1 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Lucy Capuano Brewer, Psychology Psych 05 – Chapter 19The End of lifeDeath and Dying
2 Why is it so difficult to deal with the topic of death and dying? If you wrote your epitaph, what would it say about you?What would you like to be MOST remembered by?What would you like others to know about you?
3 Why learn about death?Personal concern because of unresolved previous experience.Personal concern because of ongoing experience.Involvement with relevant forms of work (e.g., nurses, physicians, therapists, etc)A general wish to understand death and dying issues.
4 Informal Education How do we informally learn about death? Family deathMediaTravelFriends
5 Death and Dying – Important Definitions Thanatology: the study of the death and dying.Hospice care: warm, personal, patient and family centered care for the terminally ill, focused on the relief of pain, control of symptoms, and quality of life.Palliative care: relieving the pain and suffering and allowing people to die in peace and dignity.Self help groups: consist of people who have banded together for treatment, for social support, to solve a problem, or to meet some other mutual need. (i.e. self help groups for survivors of suicide, widows-widowers, etc.)Terminal drop: a sudden decrease in cognitive functioning shortly before death, typically present on intelligence tests.Bereavement: is the loss of someone to whom a person feels close and the process of adjustment to it.Grief: is the emotional response experienced in the early phases of bereavement, ranging from numbness to rage.
6 Anticipatory grief: symptoms of grief experienced while the person is still alive; may help survivors handle the actual death more easily.Grief work (Kubler-Ross) the working out of psychological issues connected with grief.Mourning: refers to the ways, usually culturally accepted, in which the bereaved and the community act while adjusting to a death.Active euthanasia / mercy killing: direct action taken deliberately to shorten a life in order to end suffering or allow a terminally ill person to die with dignity. (generally illegal.)Passive euthanasia: is deliberately withholding or discontinuing treatment, such as medication, life-support systems, or feeding tubes, that might extend the life, or postpone the natural death, of a terminally ill patient.Assisted suicide: in which a physician or someone else helps a person bring about a self-inflicted death by, for example, prescribing or obtaining drugs or enabling a patient to inhale deadly gas. (illegal in most states – Kevorkian.)
7 Living will: a person who signs a living will must be legally competent at the time, and the document generally cannot be witnessed by anyone who stands to gain. May explain specific provisions with regard to: relief of pain, cardiac resuscitation, mechanical respiration, antibiotics, and artificial nutrition and hydration.Persistent vegetative state: a state while technically alive, they have no awareness and only rudimentary brain functioning.Durable power of attorney: the appointing of a person to make such decisions, if the person him/herself is unable to do so.
8 Historical Perspective Death was a normal, expected event, sometimes even welcomed as a peaceful end to suffering.Caring for a dying family member at home, was a common experience for adult and children in the 19th century.Advances in medicine and sanitation during the 20th century brought about a “mortality revolution” in developed countries.Care of the dying and the dead, including preparation of the bodies for burial, became largely a task for professionals.Avoidance and denial were fostered by such social conventions as isolation of the dying person in a hospital or nursing home, refusal to openly discussing his or her condition, and reluctance to visit, thus leaving the person to cope with dying alone.With medical advances, death – even in the very old - came to be regarded as a failure of the medical treatment rather than as a natural end to life.Today, the picture is changing again. Violence, drug abuse, poverty, and the spread of AIDS make it harder to deny the reality of death.
9 Something to think about… If there is something certain in life, it is death.For the most part the more wisely we approach it, the more fully we can live until it comes.Death is of course a biological fact, but it also has legal, social, medical, and psychological aspects.Although the legal definition varies from state to state, death is generally considered to the cessation of bodily process.Because of the new medical technology, it is becoming more and more difficult to have a definite definition of death that encompasses all of these multiple issues.All deaths are different, just as all lives are different.Dying from AIDS, versus dying from a car accident or from suicide
10 The cost of dying…“Funerals rank among the most expensive purchases many consumers will ever make.” A traditional funeral, including a casket and vault, which costs about $6,000, flowers, obituary notices, acknowledgment cards and limousines can “run well over $10,000.”The high cost of deathLife is expensive, and so is dyingBy Jacqueline Tatlyan10/06
11 Attitudes towards death and dying across the life-span ChildhoodNot until between the ages of 5 and 7 do most children understand that death is irreversible.They also come to terms with the fact that death is universal (all living things die), and that a dead person is nonfunctional ( all life functions end at death.)Children would benefit from being introduced to the notion of death early on: (i.e. dead leaves, dead pets, etc,)Many books help children understand and deal with their feelings when someone they care about dies.Links - books on death and dying:
12 Infants and Toddlers This age may not understand death. They will react to the change in emotions exhibited by adults.If it is a parent who has died, the child will experience separation anxiety.The change in routine that occurs when someone has died can be upsetting to a child this age.Encourage the caregiver to provide as consistent a routine as possible. The caregiver should try to spend some time each day with the child to help them feel secure.
13 Preschool AgeThis age has trouble understanding death. They may not understand that death is permanent,Tell the child what to expect as far as changes in routine or what they may see.This age group is very egocentric, and may feel that the death is result of something they did or thought.A child at this age may be concerned about where the person who died has gone or how that person will perform basic life functions.Fear of “catching death” or falling asleep and not awaking is not uncommon in this age group.Opportunities to express their feelings and repeated clear explanations will benefit a child at this age.
14 School AgeAlthough the younger child in this age group does not believe it can happen to them, this aged child is beginning to understand death a little more fully.A school age child may worry about other significant people in their life dying.There is often a need for more details about how or why the person died.Feelings may be difficult to express or understand for this child.Letting them know that different people handle their feelings differently and being supportive will help a child in this age group.
15 TeenagersDeath is not something that adolescents normally think much about.Elkind’s personal fable (tendency to believe they are invulnerable) has been questioned, yet many teens take some heedless risks.When teens are terminally ill, they may deny their condition and talk as if they are going to recover when they know they are not.Denial and repression of emotions, helps them deal with this crushing blow to their dreams and expectations, and anger.
16 AdolescentsThis age group is beginning to think more abstractly and more like an adult.They may act as if they do not want help, do not want to talk about death, or they may try to hide their feelings.It is important to encourage communication and to include the adolescent in decision making.It is unfortunately common for this age group to come across someone they know who has died a violent death.Seek professional help if needed.
17 Adulthood:Young adults, recently graduating, married or new parents, may have a great deal of difficulty dealing with death and dying; they may be very frustrated and become quite rageful (in hospital settings.)Middle aged people, if they have been able to resolve Erikson’s stage successfully, may be in better terms to deal with the undeniability of death.They have lost friends, and parents, thus may be better able to deal with their own mortality.Even in the very old, acknowledgment of imminent death may be mixed with affirmation of the preciousness of the life that is slipping away.
19 Grief Work: Three Stages Grief work generally takes the following path:Shock and disbelief:This first stage may last several weeks, especially after a sudden or unexpected death. It may protect the person from more intense reactions. Hallucinations and constant crying may be very common. Usually, confusion is also present. Somatization may also be present: nausea, numbness, headaches, etc.Preoccupation with the memory of the death person:May last up to 6 months; the survivor tries to come to terms with the death but cannot yet accept it. Crying still continues, may diminish and increase once again on anniversary dates.Resolution:The final stage has arrived when the bereaved person renews interest in everyday activities; memories of the dead person bring fond feelings mingled with sadness, rather than sharp pain and longing.
20 Denial and IsolationAt first, we tend to deny the loss has taken place, and may withdraw from our usual social contacts. This stage may last a few moments, or longer.
21 AngerThe grieving person may then be furious at the person who inflicted the hurt (even if she's dead), or at the world, for letting it happen.He may be angry with himself for letting the event take place, even if, realistically, nothing could have stopped it.
22 BargainingNow the grieving person may make bargains with God, asking, "If I do this, will you take away the loss?"
23 DepressionThe person feels numb, although anger and sadness may remain underneath.
24 AcceptanceThis is when the anger, sadness and mourning have tapered off. The person simply accepts the reality of the loss.
25 Special Losses Surviving a Spouse Losing a Parent in Adulthood Losing a ChildMourning a MiscarriageCopyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
26 Medical, Legal, and Ethical Issues: The “Right to Die” SuicideAid in DyingAdvance DirectivesAttitudes Toward Euthanasia and Assisted SuicideEfforts to Legalize Physician Aid in DyingEnd-of-Life OptionsCopyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
28 Suicide FactsSuicide is the fifth leading cause of death among those 5-14 years old.Suicide is the third leading cause of death among those years old.Among young people aged years, the rate has doubled in the last two decades.Risk factors for suicide among the young include suicidal thoughts, psychiatric disorders (such as depression, impulsive aggressive behavior, bipolar disorder, certain anxiety disorders), drug and/or alcohol abuse and previous suicide attempts, with the risk increased if there is situational stress and access to firearms.Firearms and SuicideAlthough most gun owners reportedly keep a firearm in their home for "protection" or "self defense," 83 percent of gun related deaths in these homes are the result of a suicide, often by someone other than the gun owner.Firearms are used in more suicides than homicides.Death by firearms is the fastest growing method of suicide.Firearms account for 60 percent of all suicides.A person dies by suicide about every 18 minutes in the U.S. An attempt is estimated to be made once every minute.
29 Some Suicide MythsIt is dangerous to ask people if they are contemplating suicidePeople who talk about suicide do not commit the actSuicide can’t be prevented, it happens on impulseSuicidal people are intent on dying and will ultimately succeed despite all interventionOnly mentally ill people commit suicideIf the suicidal person seems happy, and at peace with themselves, then the risk is overThe propensity for suicide is inheritedMost suicidal young people never seek or ask for help with their problems.Suicidal young people are always angry when someone intervenes and they will resent that person afterwards.Every death is preventable.People who threaten suicide are just seeking attentionSuicide is painless
30 Warning Signs of Suicide All of the warning signs of suicide are magnified in importance if the patient is or has been depressed.Although most depressed people are not suicidal, most suicidal people are depressed.Suicide can be prevented. While some suicides occur without any outward warning, most do not.Prevent suicide among loved ones by learning to recognize the signs of someone at risk, taking those signs seriously and knowing how to respond to them.The emotional crises that usually precede suicide are most often both recognizable and treatable.Prevent suicide through early recognition and treatment of depression and other psychiatric illnesses.
31 Sometimes, a suicidal person may give little indication that they plan to commit suicide, but here are some signs you should know about.Has the person had a close relative (like a parent) commit suicide?Has the person attempted suicide in the past?Does the person talk about or threaten suicide?Does the person show signs of depression?Is the person feeling helpless and hopelessness?Is the person:making plans for the care of children?giving away valued possessions or pets?suddenly calling up or visiting people he/she hasn’t seen in a long time?showing sudden interest in insurance, wills, burial plots, etc.?showing sudden calmness: the "calm before the storm"?expressing hopelessness, either about themselves, or other things?abusing alcohol and/or drugs?going through a divorce, break-up of a relationship, etc.?being investigated on charges of crime or serious misconduct?Note: you should be especially concerned about the signs above if the person has tried to commit suicide before, or if the person has had a close relative (like a parent) commit suicide.
32 Highest risk behaviors for suicide Research has shown that the following behaviors are very high risk for attempted and/or completed suicide:Feeling helpless, hopeless and pain (physical and/or emotional)History of previous attemptsHaving a plan and the means to carry it outFigure Suicidal behavior usually progresses from suicidal thoughts, to threats, to attempts. A person is unlikely to make an attempt without first making threats. Thus, suicide threats should be taken seriously (Garland & Zigler, 1993).
33 How to help someone who is suicidal Understand it is their decision not yours, do the best that you can, respect and honor all feelings.Listen, do not judge or criticize.Be patient, empathic, and understanding.Avoid arguments and advice giving.Do not promise to keep secrets: if you feel this person will commit suicide, tell others! Tell their families, parents, spouses, or anyone who can help him/herRemember: all suicidal behavior is a cry for help.Be willing to give and get help sooner rather than later, urge them to get professional help.Take it seriously, even if it is a cry for attention.If you feel scared or overwhelmed, get someone to help you.Urge professional help.If the means are present, try to get rid of them.If the person is acutely suicidal, do not leave him/her alone, call for help (911)
34 Finding Meaning and Purpose in Life and Death Reviewing a LifeDevelopment: A Lifelong ProcessCopyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.