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Attachment Attachment in the context of involving children in assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "Attachment Attachment in the context of involving children in assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Attachment Attachment in the context of involving children in assessment

2 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 What is attachment? Theory of personality development in the context of close relationships (Howe 1999) An affectionate bond between two individuals that endures through time and space and serves to join them emotionally (Kennel 1976)

3 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 What does it provide? Safe base Balance between trust and autonomy Psychological development Physical development Cognitive development Conscience development Identity

4 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 How long does it last? Shifted and renegotiated through life: Infant… Toddler… Child… Adolescent… Independence… Parenthood… Care of elders

5 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Why of interest to children's professions? Why close relationships matter How the quality influences development Assessing relationships – children's state and parents’ ability to care Quality and character of relationships Improving parent and child relationships Parents’ own experiences Extended family – relevance for kinship care

6 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 What are attachment behaviours? Bring child in close proximity to caregiver Maximise care and protection Evolutionary – increase survival chances Doesn’t automatically mean healthy bond Give information about nature of attachment – behaviours and responses Relevant to developmental stage

7 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Patterns of attachment Secure Ambivalent Avoidant Disorganised Combinations of the above Unattached

8 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Care giving Care giving behaviours reinforce good attachment or compound attachment. Optimum behaviours on the left and cause for concern on the right. Sensitive Not attuned Acceptance Rejection Cooperation Interference Accessibility Ignoring

9 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Attachment – cultural issues Basic concepts are same universally Aspects vary across cultures Attachment figures affected by family structure Long-term separations Family networks and connections vital Asylum seeking children – effects of separation.

10 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Effects of lack of attachment Difficulty relating normally Difficulty growing socially, maintaining relationships Difficulty caring for others Egocentric, impulsive, babyish, Difficulties with rules and laws Lack of trust – highly defended

11 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Separation and loss Separation involves fear which needs to be mastered; and loss involves grief which needs to be expressed (Aldgate & Simmonds 1990) Grief is the process through which one passes in order to recover from loss (Fahlberg 1994)

12 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Stages of grief (taken from On Death and Dying by Kubler- Ross,1969) Shock Denial Anger Bargaining Sadness/despair Resolution

13 Communicating with Children © National Children's Bureau 2006 Stages of withdrawal (taken from A Child’s Journey Through Placement by Fahlberg, 1994) Protest Despair Quiet withdrawal


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