Presentation on theme: "Stress Stress: A state of psychological tension or strain. The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events. Stressors: Events that we perceive."— Presentation transcript:
1StressStress: A state of psychological tension or strain. The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events.Stressors: Events that we perceive as either a threat or as a challenge.Rubber band ActivityWrap a rubberband around your hand and see if you can get it off. How do you respond? Are you annoyed, frustrated, do you see it as a challenge?
2When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is impaired. Stress is any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person’s well-being.Preview Question 1: What is stress, and what are some of the ways we respond to stress?When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it is impaired.
3Sources of stress Stressor: Any environmental demand that creates a state of tensionor threat and requireschange or adaptation.
5Stress and Stressors Stress can be adaptive. In a fearful or stress- causing situation, we can run away and save our lives.Stress can be maladaptive.If it is prolonged (chronic stress), it increases our risk of illness and health problems.
6Stress and Stressors Stress is a slippery concept. At times it is the stimulus (missing an appointment) and at other times it is a response (sweating while taking a test).
7Different types of Stress Distress- stress that stems from acute anxiety or pressureEustress- positive stress which results from striving toward a challenge
8Hassles & Uplifts Hassles- minor, day-to-day stressors Uplifts- an activity or situation that makes a person feel good, this protects from stress
9Everyday hassles- Lazarus Pressure: A feeling that one must speed up, intensify, or change the direction of one’s behavior or live up to a higher standard of performance.Frustration: The feeling that occurs when a person is prevented from reaching a goal.
10Everyday hasslesConflict: Simultaneous existence of incompatible demands, opportunities, needs, or goals.
12Uplifts ListWe tend to let the little things bother us… so why don’t we let the little things uplift us?
13Stress and StressorsStress is not merely a stimulus or a response. It is a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksPreview Question 2: What are three main types of stressors?When short-lived or taken as a challenge, stressors may have positive effects. However, if stress is threatening or prolonged, it can be harmful.
143 Types of Stressors Catastrophes Significant Life Changes Unpredictable large scale eventsNearly everyone appraises catastrophes as threateningSignificant Life ChangesCan be good or badYoung Adulthood is most stressful time for mostDaily HasslesDay to day issues, that we all face
15Significant Life Changes The death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job, or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerable to disease.Take the life changes scale
16SSRS- Holmes & RaheIf a person has less the 150 life change units they have a 30% chance of suffering from stress.life change units equates to a 50% chance of suffering from stress.Over 300 life units means a person has an 80% chance of developing a stress related illness.
17Cultural StressorsAcculturative stress- Stress that an immigrant might feel when they move to a different placeAssimilatedIndividual adopts the cultural norms of host culture over their original cultureSeparationIndividual rejects the dominant culture in favor of holding onto their original cultureIntegratedIndividual adopt the dominant norms while still maintaining their host cultureMarginalizedIndividual rejects both the dominant and the original cultural norms
18Types of ConflictsWhen you need to make a decision between two options….LIKE/WANT- ApproachDON’T LIKE/WANT- Avoidance
19Approach-approach conflicts You must choose between two attractive optionsDo I want to go to the movie or to the mall?Do I want an unlimited supply of Sour Patch Kids or Swedish Fish?
20Avoidance-Avoidance conflicts You must choose between two disagreeable optionsDo I want to do my physics or math homework?Do I want to go to a boring family party or study?
21Approach-avoidanceYou find yourself in a situation that has both enjoyable and disagreeable consequencesAsking your boss for a raiseGoing to a Bulls game when it’s snowingGoing to the dentist to get rid of a cavityDo the conflict worksheet
22Physical Response to Stress What happens to our body when we are stressed out?
23The Stress Response System Cannonfight-or-flight response marked by the outpouring of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal glands, increasing heart and respiration rates, mobilizing sugar and fat, and dulling pain.Prepares your body for an emergency…activates the sympathetic nervous systemACUTE STRESS
24General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Hans Selye In response to LONG- TERM (CHRONIC) STRESS
25Phase 1: Alarm Sympathetic nervous system kicks in Heart rate zooms Blood flows to musclesFeel the faintness of shock
26Phase 2: ResistanceResources have been mobilizied in Phase 1, now ready for fightYour adrenal glands pump stress hormones (Adrenaline) into your bloodstreamYou are fully engaged at this pointYour body adjusts and learns to live with the stress
27Phase 3: Exhaustion Body soon begins to run out of resources You become much more vulnerable to illnessFearful rats lived 100 days shorter
32Stress & Susceptibility to Disease A psychophysiological illness is any stress-related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches.Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a developing field in which the health effects of psychological, neural, and endocrine processes on the immune system are studied.Preview Question 4: How does stress make us more vulnerable to disease?
33Stress and ColdsPeople with the highest life stress scores were also the most vulnerable when exposed to an experimental cold virus.
34Stress Effects and Health Stress and AIDSStress and CancerStress and Hearth Disease
35Stress and AIDSStress and negative emotions may accelerate the progression from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).UNAIDS/ G. Pirozzi
36Stress and Cancer Is there a link? Results are mixed + Increased risk for cancer among individuals that experience helplessness, depression or grief+ 5.5 time greater risk for those who reported high workplace stress- Holocaust survivors and P.O.W do not have an increased risk
37Stress and CancerStress does not create cancer cells, but it may affect their growth by weakening the body’s natural defense against multiplying cellsResearchers disagree on whether stress influences the progression of cancer.However, they do agree that avoiding stress and having a hopeful attitude cannot reverse advanced cancer.
38Stress and the HeartStress that leads to elevated blood pressure may result in coronary heart disease, a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle.Leading cause of death in North AmericaPlaque incoronary arteryArterycloggedResearchers studied 40 accountantsMajor spike in cholesterol and risk of heart disease around April 15
39Psychoneuroimmunology B lymphocytes fight bacterial infections, T lymphocytes attack cancer cells and viruses, and microphages ingest foreign substances. During stress, energy is mobilized away from the immune system making it vulnerable.Lennart Nilsson/ Boehringer Ingelhein International GmbH
40Health-Related Consequences Stress can have a variety of health-related consequences.Kathleen Finlay/ Masterfile
41Tend & Befriendrefers to the fact that people often manage threats by caring for offspring and seeking social support in time of stresssocial support reduces risk of illness and death
42Personality TypesType A is a term used for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.Type B refers to easygoing, relaxed people (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974).Type A personalities are more likely to developcoronary heart disease.
43Life-Style Modification Modifying a Type-A lifestyle may reduce the recurrence of heart attacks.Ghislain and Marie David De Lossy/ Getty Images
44Feelings of Control How much control do you want? Internal Vs. External
45Internal Locus of Control The view that we are in control of our own destinyAchieve more in school and workAct more independentlyLess likely to feel depressed
46External Locus of Control The view that chance or outside forces control fateLearned HelplessnessHopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive eventsSeligman experiments
47Fig In the normal course of escape and avoidance learning, a light dims shortly before the floor is electrified (a). Since the light does not yet have meaning for the dog, the dog receives a shock (non-injurious, by the way) and leaps the barrier (b). Dogs soon learn to watch for the dimming of the light (c) and to jump before receiving a shock (d). Dogs made to feel “helpless” rarely even learn to escape shock, much less to avoid it.
48Optimist Vs. Pessimists Optimists explain bad events as result of external, unstable, and specific causesPessimists explain bad events as due to internal, stable, and global causes
49Explanatory StylePeople with an optimistic (instead of pessimistic) explanatory style tend to have:More control over stressorsBetter moodsStronger immune systemCope better with stressful events
50Developing an Optimistic Outlook Martin Seligman - having optimistic outlook is a wise coping strategy and in many cases optimists have better physical and mental health than pessimistsOptimism - how a person explains causes of bad events
52Biofeedback, Relaxation, and Meditation Biofeedback systems use electronic devices to inform people about their physiological responses and gives them the chance to bring their response to a healthier range.Relaxation and meditation have similar effects in reducing tension and anxiety.
54Coping: the ways we try to change or interpret circumstances to make them less threatening. Maladaptive CopingAdaptive CopingDelay stress and it intensifiesProduce self-defeating outcomesEx.: I will fail no matter whatWithdraw from othersRealistically evaluates the situationDeal with the emotional aspects of the situation.Focuses on preserving important relationships
55Coping with StressReducing stress by changing events that cause stress or by changing how we react to stress is called problem-focused coping.Emotion-focused coping is when we cannot change a stressful situation, and we respond by attending to our own emotional needs.Preview Question 5: What are some of the things that influence our ability to cope with stress?
56Types of Coping Problem-focused coping Emotion-focused coping Tries to directly change or manage a threatening or harmful stressor.Most effective when you have the personal controlEmotion-focused copingTries to relieve or regulate the emotional impact
58Problem Focused Coping Strategies The GOAL is to change or eliminate the stressorConfrontive coping:using aggressive or risky efforts to change the situationPlanful problem solving:efforts to rationally analyze the situation,identify potential solutions,and then implement them.
59Emotion Focused Coping Strategies Escape–avoidance strategyShift attention away from stressor and toward other activitiesSeeking social supportTurn to friends, relatives, or other people for supportDistancingPutting space between you and your stressor to minimize or eliminate its impactDenialRefusal to acknowledge that the problem even exists. (Complicates Issue)Positive reappraisalMinimize the negative impacts by focusing on the positive meaning
60Aerobic ExerciseCan aerobic exercise boost spirits? Many studies suggest that aerobic exercise can elevate mood and well-being because aerobic exercise raises energy, increases self-confidence, and lowers tension, depression, and anxiety.
61Biofeedback, Relaxation, and Meditation Biofeedback systems use electronic devices to inform people about their physiological responses and gives them the chance to bring their response to a healthier range.Relaxation and meditation have similar effects in reducing tension and anxiety.
62Spirituality & Faith Communities Regular religious attendance has been a reliable predictor of a longer life span with a reduced risk of dying.
63Intervening FactorsInvestigators suggest there are three factors that connect religious involvement and better health.
65Human FlourishingCoping With StressManaging Stress Effects
66Human FlourishingPsychologists and physicians have developed an interdisciplinary field of behavioral medicine that integrates behavioral knowledge with medical knowledge.Mind and body interact; everything psychological is simultaneously physiological.
67Promoting HealthPromoting health is generally defined as the absence of disease. We only think of health when we are diseased. However, health psychologists say that promoting health begins by preventing illness and enhancing well-being, which is a constant endeavor.
68Social SupportSupportive family members, marriage partners, and close friends help people cope with stress. Their immune functioning calms the cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure.Bob Daemmrich/ Stock, Boston
69Managing Stress Effects Having a sense of control, an optimistic explanatory style, and social support can reduce stress and improve health.Preview Question 6: What tactics can we use to manage stress?