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Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging Chapter 11: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All.

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Presentation on theme: "Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging Chapter 11: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging Chapter 11: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline Becoming an Adult Physical Development in Adulthood Cognitive Development in Adulthood Socioemotional Development in Adulthood Death and Grieving

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Learning Goals 1. Describe the nature of development and becoming an adult 2. Explain physical changes in adulthood 3. Characterize cognitive changes in adulthood 4. Summarize socioemotional changes in adulthood 5. Discuss death and grieving

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved BECOMING AN ADULT The Nature of Development Emerging Adulthood

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Nature of Development Development = pattern of change in human capabilities that begins at conception and continues through the lifespan

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Nature of Development  The pattern of development is the product of: – Physical processes - changes in individual’s biological nature – Cognitive processes - changes in individual’s thinking, intelligence and language – Socioemotional processes - changes in individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 11.1 Developmental Changes are the Result of Physical, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Periods of Development  Early adulthood - begins in late teens/early 20s and lasts through the 30s  Early adulthood is a time of: – establishing personal and economic independence – developing a career – selecting a mate – learning to live with someone in an intimate way – starting a family – rearing children

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Periods of Development  Middle adulthood - period from 40 years of age to about 60  Middle adulthood is time of: – expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility – assisting next generation in becoming competent, mature individuals – reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adult Periods of Development  Late adulthood - period that begins in the 60s and lasts until death  Late adulthood is the time of: – adjusting to retirement – decreasing strength and health – new social roles – reviewing one’s life

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 11.2 Degree of Personal Life Investment at Different Points in Life

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Emerging Adulthood Emerging Adulthood = term for the transition from adolescence to adulthood (18 to 25 years of age) that is characterized by experimentation and exploration

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Who Is an Adult?  Determining just when an individual becomes an adult is difficult  Some markers include: – marriage – full-time job – economic independence – self-responsibility

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Emerging Adulthood 1. Experiment and explore responsibility 2. Develop intellectual assets 3. Create psychological assets 4. Establish social assets

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adapting to College  Going from being a senior in high school to being a freshman in college brings many changes  Special challenges face students who are returning students - students who either did not go to college right out of high school or went to college, dropped out, and now have returned

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Returning Students 1. Develop strategies to cope with new environment 2. Connect with your campus 3. Get to know other students 4. Take advantage of support services

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 1 – How can development be characterized? – What is emerging adulthood?

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Early Adulthood  Most adults reach their peak physical development and are healthiest during their 20s  Young adults rarely recognize that bad eating habits, heavy drinking, and smoking in early adulthood can impair their health as they age

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Middle Adulthood  Physical changes in middle adulthood include changes in appearance – Individuals begin to lose height in middle age, and many gain weight  People become more concerned about their health in their 40s  For women, menopause occurs in late 40s or early 50s

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Late Adulthood  The fastest-growing segment of the population today is 85 years old and older

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Lifespan and Life Expectancy  Lifespan - maximum number of years any member of the species has been documented to live – Our lifespan is about 120 years  Life expectancy - number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year – The life expectancy of individuals born today in the United States is 77 years (80 for women, 73 for men)

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hormonal Stress Theory  Hormonal stress theory - aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resilience to stress and increase likelihood of disease – As we age, hormones remain elevated longer – Prolonged stress-related hormones are associated with increased risks for diseases

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Physical Changes and Health in Late Adulthood  Changes in physical appearance become more pronounced in older adults  Chronic diseases (arthritis, hypertension) become more common in late adulthood  Exercise slows the aging process and helps older adults function in society  A sense of control is important for health and survival

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Dementias  20% of individuals over 80 years of age have dementia – More than 70 types of dementia have been identified Dementia = global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms involve deterioration of mental functioning

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Alzheimer’s Disease  More than 50% of dementias involve Alzheimer’s disease  The deterioration of the brain is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles Alzheimer’s disease = progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, eventually, physical functioning

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Brain in Late Adulthood  Adults can grow new brain cells throughout their lives  Even in late adulthood, the brain has remarkable repair capability

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 2 – What physical changes characterize early adulthood? – What physical changes occur in middle adulthood? – What physical changes take place in late adulthood?

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  Jean Piaget (1952) - in each stage of cognitive development, people think in a qualitatively different way  Piaget believed that the formal operational stage (ages 11 to 15) is the highest stage of thinking  Adults gain knowledge, but ways of thinking are the same as those of adolescents

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  Some researchers disagree with Piaget and believe that thinking in early adulthood becomes more realistic and pragmatic  Post-formal thought - thought that is – reflective, relativistic, and contextual – provisional – realistic – open to emotions and subjective

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood  Horn argues some intellectual abilities decline in middle age, but others increase  Crystallized intelligence (individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills) increases in middle adulthood  Fluid intelligence (one’s ability to reason abstractly) begins to decline in middle adulthood

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood  Schaie (1996) found that two intellectual abilities (numerical ability and perceptual speed) declined in middle age  Schaie found that four intellectual abilities (vocabulary, verbal memory, inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation) improved after early adulthood

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 11.8 Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities From Age 25 to Age 67

35 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood  When speed of processing is involved, older adults do more poorly than younger adults  Older adults do more poorly in most areas of memory  Wisdom (expert knowledge about practical aspects of life) may increase with age

36 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 3 – What cognitive changes take place in early adulthood? – What cognitive changes occur in middle adulthood? – What cognitive changes take place in late adulthood?

37 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood

38 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood  During early adulthood, individuals enter Erikson's intimacy versus isolation stage (developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others or becoming socially isolated)

39 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 11.9 Erikson's Eight Life-Span Stages

40 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Careers and Work in Early Adulthood  Establishing oneself in a job and then a career is one of the central concerns of people in their 20s and 30s

41 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood  Generativity (the consciousness of being in the middle of one’s life) and questions about the meaning of life are themes of middle adulthood

42 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Generativity  Generativity versus stagnation - Erikson’s seventh stage, in which individuals leave a legacy of themselves to the next generation (generativity) or do nothing for the next generation (stagnation)

43 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Generativity  Middle-aged adults can develop generativity through: – biological generativity - giving birth to an infant – parental generativity - providing nurturance and guidance to children – work generativity - developing skills that are passed down to others – cultural generativity - creating or conserving an aspect of culture

44 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Midlife Crises  Levinson (1978) interviewed middle-aged men and identified four major conflicts: – being young versus being old – being destructive versus being constructive – being masculine versus being feminine – being attached to others versus being separated from them  Other research indicated only 10% of people experienced a midlife crisis

45 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Meaning of Life and Life Themes  During middle adulthood, you are likely to: – experience death of people close to you – recognize time left in life is finite  Life themes involve people’s efforts to cultivate meaningful, optimal experiences

46 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood  Integrity versus despair - Erikson’s late adulthood stage in which individuals engage in a life review that is either positive (integrity) or negative (despair)  Life review - involves looking back on one’s life experiences and evaluating them  Older adults report experiencing more positive emotion and less negative emotion

47 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Social Networks  Social support is linked with a reduction in diseases, depression  Older adults have smaller social networks

48 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Social Networks  Laura Carstensen's socio-emotional selectivity theory - older adults become more selective about their social networks and often spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships

49 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Self-Regulation  As we age, regulation of our capacities and activities is a key aspect of adjustment  Successful self-regulation in aging involves three processes: – selectivity – optimization – compensation

50 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Self-Regulation  As individuals get older, they face losses so they are likely to adjust best when they: – reduce performance in areas in which they are not competent (selectivity) – perform in areas in which they can still function effectively (optimization) – compensate in circumstances with high mental or physical demands (compensation)

51 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Religion  Religion can provide important psychological needs in older adults: – help them face impending death – find and maintain sense of meaningfulness in life – accept inevitable losses of old age  Religion has been shown to be related to a sense of well-being and life satisfaction

52 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Positive Psychology and Aging  The more active and involved older adults are, the more satisfied they are and the more likely they are to stay healthy

53 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Successful Aging 1. Don’t abuse alcohol and don’t smoke 2. Exercise regularly and avoid being overweight 3. Be well educated 4. Use your intellectual skills 5. Develop coping skills 6. Have good friends and/or a loving partner

54 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 4 – What socioemotional changes characterize early adulthood? – What socioemotional changes occur in middle adulthood? – What socioemotional changes take place in late adulthood?

55 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved DEATH AND GRIEVING Facing One’s Own Death Coping with the Death of Someone Else Death in Different Cultures

56 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Facing One’s Own Death  Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1969) - five stages of dying : – denial and isolation – anger – bargaining – depression – acceptance

57 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Coping with the Death of Someone Else  Most psychologists believe it is best for dying individuals and their significant others to know they are dying so they can interact and communicate with each other

58 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Coping with the Death of Someone Else  Advantages of shared awareness for dying individuals: – dying individuals can close their lives in accord with their own ideas about proper dying – they may be able to complete projects, make arrangements for survivors, and participate in funeral decisions – they have the opportunity to reminisce and converse with others – dying individuals will understand what is happening within their bodies and what the medical staff is doing to them

59 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Communication With a Dying Person 1. Establish your presence 2. Eliminate distraction 3. Be sensitive to how long you should stay 4. Don’t insist the person feel acceptance of death 5. Encourage expression of feelings 6. Don’t be afraid to ask what the expected outcome for their illness is 7. Ask if there is anyone he or she would like to see 8. Encourage the dying person to reminisce 9. Talk when she or he wishes to 10. Express your regard for the dying person

60 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Grieving  For most individuals, grief becomes manageable over time  Many grieving spouses report that they have never gotten over their loss Grief = emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompanies loss of someone you love

61 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Death in Different Cultures  Most societies throughout history have had philosophical or religious beliefs about death  In most societies, death is not viewed as the end of existence - though the biological body has died the spiritual body is believed to live on  The religious perspective is favored by most Americans

62 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Review - Learning Goal 5 – How do people face their own death? – How do people cope with the death of someone else? – How is death perceived in different cultures?


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