her mother’s first refusal to let her daughter go downtown? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Ballad of Birmingham Checkpoint

160 Unit 3, Part 2 A.to make her country free B.to be with friends C.to protest against violence D.to sing in the children’s choir Why does the daughter want to join the freedom march? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Ballad of Birmingham Checkpoint

161 Unit 3, Part 2 A.on a street in Birmingham B.in a jail cell C.among bits of glass and brick D.among rose petals Where does the mother find her daughter’s shoe? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Ballad of Birmingham Checkpoint

162 Unit 3, Part 2 ►Literary Terms HandbookLiterary Terms Handbook ►Reading HandbookReading Handbook ►FoldablesFoldables ►Writing HandbookWriting Handbook ►Business WritingBusiness Writing ►Language HandbookLanguage Handbook ►Test-Taking Skills HandbookTest-Taking Skills Handbook ►Daily Language Practice TransparenciesDaily Language Practice Transparencies Unit 3, Part 2 REFERENCE ►Grammar and Writing Workshop TransparenciesGrammar and Writing Workshop Transparencies

163 Unit 3, Part 2 Help To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature. Unit 3, Part 2 HELP


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