Presentation on theme: "Peacekeeping. End of the Cold War… Mikhail Gorbachev – leader of the USSR realized that the USSR could not longer afford the expensive arms race with."— Presentation transcript:
End of the Cold War… Mikhail Gorbachev – leader of the USSR realized that the USSR could not longer afford the expensive arms race with the USA in the 1980s He proposed cuts to the arsenal of both superpowers Also “relaxed” totalitarian elements of regime – loosened censorship, allowed for greater freedom of speech including perestroika (reconstruction) and glasnost (openness)
End of the Cold War… Berlin Wall (had been created in 1949 to keep West Berliners in) came down in 1989 Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 Boris Yeltsin (ex-Communist now supporting democracy) became the leader of Russia China – also experimented with perestroika, allowing capitalism but hope for political freedoms crushed by Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989
Conflict Continues… Many expected peace at the end of the Cold War but regional and ethnic rivalries erupted in many locations USA is now the only superpower No rival Could enforce will anywhere on planet
Persian Gulf 1990 – Iraq (led by Sadam Hussein) invade Kuwait The UN demanded threats of economic sanctions if Iraq did not withdraw forces USA threatened use of military force First time since Korean War, UN used a multinational force against an aggressor USA joined forces with 35 other countries
Persian Gulf… Canadian involvement was debated thoroughly in HOC PM Mulroney stated that Canada was committed to support UN missions Critics wanted more time for sanctions to work Canada contributed 2 destroyers, a supply ship, squadron of CF-18 fighter jets, a field hospital and hundreds of military personnel
Persian Gulf… January 1991 – US and coalition forces bombarded Kuwait – “Smart” weapons (laser-guided bombs and cruise missiles launched kilometers from target) changed the nature of war – Not a single Canadian solider was injured or killed during the course of the war – After the victory, President Bush declared a “New World Order” where the UN would take a much more active “police force role” internationally – Peacekeeping becomes peacemaking..
Somalia Canada – now in “peacemaking” role Civil war broke out in East Africa nation of Somalia in 1991 Operation Restore Hope launched in Somalia in 1992 – Canadians and other nations distributed food and other essential supplies to desperate local population One night, members of Airborne Regiment arrested, tortured, beat and killed a Somali teenager – event covered up 1995 – Airborne Regiment disbanded
Rwanda Rwanda divided into 2 major groups: – Hutus: composed greater percentage of population – Tutsis: placed in position of dominance by colonial administration 1994 – Prominent Hutu was killed, Hutus overthrew the Tutsi-led government: murdered Tutsis and their supporters France and Belgium (former colonial powers) send troops to control the slaughter, UN under Romeo Dallaire send a small detachment Dallaire pleaded to UN and the USA to send more support – not send Helpless to stop close to a million murders in the genocide that swept Rwanda
Yugoslavia Post WWII: – Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was created Serbia Croatia Bosnia-Herzegovina Macedonia Slovenia Montenegro – Kosovo and Vojvodina were autonomous – Run by Pm Joseph Tito until 1980
Yugoslavia Slobodan Milosevic became leader in 1989 – Tensions between regions erupted – UN forces unable to control the situation 1995 NATO launched airstrikes perceived aggressors Serbian forces of Yugoslav army – ceasefire called 1998: Serbian forces moved into Kosovo to ensure that it would remain under Serbian control – Albania Muslims (made up majority of the population in Kosovo) were persecuted, murdered and displaced) Spring 1999: First time ever that US dominated NATO force launched a military operation against and independent nation Canadian involvement heavily debated
Effectiveness/Future of UN… Traditional methods: – Negotiation – Peacekeeping – Sanctions Conflict has occurred everyday on the planet since WWII World watched with concern the ability of the UN to keep the peace
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