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Evolution of Birds from Reptiles

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1 Evolution of Birds from Reptiles
SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few intermediate fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones


3 Thecodontosaurus

4 Thecodontosaurus

5 Iguanodon

6 Ingenia

7 Incisivosaurus

8 Archeopteryx 150 mya


10 Archaeopteryx Possible link between birds & reptiles (150 mya)
Reptilian char- Large skull, reptile like teeth Bones solid Claws on forelimbs Long tail Bird Char.- Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding Feathers Furculum - fused collarbone or wishbone

11 Hesperonis Fossils 75 mya Large, flightless bird
Had teeth like reptiles

12 Ichthyornis Smaller, tern like bird Lived 65-80 mya
Had large flight wings

13 Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves-birds Traits:
Air sacs/hollow bones make bird lighter feathers 4 chambered heart endothermic Beaks and feet adapted for food and habitat Evolved from dinosaurs in Mesozoic era Scales on legs- similar to reptiles

14 General Bird Anatomy SZ4- Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptation found within animal taxa.

15 Birds Have the Highest Metabolism

16 Metabolic Adaptations
Birds have high metabolism Endothermic, 4 chambered heart Lungs, air sacs for increased oxygen avail. Crop and gizzard(grinds food) in digestive tract Metanephric kidney excretes uric acid- prevents water loss Counter-current circulation

17 Respiration


19 Counter-Current Circulation

20 Excretion – Uric Acid Uric acid metabolic excretion (Saves water)

21 Adaptations for Flight
Feathers- modified scales Pectoral appendages = wings Lightweight skeleton filled w/ air sacs High metabolic rate Endothermic- regulate temp. internally Fused furculum (wishbone) keeled sternum

22 Types of Feathers

23 Keeled Furculum and Sternum


25 Wings


27 Flight Forces



30 Avian Reproduction Amniotic egg Internal fertilization
Oviparous- eggs laid outside of body Both parents care for eggs Precocial young- active at hatching Altricial young- helpless and naked at hatching migration

31 Egg Shapes

32 Starling Nests

33 Weaver Bird Nest



36 Brood Parasitism Cardinal or Cowbird eggs?

37 Males are More Colorful

38 Migration


40 Pop Quiz List three adaptations that allow birds to have a high metabolism. List three adaptations that allow birds to fly. What type of egg does a bird have? What is the name of the class the bird belongs to?

41 Avian Classification 28 orders 9600 species
SZ1- Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa using informative characteristics SZ3- Students will compare form and function relationships within animal groups and across key taxa.

42 Super Orders of Birds Superorder Archaeornithes- “ancient birds”, extinct ex. Archaeopteryx Superorder Neornithes- “new” birds- modern Paleognathae- “old jaw” Neognathae- “new jaw”

43 Paleognathae- Order Struthioniformes
Large flightless bird Two toes Old jaw Ex. ostriches

44 Neognathae- Order Pelecaniformes
Pelicans, cormorants, boobies

45 Neo- Order Ciconiiformes
Long legs for wading Long necks Pink or orange because of carotenoids in algae and brine shrimp that eat algae Liver enzymes break down the carotenoids into pink and orange pigments that are deposited into feathers, bill, and legs

46 Order Anseriformes Flat bill Webbed feet Swans, geese, ducks

47 Order Falconiformes Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon

48 Order Passeriformes Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird
Thrushes Swallows Magpie Crow Starling Jays

49 Order Columbiformes Short neck Short legs Pigeons Doves

50 Order Strigiformes Large eyes Silent flight Nocturnal predator Owls

51 Order Apodiformes Small bird Rapid wingbeat Hummingbirds

52 Order Galliformes Chicken like Strong beaks Heavy feet Chicken Turkey
Pheasants Quail

53 Order Charadriiformes
Short bill Strong fliers Shorebirds Gulls

54 Order Psittaciformes Thick tongue Hinged and movable upper beak
Bright colors Parrots Parakeets

55 Order Piciformes Two toes forward and two toes backward woodpeckers

56 Order Sphenisciformes
Webbed feet Wings as used for swimming penquins

57 The End Fig.

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