Uthman (r) His Khilaafah A.S. Hashim, MD From wikipedia.com
Sources of Reference ibn Hisham, Uthman bin Affan, the Third Khalifa of Islam by, Abdul Basit. Hilya al-Awliya, Abu Nu’aym, Uthman ibn Affan: The Man With Two Lights (Part Two) The Murder of the Khalifa Uthman, M. Hinds, The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 2002 Encyclopædia Britannica The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981 A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims The Cambridge History of Islam, Bernard Lewis, The Succession to Muhammad Makers of Arab History By Philip Khuri Hitti.
In this Slide Show Uthman and the Conquered Land Uthman, Omar, and Jerusalem The Great Famine At Omar’s Deathbed The Committee of Six Reign as a Khalifa (644–656) Sahaaba as Personal Deputies Economic Reforms Public works Extending Al-Masjid al-Nabawi and al-haram al-Shareef Administration The Holy Quran
Uthman close to Abu Bakr, Uthman had a close relationship with Abu Bakr, Who was the one who induced Uthman to convert to Islam. When Abu Bakr was elected as the Khalifa, Omar was the very first to offer his allegiance. Uthman was among the early ones to offer his allegiance. During the Ridda wars (Wars of Apostasy), Uthman remained at Medina, acting as Abu Bakr's adviser. On his death bed, Abu Bakr fainted but Uthman finished writing Abu Bakr’s will by putting Omar’s name: saying that his successor was to be Omar.
Uthman’s Allegiance to Omar. Uthman was the first person to offer his allegiance to Omar. During the reign of Omar, Uthman remained at Medina as his adviser, and as a member of his advisory council. Omar restricted the companions, including Uthman, from leaving Medina. The reason was that Omar didn't wish for the companions, to spread all over the Ummah and have their own followers, which would, he felt, result in unnecessary divisions in Islam. or leading to cult of personality The Sahaaba were already sufficiently valued by the Muslims,
Uthman’s Khilaafah The Conquered Land 1. The Conquered Land 2. Sahaaba as Deputies 3. Economics 4. Public works 5. Administration 6. The Holy Quran
Uthman Advises During the reign of Omar, considerable wealth flowed into the public treasury. Uthman advised: that some amount be reserved in the treasury for future needs, instead of giving all of it as stipends to the Muslims, and this was accepted by Omar.
Uthman and the Conquered Land A controversy arose about the land in conquered areas. The army was of the view that: 1. Lands in conquered territories should be distributed among the soldiers of the conquering army, 2. but others thought that the lands should remain as the property of the original owners, 3. and the lands without claimants should be declared as state property. Uthman supported the latter view (view #3 above) and this view was ultimately accepted.
Uthman, Omar, and Jerusalem At the time of the conquest of Jerusalem the Christians demanded that Omar goes to Jerusalem to accept the surrender of the city. Uthman was of the view that it was not necessary for the Khalifa of the Muslims to go to Jerusalem and that the enemy, when defeated, would surrender the city unconditionally. Uthman's argument was attractive, Omar however did not agree, he decided to go to Jerusalem to accept the surrender of the city. in order to win the good will of the Christians, And prevent further blood shed
The Great Famine In the year 638, Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. Omar wrote to the provincial governors of Syria, Palestine and Iraq for the aid. State of emergency was declared in Medina and Arabia. And Omar dispatched his men to the routes of Iraq, Palestine and Syria to take the supply caravans to the desert settlements deeper into Arabia, to save people from annihilation. and a large caravan belonging to Uthman (carrying a supply of food grains) helped to serve the poor well.
At Omar’s Deathbed Omar appointed a committee of 6 Sahaaba, He asked that, after his death, the committee reach a final decision within three days, and the next Khalifa should take the oath of office on the fourth day. If Talha joined the committee within this period, he was to take part in the deliberations, but if he did not return to Medina within this period, the other members of the committee could proceed with the decision. On the fourth day after the death of Omar, 11 November 644, 5 Muharram 24 Hijrah, Uthman was elected as the third Khalifa,
Ali’s Stand of the Stipulation Abdul Rahman bin Auf as chairman of the committee, made it a condition-precedent that: a candidate for Khilaafah would obey not only the Book of God and would follow the Sunnah of His Messenger, but also, would follow the (Sunnah) regulations of Abu Bakr and Omar. Abdul Rahman thus put the deeds of Abu Bakr and Omar at par with the Sunnah of the Prophet. Abdul Rahman thus put the deeds of Abu Bakr and Omar at par with the Sunnah of the Prophet. Ali refused to equate the deeds of Abu Bakr and Omar with the Sunnah of the Prophet. But Uthman readily accepted. Ali refused to do so knowing that his refusal would cost him the throne of the empire of the Muslims.
Reign as a Khalifa (644–656) On assuming office, being 72 years old, Uthman: issued a number of directives to the officials all over the dominion, ordering them to hold fast the laws made by his predecessor Omar. Uthman's realm extended: in the west to Morocco, in the east to south-east Pakistan, and in the north to Armenia and Atherbaijan. During his Khilaafah, the first Islamic naval force was established, administrative divisions of the state were revised, and many public projects were expanded and completed.
On Assuming Office When Uthman became Khalifa, the happiness of the Banu Umayya knew no limits. Life for them, they knew, would be all cream and peaches henceforth, and it was. Their leader, Abu Sufyan, now 90-years old and blind, came to congratulate Uthman, and gave him the following advice: “At last, the Khilaafah has come to us. Receive it and pass over to others like a ball, and use it to strengthen Benu Umayya. This new power which you just received, is everything. It is the only reality. Nothing else is real or important."
Sahaaba as Personal Deputies Uthman sent prominent Sahaaba (Companions of Muhammad) as his personal deputies to various provinces to scrutinize the conduct of officials and the condition of the people. Uthman ruled for twelve years. The first six years were peaceful and condition in the Ummah was agreeable and he remained popular as a Khalifa; but during the second half of his Khilaafah conditions changed dramatically, and a rebellion arose.
Uthman and his Envoy Uthman worked for the expansion of Islam, and he sent the first official Muslim envoy to China in 650. The envoy, headed by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, arrived in the Tang capital, Chang'an, in 651 via the overseas route. The Hui people generally consider this date to be the official founding of Islam in China. The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty recorded the historic meeting, in which the envoy greeted Emperor Gaozong of Tang and tried to convert him to Islam.
Uthman and his Envoy, Continued The envoy failed to convince the Emperor to embrace Islam, However, the Emperor allowed them to proselytize in China and he allowed the establishment of the first Chinese mosque in the capital So as to show his respect for the religion. Uthman also sent envoys to Sri Lanka for the same purpose
The Holy Quran Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which produced multiple copies of the text of the Quran as it exists today. The reason was that various Muslim centers, like Kufa and Damascus, had begun to develop their own traditions for reciting the Quran, and writing it down with stylistic differences. By the time of Uthman, Islam had spread far and wide, differences in reading the Quran in different dialects of Arabic language became obvious.
The Holy Quran This copyThis copy of the Quran is believed to be one of the oldest, compiled during Khalifa Uthman's reign.
The Holy Quran A group of companions, headed by Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, (who was fighting in the conquest of Armenia and Atherbaijan), came to Uthman and urged him “to save the Ummah before it is entangled into disagreements about the Book,..". Uthman obtained the complete manuscript of the Quran from Hafsa, daughter of Omar who had been entrusted to keep the manuscript ever since the Quran was comprehensively compiled by the first Khalifa, Abu Bakr. To compile the Quran, Uthman sent for Ubayy ibn Ka'ba who dictated it to Zaid ibn Thabit, and Sa’eed ibn al ‑ Aas gave grammatical inflections. So this copy is according to the dictation by Ubayy ibn Ka'ba and written by Zaid Ibn Thabit".
The Holy Quran Continued As said, Uthman then again summoned the leading compiling authority, Zaid ibn Thabit, Ubayy ibn Ka'b, and Abdullah ibn al ‑ Zubair, Sae’ed ibn al ‑ Aas, AbdulRahman ibn al ‑ Harth, to transcribe Ubayy b. Ka'ba was to dictate it to Zaid ibn Thabit, and Sa’eed ibn al ‑ Aas was to give grammatical inflections The style of Arabic dialect used was that of the Quraish tribe of which the Prophet Muhammad belonged. Hence this style was emphasized over all others.
The Holy Quran Continued Zaid ibn Thabit and his assistants produced several copies of the manuscript of the Quran. One of each was sent to every Muslim province with the order that all other Quranic materials, whether fragmentary or complete copies, be destroyed. When the standard copies were made available to the Muslim community everywhere, then all other (previous) material was burned voluntarily by the Muslim community themselves.
The Holy Quran Continued This was important in order to: eliminate variations or differences in the dialect from the standard text of the Quran. Uthman kept a copy of the Quran for himself and returned the burrowed manuscript to Hafsa. Both Shi'a and Sunni accept the same sacred text, the Quran, (for Allah has preserved it from any change).
Economics Uthman was a shrewd businessman, and a successful trader from his youth, Omar had fixed allowances to the people according to their status and on assuming office, Uthman increased it by 25%. There was inflation and the prices became high. Omar had placed a ban on the sale or the purchase of agricultural lands in conquered territories. Uthman withdrew these restrictions, in view of the fact that the trade could not flourish. Uthman permitted people to draw loans from the public treasury.
Economics Continued Omar decreed as his policy: that the lands in conquered territories were not to be distributed among the combatants, but were to remain the property of the previous owners. The army felt dissatisfied at this decision, but Omar suppressed the opposition with a strong hand. Uthman followed the policy devised by Omar, but there were more conquests, thus increasing the revenues considerably.
Economics: Omar Versus Uthman Omar, was very strict in the use of money from the public treasury. Apart from the meager allowance that had been sanctioned in his favor, Omar took no money from the treasury. He did not receive any gifts, nor did he allow any of his family members to accept any gift from any quarter. But with Uthman there was relaxation of the rules. Uthman did not draw any allowance from the treasury for his personal use, nor did he receive a salary, he did not need to. but unlike Omar, Uthman was a very wealthy man with sufficient resources of his own,
Economics Continued Uthman accepted gifts, with no objections, and he allowed his family members (Benu Umayya) to accept gifts too. Uthman felt that he had the right to utilize the public funds according to his best judgment, and no one criticized him for that. The economic boom was due to all the confiscations of the conquered land; Huge revenues were pouring in and: Muslims as well as non-Muslims of the Rashidoon Empire enjoyed this very economic boom during his era.
Nepotism in the Khilaafah of Uthman Uthman loved the members of his own clan, the Benu Umayya, to a point where his love became an obsession. Benu Umayya were the arch-enemies of Islam, and they had fought against its Prophet for more than twenty years. Now suddenly, Uthman made them masters of the Ummah. He himself became helpless, for soon they took the reins of the government in their own hands. The real rulers of the empire, in the Khilaafah of Uthman, were Marwan (the cousin and son-in-law of Uthman) Marwan (the cousin and son-in-law of Uthman) and Hakam bin Abul-Aas (Uthman's uncle and Marwan's father). and Hakam bin Abul-Aas (Uthman's uncle and Marwan's father).
Favoritism in the Khilaafah of Uthman Uthman opened the gates of the public treasury to his relatives. He gave them rich presents, vast estates and high ranks. Uthman also: forbade the citizens of Medina to graze their camels and cattle in the pastures around the city. These pastures had been made a public endowment by the Prophet but according to Uthman’s ordinance, the only allowed animals that could graze were those belonging to him or to Benu Umayya.
The Grazing Land According to the Prophet: The Grazing Lands (which were irrigated by rain), were the property of the whole Ummah, and therefore, the animals of all its members could graze in them. He had also told them that these lands could not be appropriated by anyone for private use as was done in the Times of Ignorance.
Abdul Rahman ibn Auf Regrets Abdul Rahman ibn Auf, the head of the committee that elected Uthman, became despondent He saw craft spreading its tentacles like an octopus over the Ummah and he was shocked by so much nepotism and the ineptitude of the Khalifa he had chosen He declared that he would stop talking to him Sometime later, when Abdul Rahman lay dying, Uthman came to see him but he did not acknowledge Uthman’s greetings and turned his face toward the wall. He died without exchanging a word with the Khalifa. Abdul Rahman bin Auf died in remorse at what he had done as the chairman of Omar's electoral committee.
In Sermon 3, page 49 Ali: sermon of Shiqshiqiyah, Part 3 As such, one of them turned against me because of his rancor, the other inclined the other way due to his in-law relation,… Till the third of these stood up heaving his breasts between his dung and fodder. And with him stood up the children of his clan, (Benu Umayya), devouring Allah's wealth as a camel devours the foliage of spring. Till his rope broke down, and his actions finished him off and the gluttony forced him down prostrate. فَصَغَا رَجُلُ مِنْهُمْ لِضِغْنِه، وَمَالَ الاْخَرُ لِصِهْرهِ، مَعَ هَن وَهَن. إِلَى أَنْ قَامَ ثَالِثُ القَوْمِ، نَافِجَاً حِضْنَيْهِ بَيْنَ نَثِيلهِ وَمُعْتَلَفِهِ، وَقَامَ مَعَهُ بَنُو أَبِيهِ يَخْضَمُونَ مَالَ اللهِ خَضْمَ الاِْبِل نِبْتَةَ الرَّبِيعِ، إِلَى أَنِ انْتَكَثَ عَلَيْهِ فَتْلُهُ، وَأَجْهَزَ عَلَيْهِ عَمَلُهُ، وَكَبَتْ بِهِ بِطْنَتُهُ
Public works Under Uthman: There was massive need to build mosques over the vast domain of the Ummah the people had become economically better off, and they invested their money in the construction of buildings. Many new and larger buildings were constructed throughout the empire. It is claimed that during the Khilaafah of Uthman: as many as five thousand new mosques were constructed, yet the need was for much more.
Extending Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Uthman enlarged, extended, and embellished the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi at Medina and of the Ka'ba as well. With the expansion of the army, the cantonments were extended and enlarged, more barracks were constructed for the soldiers and stables for the cavalry were extended. Uthman provided separate pastures for state camels.
Public works Continued During the Khilaafah of Uthman, guest houses were provided in main cities to provide comfort to the merchants coming from faraway places. More and more markets were constructed and Uthman: appointed Market Officers to look after them. In Iraq, Egypt, and Persia numerous canals were dug, which stimulated agricultural development. In the cities, particular attention was directed towards the provision of the water supply.
Public works Continued In Medina, a number of wells were dug to provide drinking water for the people and in Mecca the water supply was also improved. Water was brought to Kufa and Basra by canals. Shuaibia was the port for Mecca but it proved inconvenient, so Uthman selected Jeddah as the site of the new seaport, and a new port was built there. Uthman also reformed the police departments in cities.
Administration In his testament, Omar had instructed his successor not to make any change in the administrative set up for one year after his death. For one year Uthman maintained the pattern of political administration as it stood under Omar, later he made changes and some amendments. Under Omar, Egypt was divided into two provinces, Upper and Lower Egypt. Uthman made Egypt one province and created a new province for Africa. Under Omar, Syria was divided into two provinces but Uthman made it one province.
Administration During Uthman’s reign the empire was divided into twelve provinces as such: 1.Medina 2.Mecca 3.Yemen 4.Kufa 5.Basra 6.Jazira 7.Faris 8.Atherbaijan 9.Khurasan 10. Syria 11. Egypt 12. N. Africa
Administration The provinces were further divided into districts (more than 100 districts in the empire) and each district or main city had: its own Governor, Chief judge and Amil (tax collector). The governors were appointed by Uthman and every appointment was made in writing. At the time of appointment, an instrument of instructions was issued with a view to regulating the conduct of the governors.
Administration On assuming office, the governor: was required to assemble the people in the main mosque, and read the instrument of instructions before them. Uthman appointed his kinsmen as governors in provinces: Egypt,Syria,Basra, Kufa, and Yemen These governors then appointed members of Benu Umayya into other administrative but lucrative positions
Administration Continued A possible explanation for this reliance on his kin is: that the Rashidoon Empire had expanded so far, so fast, that it was becoming extremely difficult to govern, and that Uthman felt that he could trust his own kin not to revolt against him. However Shi'a did not see this as prudence; they saw it as nepotism, it was to promote his clan, Benu Umayya and it was an attempt to rule like a king, a monarch rather than as the first among equals.
Uthman’s Rule Benign Easy going compared to Omar’s Nepotism and favoritism Collection of the Quran AutocraticStrategy
Empire: Uthman versus Omar Omar's empire at its peak, 644. Uthman’s empire at its peak, 656.
In Conclusion Uthman as the Khilaafah Discussed in this slide show are: Uthman and the Conquered Land Reign as a Khalifa (644–656) Sahaaba as Personal Deputies The Holy Quran Economic Reforms Public works Extending Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Administration Administration
Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ