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Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few.

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Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Evolution of Birds from Reptiles SZ2- Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth. Evolved from reptiles-Few intermediate fossils due to lack of preservation of feathers or thin, hollow bones

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4 Thecodontosaurus

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6 Iguanodon

7 Ingenia

8 Incisivosaurus

9 Archeopteryx 150 mya

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11 Archaeopteryx Possible link between birds & reptiles (150 mya) Reptilian char- Large skull, reptile like teeth Bones solid Claws on forelimbs Long tail Bird Char.- Strong legs & rounded wings for gliding Feathers Furculum - fused collarbone or wishbone

12 Hesperonis Fossils 75 mya Large, flightless bird Had teeth like reptiles

13 Ichthyornis Smaller, tern like bird Lived mya Had large flight wings

14 Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves-birds Traits: Air sacs/hollow bones make bird lighter feathers 4 chambered heart endothermic Beaks and feet adapted for food and habitat Evolved from dinosaurs in Mesozoic era Scales on legs- similar to reptiles

15 General Bird Anatomy SZ4- Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptation found within animal taxa.

16 Birds Have the Highest Metabolism

17 Metabolic Adaptations Birds have high metabolism Endothermic, 4 chambered heart Lungs, air sacs for increased oxygen avail. Crop and gizzard(grinds food) in digestive tract Metanephric kidney excretes uric acid- prevents water loss Counter-current circulation

18 Respiration

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20 Counter-Current Circulation

21 Excretion – Uric Acid Uric acid metabolic excretion (Saves water)

22 Adaptations for Flight Feathers- modified scales Pectoral appendages = wings Lightweight skeleton filled w/ air sacs High metabolic rate Endothermic- regulate temp. internally Fused furculum (wishbone) keeled sternum

23 Types of Feathers

24 Keeled Furculum and Sternum

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26 Wings

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28 Flight Forces

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31 Avian Reproduction Amniotic egg Internal fertilization Oviparous- eggs laid outside of body Both parents care for eggs Precocial young- active at hatching Altricial young- helpless and naked at hatching migration

32 Egg Shapes

33 Starling Nests

34 Weaver Bird Nest

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37 Brood Parasitism Cardinal or Cowbird eggs?

38 Males are More Colorful

39 Migration

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41 Pop Quiz 1.List three adaptations that allow birds to have a high metabolism. 2.List three adaptations that allow birds to fly. 3.What type of egg does a bird have? 4.What is the name of the class the bird belongs to?

42 41 Avian Classification 28 orders 9600 species SZ1- Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa using informative characteristics SZ3- Students will compare form and function relationships within animal groups and across key taxa.

43 Super Orders of Birds Superorder Archaeornithes- “ancient birds”, extinct ex. Archaeopteryx Superorder Neornithes- “new” birds- modern Paleognathae- “old jaw” Neognathae- “new jaw”

44 43 Paleognathae- Order Struthioniformes Large flightless bird Two toes Old jaw Ex. ostriches

45 44 Neognathae- Order Pelecaniformes Pelicans, cormorants, boobies

46 45 Neo- Order Ciconiiformes Long legs for wading Long necks Pink or orange because of carotenoids in algae and brine shrimp that eat algae Liver enzymes break down the carotenoids into pink and orange pigments that are deposited into feathers, bill, and legs

47 46 Order Anseriformes Flat bill Webbed feet Swans, geese, ducks

48 47 Order Falconiformes Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon

49 48 Order Passeriformes Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird Thrushes Swallows Magpie Crow Starling Jays

50 49 Order Columbiformes Short neck Short legs Pigeons Doves

51 50 Order Strigiformes Large eyes Silent flight Nocturnal predator Owls om/sounds/Strix-varia- 3.mp3 om/sounds/Strix-varia- 3.mp3

52 51 Order Apodiformes Small bird Rapid wingbeat Hummingbirds

53 52 Order Galliformes Chicken like Strong beaks Heavy feet Chicken Turkey Pheasants Quail

54 53 Order Charadriiformes Short bill Strong fliers Shorebirds Gulls

55 54 Order Psittaciformes Thick tongue Hinged and movable upper beak Bright colors Parrots Parakeets

56 55 Order Piciformes Two toes forward and two toes backward woodpeckers

57 56 Order Sphenisciformes Webbed feet Wings as used for swimming penquins

58 57 The End


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