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The extension challenge

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1 The extension challenge
Extend your A02 Instructions Get into 2 teams You each will be given an evaluation point. You need to extend it as much as you can between your teams. For example, Claridge & Davis (2003) found that when non-depressed people are given drugs that reduce levels of serotonin in the brain, they do not become depressed…… Team 1 – The problem with using family and twins studies as evidence for genetics is…….. Team 2- Concordance rate is never 100% in MZ twins……………

2 Behavioural explanations of depression
Why have I brought sweets to todays lesson? According to the behaviourist approach, people learn to become depressed through positive reinforcement. Learning theory (Lewishon) Learned helplessness (Seligman)

3 Learning theory - Lewishon
Depression is caused by a reduction in positive reinforcement. For example, when you loose your job or loose a loved one, you receive less positive reinforcement. Once depression has developed, it then gets positively reinforced through attention. why??? How can you positively reinforce depression?

4 In pairs discuss the following questions
Does attention/sympathy from others last long? Does everyone get attention when they become depressed? Does everyone become depressed after loosing a loved one?

5 Note down your A02 This suggests that
Every thing we have just discussed is evaluation of the learning theory. Turn your discussion points into a Big Mac burger paragraph. This matters because This is a problem because This suggests that

6 Task Complete the 3 anagrams.
Put your hand up as soon as you have completed it. What have I just induced in one side of the class? How can learned helplessness apply to social behaviour (can you induce learned helplessness when it comes to friendships or relationships)? How can learned helplessness apply to depression?

7 Learned helplessness theory - Seligman
The learned helplessness theory explains how people become depressed after stressful events If lots of unpleasant events happen to a person and they cant control them, they tend to lose motivation and just give up. Examples? They have learnt that they are unable to influence outcomes (they are helpless)

8 Support for learned helplessness
Seligman carried out a study using dogs to support his theory……..

9 More evidence from a study using humans……
Hiroto & Seligman (1974) exposed non-depressed people to a loud noise, they could not escape it stop it by pressing a button Then Ps were shown a box with a handle on it. This produced a loud noise that could be stopped by moving the handle. Those in non-escape condition previously failed to move the handle.

10 More A02……. Can you evaluate both experiments. Is it strong evidence for the behavioural theory or weak evidence? Justify your answer. Use the hand-out to help you.

11 Prep for next lesson: Psychodynamic explanations of depression

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