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1 Presented by: Karen Siris firstname.lastname@example.org The Dignity for All Students Act : Requirements, Guidelines and Implementation StrategiesSAANYS 40th Annual ConferenceTraveling the Road AheadPresented by:Karen Siris
2 STATISTICS39% of students reported that bullying, name calling, and harassment pose a serious problem at school.66% reported that people at school were harassed at least “sometimes” because of their looks or body size,57% reported that students were bullied or harassed “sometimes” because of the way they expressed their gender(GLSEN, 2010)50% of high school students (2010) admit they bullied someone in the past year47% admit that they were bullied, teased or taunted in a way that seriously upset them in the past year(Josephson School of Ethics, ,000 students surveyed)
3 Are Incidents Reported? Adults are often unaware of bullying problems (Limber, 2002; Skiba & Fontanini, 2000)60% of year olds say they were victims of violence, abuse or crime but less than 30% told authorities
4 Bullying is…. an intentional act of aggression, based on an imbalance of power, that is meant to harm a victim either physically or psychologically.usually occurs repeatedly and over time, however sometimes can be identified in a single event.
5 Harassment – the creation of a hostile environment by: Harassment is the creation of a hostile environment by:Harassment – the creation of a hostile environment by:conduct, verbal threats, intimidation or abuse that reasonably causes or would reasonably be expected to cause a student to fear for their physical safetyconduct, verbal threats, intimidation or abuse includes but is not limited to conduct, verbal threats, intimidation or abuse based on a person's actual or perceived race, color, weight, national origin, ethnic group, religion, religious practice, disability, sexual orientation, gender or sex.intimidation or abuse that has or would have the effect of unreasonably and substantially interfering with a student's educational performance, opportunities or benefits, or mental, emotional or physical well-being
6 TYPES OF BULLYING BEHAVIORS PHYSICALHitting, punching, trippingKicking, pushing, scratchingDamaging/stealing propertyVERBALName calling, teasing, tauntingMaking offensive remarkMaking discriminatory remarksVerbally threatening, intimidatingSOCIAL/EMOTIONAL/RELATIONALExcluding or threatening to excludeSpreading rumors, gossipingOstracizing, alienatingUsing threatening looks or gesturesExtortionCYBERBULLYINGUse of the internet or cell phone to harass and intimidate
7 The PlayersTHE BULLYTHE TARGET/VICTIMTHE BYSTANDER
8 Spotting “the bully” Bully may possess a superior trait Attractive AthleticSociableBully leads by intimidationOthers follow to avoid becomingthe nextBully gains power by the amount of followersMORE FOLLOWERS = MORE POWER
9 Characteristics of Bullies Lack EmpathyDisplay Verbally Aggressive BehaviorDisplay Physically Aggressive BehaviorBullies have average levels of self esteemIntimidate ClassmatesSeek Power in RelationshipsProvoke Fights
10 Long Term Effects on the Bully Nearly 60 percent of boys who researchers classified as bullies in grades six through nine were convicted of at least one crime by the age of 24.Even more dramatic, 40 percent of them had three or more convictions by age 24.
11 The Bully/Victim Cycle Identification with the AggressorVictims who have been repeatedly bullied often have an increase in aggressionWhen they are put in a position of control or power they identify with the bully and do onto others what has been done to themThus the victim becomes the bully
12 Social Anxiety Disorder Lack Social Skills (socially awkward) Pleasers Passive VictimsSocial Anxiety DisorderLack Social Skills (socially awkward)PleasersCompliantFear of Confrontation
13 Provocative Victims are: RestlessIrritating to othersSeen teasing and don’t know when to stopLikely to fight back, but loseEmotionalOften diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder
14 Cyber VictimsCyber victims reported higher rates of depression than cyber bullies or bully victimsCyber victims may not be able to identify their harasser and are more likely to feel isolated, dehumanized or helpless at the time of the attack
15 Effects on the Victim Anxiety Loss of self-esteem into adulthood Decrease in attention/gradesDecrease in attendance/involvementDecreased socialization/increased isolationPhysical Symptoms: headaches, fatigue, stomach problemsIncrease in acting out behaviorSuicide/Homicide
16 The BystandersDEFINTION: —those who watch bullying happen or hear about it.
17 Bystanders: PASSIVELY accept bullying by watching and doing nothing PROVIDE the audience a bully craves and the silentacceptance that allows bullies to continue theirhurtful behavior INSTIGATE the bullying by prodding the bully tobeginENCOURAGE the bullying by laughing, cheering, or makingcomments that further stimulate the bully
18 Other bystanders. . . directly intervene, by discouraging the bully, defending the victim, or redirecting the situation away from bullying.. . . get help, by rallying support from peers to stand up against bullying or by reporting the bullying to adults.
19 Why don’t more bystanders intervene? They fear getting hurt or fear retribution (becoming the next victim)They feel powerless to stop the bully. They don’t like the victim or believe the victim “deserves” it.They think that telling adults won’t help or it may make things worse.They don’t know what to do.
20 WHAT SCHOOLS CAN DOSchools need to implement bullying prevention and intervention strategies that fit their school cultureEstablish a district policy to prevents and intervenes in all forms of bullying, cyberbullying and harassment
21 WHAT SCHOOLS CAN DOCommit to training all constituents of the school community in prevention and intervention strategiesEstablish a bully interventionteam (BIT) at the school building levelto insure adherence to the district policy….
22 Positive Culture (what we do in schools) = Positive School Climate (how we feel in schools) All adults in school:Display warmth, positiveinterest and involvementtalk to each other and students with respect and understandingalert other staff members if they are displaying unacceptable behavior toward a student
23 Bully Intervention Team Who: Principal, mental health professionals, guidance counselors, teachers, non-teaching staff (aides, bus drivers, custodians)What: Create a bully intervention plan that includes methods for prevention and intervention of all types of harassment
24 Bully Intervention Team: Creates anti-bullying policyCreates a reporting system that uses a “DECISION TREE” with specific plans of action when incidents are reportedDevelops and publicizes hierarchal consequences for bullying behaviorsDevelops intervention strategies and trains stakeholdersReward pro-social behaviors that support the policy
25 Incident Interview Who does the interview? How will the interview be conducted?When will the interview take place?Where will the interview occur?What form will be used?
26 Disciplinary Consequences/Supports Consequences should be hierarchial… should correspond to severity of offense as well as repeated offensesRestorative Justice strategies to rehabilitate the bully, support counseling for the target/victimCan range from verbal warning all the way to suspension, alternate school placement, and if severe enough report to law enforcement
27 Therapeutic Discipline Strategies Mental health evaluation by school staffMental health evaluation by outside agencyServices:School based counselingOutside counselingOut of district therapeutic placement
28 Establish Clear Consequences for Failure to Report ...For personnel who do not report information regarding bullying and other threatening behaviors (similar to child abuse mandates)Establish and enforce clear consequences for students who do not report information regarding bullying and other threats of violence.
29 Victim-Intervention Give victims a VOICE Teach victims to say NO!-verbally and with appropriate body languageTeach victims to travel with a buddy
30 Victim- Counselingto change behaviors which increase the likelihood of being victimizedto reduce sensitivityProvide assertiveness training groupsInvolve parents appropriately.
31 Bully-Interventionchange the dynamics of power so that the bully is not overtly or covertly reinforced by the teacher, coach or other authority figuresidentify the bully as having anti-social behaviors which will lead to troublelisten to the bully and give him/her a point person to speak with whose role is to help the bully use their leadership skills in a positive manner, emphasizing cooperation, collaboration and equality.develop empathy in bully
32 Bystander Intervention “The whole drama is supported by the bystander. The theater can’t take place if there’s no audience.”(Labi, N. “Let Bullies Beware.” Time online, March 25, 2001.)ENCOURAGE bystanders to:Speak up to bullies if it is safe to do soBand together as a group against bulliesAvoid joining inAsk adults for helpReach out as friends to isolated peers, be an ally, offer supportContinue to offer victim support at future time
33 Telling vs. Tattling Tattling “When you tell on someone to get them in trouble.”Telling - Reporting“When you are telling an adult because you are trying to keep yourself safe, someone else safe or keep the school safe.”
34 Parent Education Parents will be taught to recognize the signs of bully and victimbehaviorsParents will be encouraged to modelappropriate upstander behaviorParents will be taught when and how to interveneParents will learn how to report incidentsParents will learn how to support children who are being victimized by bullying and cyber bullyingParents need to confront excuses and not accept the answer “just joking.”
35 All adults in school: praise positive actions maintain positive tone with students throughout the daystructure activities to minimize opportunities for exclusion
36 Reward bystanders for intervening or reporting bullying. Establish a system of rewards that positively reinforces Pro-Social BehaviorsRewards should be given to those adults and students who truly and meaningfully achieve anti-bullying goalsReward bystanders for intervening or reporting bullying.Reward teachers for establishing bully- free classrooms.Reward support staff for reporting appropriate information; i.e. as is done with tip lines.
37 Caring Majority Program Invite older students to help create aCARING MAJORITYTrain students through workshop sessionsCreate an “upstander” philosophy“ambassadors” form teams and create their own grade level presentations“ambassadors” take a mentoring role in the grade level they have chosenCaring Majority becomes a part of the school culture and enhances a positive school climate.
38 Caring Majority Ambassadors Seek the help of students to spread the word about thedangers of bullying - can be done at various ways at all levelsCaring Majority Ambassadors - ElementaryCaring Allies – Middle SchoolNatural Helpers – High SchoolTraining given by principal with support of social worker/psychologistStudents train the classmates on the importance of inclusion, empathy and caring about each otherOn-going partnerships/mentoring established between older and younger students
39 Turning Bystanders into Upstanders Help students understand the dynamics of bullying situations – 80% of students stand by and watchTrain interested students in teaching the strategies of upstanding behaviorsHelp the students understand the power they have to make a difference – that THEY are the solution
40 Turning Bystanders into Upstanders Insure that bystanders understand that adults will support their actionsTeach all children about the reporting system that is in place in your schoolReward “upstanding” behaviors and make them the norm.
41 Factors in Bystander Intervention Power – when bystanders possess more power than bullies they are more likely to intervene directlyposition of authority (e.g. school staff)difference in age or strengthSafetybystanders more likely to intervene when they feel they have back-up support (other students, school personnel, law enforcement)Social Acceptanceenvironments where speaking up is accepted and valued bystanders are more likely to interveneenvironments where bullies hold the power to determine acceptance or rejection DISCOURAGE bystanders from speaking upKnowledge of Effective Actionsbystanders are more likely to intervene when they are trained in effective intervention strategies
42 How to Begin…. Develop an Action Research Model: PROBLEM: Too many of our studentsare coming to school unable to learnbecause they are consumed by the fearof being bullied/harassed on a daily basis.QUESTION: How can we create effectivebullying prevention and interventionin our schools so that ALL children feelemotionally safe and able to learn?
43 bully survey Choose a data collection plan for building climate survey ACTION PLANChoose a data collection plan for buildingbully surveyclimate surveyinterviews, questionnairesReview and Interpret DataDevelop data- driven Intervention/Prevention PlanImplement intervention training for all constituentsCreate an effective reporting systemEstablish a hierarchy of consequencesContinually re-assess the effectiveness of the plan(reflection action)