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Let Them Read Trash!/ Reading Unbound: The Power of Marginalized Texts to Promote Imagination, Satisfaction, Psychological Growth and Social Action Jeffrey.

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Presentation on theme: "Let Them Read Trash!/ Reading Unbound: The Power of Marginalized Texts to Promote Imagination, Satisfaction, Psychological Growth and Social Action Jeffrey."— Presentation transcript:

1 Let Them Read Trash!/ Reading Unbound: The Power of Marginalized Texts to Promote Imagination, Satisfaction, Psychological Growth and Social Action Jeffrey D. Wilhelm Boise State University

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3 Playing the old preacher Telling you what I’m going to tell you Telling you what I’m telling you Telling you what I told you!

4 I’ve always been fascinated by Kids who are reluctant learners in school but who are highly engaged outside of school, particularly with reading, e.g. Ron in You Gotta BE the Book Chris in Reading Don’t Fix No Chevys grounded for not doing his reading homework but...

5 But much of what kids find most engaging I sometimes find somewhat trite, very intense or even... Scary And how to explain the intensity of parents when they worry about what their kids are reading?

6 As a teacher and a parent I want to assist my kids to thrive in a very complex and problematic world AND I want to “protect” them into that world, SO I don’t want to deprive students of texts and experiences that can help them BUT I don’t want them to engage in experiences that will be hurtful to them, particularly before they are ready to handle them

7 Two major sets of findings Around motivation and engagement and MULITIPLE DIMENSIONS OF PLEASURE Around depth psychology, “inner work” and archetypal energies that are addressed while reading specific genres that help readers rehearse who they want to be and become and that actually help them in this process

8 CCSS/Core Anchor standards in reading Anchor standards in writing (fanfics, blogs, etc.) Text Complexity standards These require us to think about engagement and motivation, as well as what work literacy does in kids’ immediate lived experience, as well as in their futures. How about CCCR, or CCCPFR? Dewey on immediate vs. future-orientations

9 Ranking activities Why read literature? What work can literacy do? Outer work and inner work?

10 ___ 1. To help young people explore their own feelings about literature ___ 2. To help young people explore their own feelings and understandings about their personal experiences ___ 3. To introduce students to great literary treasures ___ 4. To introduce students to other cultures, especially those distant from their experience ___ 5. To provide a meaningful context for learning to read ___ 6. To develop students’ aesthetic sensibilities ___ 7. To develop critical thinking and writing skills ___ 8. To learn to “read the world” from a critical perspective ___ 9. To discuss and come to deeper understandings of timeless themes such as love, loss, identity, heroism, etc. ___ 10. To create an opportunity to discuss contemporary issues ___ 11. To help students think for themselves, and to create their own philosophies of life and living ___ 12. To help students to “live through” experiences that are distant from them in time, place and experience, therefore widening and deepening their experience.

11 Thought Experiment Think of something you really love to do - something you would be doing right now (instead of this!) if you possibly could be... What are the characteristics of that activity that make you love it?

12 The Power of Pleasure: the British Cohort Study, 2013 Following the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970 Analysis establishes that reading for pleasure in youth outside school has a very significant impact on people’s educational attainment and social mobility, in part because pleasure reading actually “increased cognitive progress over time.” More significant than parents’ education or socio-economic status

13 Our findings on the Intensity, Duration and Variety of Pleasure

14 Context - Dependency All identity issues All autonomy and human behaviors All interests, passions, tastes and pursuits All bonding and relationships All significant work and productive activity Can only be understood “in context”: situated cognition and motivation The situation of student lived experience and life challenges Inquiry as connecting the personal to the material and these back to the world. Preoccupations of adolescence: “production and reproduction related to identity work”

15 Play Pleasure Karen: “I like to get away kind of when I read…I choose a lot of fantasy because it sparks your imagination and lets you go somewhere else. That’s the reason I like to read.” We called this the pleasure of play, following John Dewey, who writes that play “puts itself forth with no thought of anything beyond.” Our participants so fully entered the world of the stories they read that the characters were almost real to them. As Rebecca explained, “[The characters] become like your friends. And you’re so much in their lives they’re like your best friends.” PREREQUISITE to other kinds of pleasure

16 Fostering the Pleasure of Play Dramatic techniques like revolving role play, in-role writing, good angel/bad angel, hot seating, and alter ego encourage and reward all students for entering story worlds in the way these committed readers do.

17 Engagement/Series books/Competence: Email permission Hello Ms. X this is Alex's dad. I am emailing you about the books Alex is reading. I would first like to say thank you for getting Alex into a book that he actually reads. Second he was telling me there are about seven more books in the series and I would greatly appreciate it if you would allow him to read the rest of them instead of what has been required before. I am also a wear that there is some graphic detail in the books and I’m completely ok with that. I am sorry that this is on Alex's email address I just don't have one but I’m trying to get Alex to get me one but if you could let him read the other books that would be great. Thank you! Y-Man; Y-The Last Man series

18 Work Pleasure Using reading as a tool to get something functional done. Helen: “Characters are just ways of thinking, really” and her intention to “try to be more like the good parts” of those characters.

19 Work Pleasure Callie: “But beyond that, with the knowledge I gained from these books, when I get into conversations and/or arguments with people, I have a perspective that they wouldn’t usually see, so when we get into these conversations and/or arguments I can bring out that and make them consciously think about how we are the future.”

20 To relate to others/see themes, connect to real life What makes you like a movie, and be willing to see it again? Will: We like to see good movies again and again because it helps you think and reflect upon it. And the better you know the movie, the more you can use the lines to joke around with your friends, and you can use the lines to comment on things. So, what are the themes of your favorite movies? Tucker: Blades of Glory: if you set aside differences, you can be victorious! Putting different things together in new combinations can result in success. Think outside the box! Miles: Superbad: If you take the time to really get to know a girl, then you will respect them. Just because you are best friends there’s still room for new friends or to move on. Let people see the real you and relationships will be easier.

21 Fostering Work Pleasure Frame texts and units as inquiry: as a problem to be solved by using essential questions (see Wilhelm, Engaging Readers and Writers with Inquiry) Work towards culminating projects – service and social action Drama work: Hotseating, mantle of the expert

22 Inner Work Pleasure Perhaps our most striking finding is that our participants took pleasure from using their reading to help them become the kind of people they wanted to become, a kind of pleasure we termed inner work. “Inner work,” according to Jungian scholar Robert Johnson, “is the effort by which we gain an awareness of the deeper layers of consciousness within us and move to an integration of the total self.” The most intense and moving pleasure

23 Helen’s comments about her reading are a clear match to Johnson’s definition: “Well, I learn about myself through books when I imagine myself in the different situations. I’m pretty sure other people do that too. And then I really can think about what would I really do. Would I run and hide or would I, you know, stand up and take it? And then you say well I like to think that I would stay, but maybe I really would run away and the next time you’ve got that fight or flight thing going on, you kinda think back to which one you want to be doing. You can sort of help yourself change in that way, and when you really admire a character in a book who’s really brave and stuff, you kind of can idolize them and become more like them. So it’s not really learning about yourself, it’s learning about what you could be....”

24 Relationships with characters as inner work “Characters are ways of thinking really... They are ways of being you can try on.”

25 Relationships to video game characters “They [the avatars or surrogates] make you feel strong – to be strong. I’m them when I’m reading – so I’m intense, and passionate and I have power. I can make things happen. I can feel things and feel good with that. I can get things done. Love, live a dream.” Living through characters helps kids explore the unexplored, unactualized, repressed, shadow sides of personality?

26 Relationships with Authors as Inner Work Simone de B.: I became a writer because I wanted to be loved like I loved George Eliot as a girl. Harold Brodkey: Reading is the most intimate act between people because it is the most sustained intimacy between minds.

27 Intellectual Pleasure Figuring things out as intellectual puzzles. Alex: “[Reading’s] like being a detective almost. It’s taking the evidence and the information and everything that’s happened, taking all that and putting it together. Processing through it and seeing what ends connect, and then finding, once all those ends connect, what that last piece is.”

28 Intellectual Pleasure Embraced by schools, but, as Callie explained, schools often interfere with it: “[In out-of- school reading] you don’t have the preconceived notion of school. You have ‘this looks like an interesting book, let’s see what it’s about.’ And that just broadens the horizon because without the preconceived notion of what you should be learning, then you don’t have the set limits and set expectations for yourself or for the book.”

29 To foster intellectual pleasure Read a book for the first time along with your students – figure it out along with them – model your fits and starts and problems through think alouds and discussion Pair an assigned reading with self-selected reading from a list, or a free reading choice that pertains to the topic. Frame units as inquiry with essential questions, as a problem to be solved Student-generated questions for discussion and sharing, using techniques like QtA and QAR. Discussion structures like Socratic Seminar that make it clear there is no teacherly agenda to fulfill as far as topics or insights to achieve (this is consistent with the Core which focuses on strategies over content)

30 Social Pleasure Relating to authors Relating to characters Relating to other readers Affiliating with groups of readers Staking one’s identity

31 Jazzy: “I’m part of a cultural club that grew up with Harry Potter. It gave me a sense of belonging. I loved wondering what I thought was going to happen. Talking to my friends about that. Aligning myself with characters. Waiting so impatiently for the next book. No other group of kids will have that experience again. It kind of marks you as when you grew up and bonds you with other people your age.”

32 Fostering social pleasure Be a fellow reader with students Read one of their favorite books. Foster peer discussion of reading and response in pairs, triads, small groups, literature circles, book clubs, etc. Do group projects with reading that are then shared: videos, PSAs, dramas, visual displays, talk shows, etc. Have a free reading program

33 Other Takeaways? To cultivate engaged and lifelong readers, we must make cultivation of all of these pleasures central to our teaching. Remember that immersive play pleasure is pre-requisite to and supports all the other pleasures.

34 Sundays too my father got up early and put his clothes on in the blueblack cold, then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather made banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. I'd wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking. When the rooms were warm, he'd call, and slowly I would rise and dress, fearing the chronic angers of that house, Speaking indifferently to him, who had driven out the cold and polished my good shoes as well. What did I know, what did I know of love's austere and lonely offices?

35 Your experience with the poem Do a think aloud with your neighbor – think pair share what you are thinking, feeling, noticing, experiencing as you read it What pleasures do you experience? How could such pleasures be fostered for your students? What would be the by-products of this pleasure?

36 Inner Work and Depth Psychology: Archetypal Energies Psychological and Archetypal Energies Shaping and rehearsing existential issues Dealing with the unconscious, the shadow, the repressed but insistent Self as a questing figure trying different personae Containers Functional values;immediate application to problems of life Imaginative rehearsals for living (95%-98% of all mental activity is from the unconscious/irrational – Damasio, Jung,Haidt)

37 Individuation means becoming “an individual being, in so far as we understand by individuality our innermost, ultimate, and incomparable uniqueness” (Goldbrunner)

38 Inner Work with Genres Vampire: dealing with transitions and transformations (of adolescence), providing containers for intense emotions and challenges Romances: what is real vs. ideal, anima/animus energies, integration – working towards complex consciousness, wholeness, transforming conditions of individual life through agency (Tristan and Iseult) Dystopia – individual and cultural shadows – dealing with social/environmental issues – allegorical reading (Parsifal) Fantasy – Active Imagination, Archetypal energies/quests (WWHermioneD) Horror: Fear formulation and containment – bringing fears to consciousness. Identity work.

39 Dystopian novels (Hunger Games, etc.) What will be the consequences of continued adult screw ups? “Authors take a wrongness in the world and exaggerate it and show what could happen if things continued that way – and it would be a disservice to the author if you don’t try to understand that problem and where it came from and what you could do about it.” How can we rebel and resist? “These stories give you somebody to root for. Definitely. Because a protagonist is never someone who goes along with things. But says this is messed up, let’s beat this. So it reminds me of OWS. How it’s up to some of us in the 99% to stand up to the 1%.” What is necessary to creating a better, fairer, happier world? “I live today and I lived yesterday, but I want to know about living in the future. And I want to know how to make that future better. So I have to see what is wrong and think what I could do about it, even in the teeny small sphere of my own life.”

40 Essential Questions of the Hunger Games, as identified by an interest group of students In whose interest does the world work? How can we make the world more fair? What is the power of an individual – to affect her own small world? – the larger world? How can we survive? How can we fight injustice? What is the effect of witnessing other people’s suffering? Of creating suffering for others? How do we collude in and encourage violence? On youth on youth violence? When is it justifiable to revolt against established authorities? What is the effect of unequal wealth/power/influence distribution? What external “wars” must we win? What “internal” wars must we win? How can we win them?

41 VAMPIRES Allegorical energy suckers In the self In others Jaycee: “You gotta know what sucks your energy and protect yourself from it, you know?”

42 Liminal spaces/Containers Safety (liminal space) of playing with ideas through stories and games Stories provide reassurance that powerful emotions and questions about gender, sex, power are issues others share, and provides a controlled exploration of these. Think aloud/drama session

43 Containing Intensity Allie: “I love vampires in love stories—it adds this extreme element that is so cool. Edward is constantly fighting against his instincts. With Bella he sees her andjust wants to eat her. So he really has to put away his instinct to be around her, get to know her, she is so different to him. That uncertainty is interesting. Can he do it—for her? Can he overcome himself for the sake of relationship? The fact that she is such a Plain Jane but he loves her and is in awe of her, that kind of makes the reader feel like if I am plain it is possible that someone can love me that way, will see through me to the real me even the coolest guy and he will protect me instead of using me. There are so many uncertainties, love is a leap of faith. This is a double leap [in Twilight] because of his instinct.”

44 Containing Impulsivity Allie: “Vampires are definitely about bloodlust and repressed animal impulses that must be controlled [and] maybe recognized, which is what the vampire makes you do and has to do for himself.”

45 Containing Sexuality Allie: “On one level vampires can do whatever they want, and that is appealing and scary. When it comes to anything but, of course, when it comes to sex... that Edward is controlling this [his sexual urges] makes him approachable, potentially redeemable.”

46 The problem of sexuality and bonding We want kids to be creative and autonomous BUT We want them to be respectful and toe the line We want them to engage in positive and close human relationships BUT We want to control and protect them from making mistakes

47 The problem of sexuality and bonding We want kids to be creative and autonomous BUT We want them to be respectful and toe the line We want them to engage in positive and close human relationships BUT We want to control and protect them from making mistakes

48 Liminal spaces Safety (liminal space) of playing with ideas through stories and games Stories provide reassurance that powerful emotions and questions about gender, sex, power are issues others share, and provides a controlled exploration of these. Think aloud/drama session

49 Jaycee: “Sex is kind of dangerous, you know. Or haven’t you heard?... Reading about sexual attraction doesn’t make it more dangerous. In fact, it can help you see positive possibilities for real healthy relationships.”

50 The problem of sexuality What about positive possibilities? Youth culture explores the issues of compelling importance to kids. But youth culture always fails to follow patterns that adults would approve of. Don’t we need to explore sexuality and its relationship to power, satisfaction, happiness, etc.? How can this be done in a safe way? Sexuality and power; sexuality and control; power vs. victimhood; finding the boundaries. Authors and Characters, Fellow readers and Teachers can be helpful in processing the images, energies, questions, etc. but not if they repress what is already repressed and/or just coming to consciousness

51 Containing female empowerment Allie: “I don’t think there is a lot pro-feminism in Twilight—until in the last book once Bella becomes a vampire and is able to take care of herself and her family. It’s the “damsel in distress” thing until the final book. She is pretty helpless until she becomes a vampire. She cuts herself to save Edward and that is a powerful thing and a thing saving her as well as him. She gets to the point that she can protect herself and live the way she wants.... I really hated how pathetic [Bella] was until that point, so I was like, “Yeah!”

52 Containing rebellion Allie: “In the very first book Edward was a rebel—he pretty much does what he wants—he’s been to high school tons of times—so he comes late, drives dangerously and fast—he just does what he wants. This is a big reason why all the vampires are idolized—cool and mysterious and rebellious—they are like the ultimate bad boys—and they are willing to take initiative and do things... and do things their own way.”

53 Containing danger Kennie: “[In vampire relationships] there is always the danger—drawing you on, but scaring you, too. You want to be careful but not to miss out.” Allie: “I like Edward and Bella together but he was really controlling. Where protectiveness becomes control you have a problem.”

54 Vampires and the Shadow! Chris, RE: Anne Rice: “The vampires are cool. They can help or hurt. Set you free or destroy you. They will destroy the nutjobs who jam you, that is for sure.” (liberating, spiritual rebel archetype? Revenge motif) Joe, RE: Buffy: “She might make other people nervous but she faces it (her sexiness; sexuality), enjoys it, uses it.” (celebrating and playing with newfound powers, modulating energy into real life productivity, embracing female energy)

55 Bad girls and anima energy Boys seems to relate more to the “bad girls” of video games and fantasy than girls do. “I like that she (Lara Croft) is a regular girl but with ass- kicking qualities. That is cool.” Identification with female surrogates in Tomb Raider or Mortal Kombat “I like [using the female avatar] because she is tough, but she’s still a chick, has feelings and sensitivity and all that.” “She’s bad but she can be tender too.” (searching for greater emotional freedom?) Play helps us take control of what frightens us and harness it –boys are excited and scared by female energy – in girls and in themselves. These boys are exploring and identifying with the feminine.

56 Vampires and the Shadow Jaycee on Twilight: “It’s (the relationship) like walking a balance beam. It’s natural and unnatural, safe and dangerous, the possible and impossible, desired and forbidden – they explore and test the limits (of emotion) to the place where it could destroy them.” (integration, facing the shadow, wholeness) Vampires and teens: feelings of difference, being outsiders, containing untamed powers that can be dangerous and/or powerful, brining them out from the “shadow”, what is of great potential but is repressed.

57 Edginess “School takes twisty-twirly ice cream with sprinkles on top and turns it into pure vanilla... Everything is dumbed down to the point that it is no longer interesting or exciting.”

58 Archetypal connections to life/Relationships with authors and characters/Encouragement I then asked him who his favorite authors were and why. Beau said his favorite author was R.A. Salvatore, because “he writes such intense scenes, I feel like I’m there.”... Beau also likes the storyline because it’s “something I’ve always wanted to do. Strike out on my own, overcome obstacles, and make a name for myself. And to prove that other people are wrong about me – that they have sold me short.” His favorite book is The Two Swords by Salvatore. This is his favorite because it is “the last book in a long and wonderful series, and it ties everything together at the end. It is very satisfying and makes me feel hopeful – you know, about overcoming obstacles and becoming who I’m meant to be.”

59 Overcoming aloneness: Relationships to characters, gothic fantasy reader Sasha: “[When I read] I’m not alone in my feelings, you know, and I’m not alone with my feelings. Other people feel [them] too. The author has to. The characters do... And you meet other people who like the books. They feel like you do. You can express it... The anger, the frustration, whatever... And you don’t feel alone or small or geeky or powerless any more.” Reading as way of forging relationships. Strength to face what is within? To come to terms with feelings? To try and get conscious control over it?

60 The problem of violence “The world is violent. There’s scary stuff to deal with, and everything we learn in school is just sanitized and scrubbed clean, you know what I mean? Like we drop the atom bomb and we saved lives... ” “It’s a really violent world. How does school help you prepare for that? Through a f***** assembly or something? A disaster plan?” “Of course we think about violence. It’s everywhere. The news, the street, everywhere.”

61 Video games, violence and crime “The research on video games and crime is compelling to read, but it just doesn’t hold up. Kids have actually been getting less violent since these games came out. That includes gun violence and every other sort of violence that might be inspired by a video game.” Helen Smith, youth violence expert, author of The Scarred Heart Sales of shooter games down continuously since 1995

62 Immersion; Release Playing the game doesn’t make you mad. It makes you patient. It blows off steam. It helps you forget what’s bugging you... It gives you control... Helps you deal with suspense, the unknown. Then you’re more ready for your real life. You are more relaxed and you got some training for dealing with the stress.” “Say you're having a problem with someone or whatever. You play a video game or it's like a shooting game or airplane flying game. You have to take the mission. That helps you take your mind off the stuff that's going on in your life, and you just, for that ten or twenty--for however long you play the game--, it helps you forget that. It helps you relieve your mind from that and focus yourself on the game.”

63 “It’s not about the violence” (cum violence, anyway) “It’s not about the violence, it’s about the action!” “The blood is only so you can see if you hit ‘em. It’s a marker. You can turn it on low but if it’s too low you can’t see if you hit somebody.” “The gore is not the thing – it just shows you are meeting the challenge.” “It’s the gameplay, the strategy, the suspense! It’s the story!” “Man, people are ridick. I mean, this is not about killing people; it’s about killing your enemies – orcs, zombies, dragons, monsters, that kind of thing! You’ve got to kill the dragons, don’t you? Anybody knows that!” Action, challenge, archetypal energies, shadow energy

64 Video games and bonding “Playing a game [with your friends] is like giving man-hugs. It’s a way to get to know people, to be together, to enjoy being together and stuff.” Games as ways of forging relationships, as providing ways to relate, of exploring different ways to relate

65 Video games as liminal spaces “In the consequence-free fantasy of a game, kids can make themselves grown up, powerful, and free to blow the walls off their daily prison. After a game like that, the real school might be easier to deal with. The child might use games to contain his feelings at some time (container) and to act them out at others (active imagination). Video games allow people to go on playing past the age of self-consciousness.” Gerard Jones, cultural critic

66 Czikszentmihalyi on engagement “Any media experience that demands activity, interaction, exercising control, and emotional stimulation and involvement is far more constructive than a passive experience like watching television... Or sitting in a desk at school... The newer, more complex video games give players worlds to explore and decisions to make that can stir some of the emotions of inner discovery.” Inner Work – developing the unconscious, bringing that which is unconscious to consciousness “Schools should be more like video games” cf. Gee, Smith and Wilhelm: Reading don’t fix no chevys

67 What can adults do? Take the gaming seriously Play the game with your kids Watch them play the game; have them think aloud for you Process the gaming: Be available to ask questions, to respond, to talk through the game and what it means Respect the passion and explore it: why do you like that game so much? Who is your favorite character? Push beyond the surface.

68 Thinking through your life/Relationships with authors “Fantasy, no matter how fantastical, helps me think about my real life. I mean an author has a reason to write. They are going to put messages in it. I read books written for teenagers – and if it [the story] is far removed from my life it makes it easier to use it to think with. The author has to know what they think about life and how to make that real to teenagers... It is important to me to get to know the author – it is good if their spirit and personality shows through the book.” (Sammy)

69 How to explain engagement? If kids are engaged by something, we should explore why. That exploration should include asking them what engages them and why (we must learn from our students how to best teach them). If we get an emotional charge from something (e.g. fear of violent video games) then we need to explore why. Kids are cognizant of “playing” - of the difference between the imaginary and the real. Do we fear war games like chess, football, Battleship? Engagement with movies and books?

70 Texts Marginalized by School Immediate connection to personal experience/current lived reality Provide deep and sustained and often repeated engagement (e.g. video games and video game novels, series books, books by the same author) Lead to further literate practices (e.g. problem-solving, forum discussions, reading directions, social sharing) Deepen conceptual and procedural knowledge Staking of identity: the primary task of adolescence Often lead to immediate functional values and uses outside of school with possible in-school connections Often involve inner work and lead to deep psychological explorations or satisfactions of an archetypal nature, or dealing with archetypal concerns

71 Texts as Transitional Experiences Individuation facilitated by “transitional objects”, that bridge from current self to possible selves We need “transitional spaces” that are “liminal” to experiment with and readjust our sense of self and relationships to the world ESSENTIAL TO PERSONAL AND CULTURAL GROWTH! Books and games can be transitional objects – THIS IS THE GREAT OPPORTUNITY OF LITERATURE! – of story- transitional experiences Fully engaging FLOW activities can provide transitional spaces (INQUIRY!)

72 Engaged Immersive Reading Is what transpires between a text and a reader: The Reader – The Text – The Poem; The Me – Not Me – We Is a pleasure and a fundamental, even essential way of becoming more fully human and more of our best possible self The text as a “transitional object” propelling us into newly possible self and future Identify with the author’s thoughts, emotions and life so you can recast your own

73 Art as “making special” For Dissanayake, art is characterized as “the evolved behavior of making-special” In whatever we are accustomed to call art, a specialness is tacitly or overtly acknowledged and experienced. Reality, or what is considered to be reality, is elaborated, reformed, given not only particularity (emphasis on unique  ”specialness”) but import (value  ”special- ness”)—  such things as magic or beauty or spiritual power or significance. (1988)

74 Reading as creating special possibilities This behavior of “making special” evolved in the human species as a way of “making socially important activities gratifying, physically and emotionally,” attaching individuals to their cultures and cultural possibilities just as young children grow attached to their parents, “learning to respond and to cause response in another.” This last fact is key. Because art takes time away from activities that sustain human physical survival, we tend not to see it as having survival value. But it does: it promotes survival, emotional health, psychic health, and a sense of connectedness and potential.

75 What Teachers Can Do? “Teachers ruin reading for 9 months and then they try to ruin it for the summer too.” Give more choice Reward free reading but don’t grade it Provide time for reading Value what the kids want to read- trust them Allow kids to stake identity through their reading – through talk, sharing, response Help students reflect on their reading and what it means to them – to critique it Focus on meaning, on the edginess, on the emotional charge Use student background and popular culture as a partner and tool!

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